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r^ fei^ 










c/f Semi- Monthly Journal of 

Literary Criticism, Discussion, and Information 


January 1 to June 16, 1907 





Acton's Ideals of Histobt E. D. Adams 221 

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey 211 

AxBBiGA, The Spakish Disgovbby of Anna HeLaise Abel 342 

American Histoby, SxiBBiNa Chaftebs op . . . David Y. Thomas 179 

Animal Life, Studies in Charles Atwood Kofovd 365 

Abchitectube, Stcbgis's HxaTOBY OP Irtnng K. Pond 137 

" Ben-Hub," The Authob op Percy F. Bieknell 34 

BuBNBYs, The, in St. Mabtin's Stbeet .... Edith Kellogg Duntan ...... 177 

Cabducci, Giosuk 131 

Catechism, The, up to Date T. D, A. CockereU 341 

Cat's-Cbadle in Many Lands Frederick Starr 336 

Centbal Asia, England AND Russia IN Frederic Austin Ogg 311 

Chemistby AND Cbtticism 97 

Ck»NFBDEBATE Leadeb, Wab Mbmoibs OF A . . . Walter L. Fleming 332 

Coveted Lands, Joubneyinos in H.E. Coblentz 43 

Dbama, a Clinic on the 3 

Dutch Republic, Lesson of the William Elliot Oriffis '250 

EcoNOiacs, £lementaby, The Teaching of . . . M. B. Hammond 36 

Expatbiated Amebican, Home Impbessions of an Percy F. Bieknell 176 

FicnoN, Recent William Morton Payne 13, 142, 226, 314, 375 

Fbench Dbamatibts, The Gbeatest of . , . , A. O. Canfield Ill 

Gabden-Loyebs, Books fob EdUh Granger 367 

Gabbison, Wendell Phillips 173 

Gebman Empibe, Dual Stbuctubb op the . . . James W. Cramer 105 

Gods, Withstanding the T. D. A. CockereU 79 

Gbeat Editob, Cabeeb op a W. H. Johnson 216 

GbeecbundebtheFbanks: AnUnbemembebedAge F. B. B. Mellems 306 

HoHENLOHE Memoibs, The Lctvis A. Rhodes 71 

HoMEBic QuEBiES, Mb. Lang's Paul Shorey 248 

Idealist, A Realistic Study of an Percy F. Bieknell 280 

Japan, Religions of William Elliot Griffis 335 

La Salle's Last Voyage, Stoby of Lawrence J. Burpee 283 

Leighton, The Many-sided Edith KeUogg Dunton 309 

LiBBABiAN, The, and his Chabgb Percy F. Bieknell 73 


LmsBABY Apostles, Some Famous Percy F. BiekneU 134 

LiTEBABY Censorship, Histoby of Arthur Howard Noll 338 

LiTEBABY Conflict, Echoes of a Famous . . . Charles H, A. Wager 39 

Lttebatube, The MastbbtNote in .... 1 . Charles Leonard Moore 28 

Mabie Antoinette, The Flight of Henry E, Bourne 141 

Mabs, The Red Planet Herbert A, Howe 75 

Medleyal Italy, Tbade Obganizations of . . . Laurence M, Larson 41 

Mebedith, Owen, Lbttebs of Charles H, A. Wager 182 

Music and its Yotabies Josiah Renick Smith 11 

Musicians and Music, Thbbe Books on ... . Josiah Renick Smith 224 

New-Englandbbs, The Old, and the Rest of Us Charles Leonard Moore 299 

Ninety Nobth, Within Thbee Degbees of . . . Percy F. Bieknell 304 

Octooenabians, Oub 241 

Parson and Knight William Morton Payne 102 




Peace, Some Hoped-fob Victobies of 

PoETBY, Recent 

Public Libbaby, The, and the Childben . . . 

Quotations, The Abuse of 

Railboads, Justice to the 

Reconstbuction, Inside Light ok 

Romance, The Bbeath of 

RubsoJapanesb Wab, Intebnational Law in the 

SCHOLABLY LiFE, ThE ReCOBD OF A .. . .. .. .. .. 

Science and Litebatube 

Shakespeabe and the Modebn Stage 

Snow and Ice, In the Land of 

Social Sebmons fob the Times 

Social Unbest, Signs of 

Socialistic Pbinciples AND Problems . . 
Spanish Phantasies, A Book of . .. .. . 

Texas Way, The 

Theatbical Autopsy, A 

Thobeau in his Joubnals . 

Tbavels Fab and Neab 

Tbuth-Seekeb, Tbavels op a 

VicTOBiAN Litebatube, The 

Washington Life in £ably Days 

Westebn Fbontieb, Two Bishops of the . . . 
Westebn Fub-Tbadb, Litebatube of the . . . 

Whistleb, The Abt of 

Wild, Dbamas of the 

Wild Flowebs of England, The 

Percy F. BichneU . . 
William Morton Payne 
Walter Taylor Field . 

John c7. Halsey 
David Y. Thomas . 
Percy F. BickneU 
J. W. Cramer . . 
Joseph Jastrow 

Charles H. A. Wager . . 
H. E. Coblentz .... 
Charles JRichmond Henderson 
Charles Richmond Henderson 
Eunice Follansbee . . . 
George (?. BrowneU . . . 

F, B, Sanborn . . . 
H, E. Coblent:^ . . 
Percy F. BickneU . . 
Charles Leonard Moore 
Sara Andrew Shafer 
Arthur Howard N6U 
Lawrence J. Burpee . 
Frederick W, Gookin 
May Estelle Cook . . 
Sara Andrew Shafer 







Casual Comment 5, 31, 69, 99, 133, 173, 214, 245, 276, 302, 329 361 

Academic Ckmrage, Decay of 9B 

Alcohol as a StimiiliiB to LiteraJT Productivity ... 6 

American CitieB, Aspects of 82 

" American-Bnffliah." Oar Much-Decried 246 

Author. A Belf-Oomplacent 808 

Authors' dub and Publishing Association 215 

Authorship, Eknoluments of 188 

Barbarism, A Tendency to Belapse Into 829 

" Bentxon. Th.," Death of 175 

Best Literature, Popularization of the 176 

Best Literature, Uniyersalitj of the 880 

Biblioffraphical Work in Libraries 70 

Book-Adyertisinff, Extraordinaij Methods of ... 802 

Book Publishinc. Borne of the Problems of 81 

Books and the Moral Consciousness 188 

Boston. Mr. H. G. Wells's Beproof of 829 

British Museum Beadinc-Boom Dome, The .... 965 

Browniuff in Seattle 188 

Bnmeti^. FerdUiand. Death of 88 

Bruneti^re. Ferdinand. Library of the Late .... 808 

Bruneti^'s Successor in the French Academy ... 70 

Bums, Visible Memorials to. in Scotland 802 

Charlotte BrontJPs Husband, Death of 7 

Civil Service, Literary Leisure in the 881 

Commercial Literature, A Curiosity in 82 

Contemporary Judirments, Aberrations of .... 246 

Cruciilzes, Expulsion of the 829 

Culture, Thirteen Million Dollars for 278 

Cultured Ear, A Shock to the 216 

" Dandy, A Duff-up " 802 

Dickens Library, A National 174 

Drama, Bevival of Interest in the 81 

Dullards, Encouragement to , , . 863 

Bmerson as Judged by his ClAssmates 861 

Endowed Theatre, Dreams of an 70 

English Authorship, A Grievance of ....... 863 

English Novels, Prices of 69 

Esperanto, Simplicity of 216 

" Farmer's Almanac." The Old 6 

Fiction. The Serious Study of 5 

Fiction. Usee of 178 

Fictlon-Beadin«rasa"Be8tCure" 100 

Fieldlnff Bicentenary, The 215 

French Novel, The TeUow-backed, in Sober Dress . 881 

(Generous Offer Generously Declined. A 368 

Gterman and American Beadlns Habits 214 

Good Joke, Longevity ofa .862 

Great Men. Avocations of ... , 245 

*' Greatest Scandal Waits on Greatest State" ... 215 

Helicon Hall, Burning of 278 

Hero-Worship on the Wane 83 

Hispanic Society of America 380 

Historical Novelist. Inaccuracies of an 101 

Howells. British Appreciation Of 808 

Index Expurgatorius as a Book-Advertiser, The . . 7 

Irving's Old Home in New York 188 

James. Henry, Literary Methods of 214 

" Lazyships " at Harvard, The Endowment of . . . 81 

Librarian, A, who is also a Human Being 246 

Librarian who Beads. The 216 

Librarians, Misplaced Zeal on the Part of 302 

Library of Congress. Annual Beport of the .... 101 

Library Workers. An Irritating Practice among . . 00 

Literary Criticism, Amenities of 368 

Literary Critidbnn, An Endowed Journal of ... . 09 

Literary Outlook, Pessimistic Despondency over the . 215 

Literary Wrangle. The Latest 330 

Literature. Commercialization of 99 

London Literary Happenings 88 

Longfellow's Last Photograph ......... 174 

Low-Priced Novels and the Circulating Libraries . . 101 

" Madaren, Ian," Death of 881 

Magazine Poetry, A Year of 100 

MiU, John Stuart. A Posthumous Work of 868 

Munchausen's Prototype 7 

New Englander, an Old, Eighty-eighth Birthday of . 861 

Ninety-six Novels from the Same Pen 188 

Oberlin, The Dramatic Awakening at 140 



Casual Commxnt (continued), p^^^ 

QmarKhajarim'BBabiiyAt, AHebnixailonof . . . 176 

Fftper and Idffht for Beadinff » The Blffht 881 

PMdnff Pier Seyentj 802 

FMer. Why Mr. Wright is to Oive us a New liif e of . 60 

Pedicreee Made to Order .880 

People who do not Bead Books 7 

"FhonocraphicOumed Tongue" . 

Poete. The Irritabmtj of . . 

Poeta' Tndft>nnion« A 178 

Preaidential Pralee of Booka 214 

Private Letters, Blvht to PaUuh 88 

PahUc Library, An Unappseoiated 881 

Pnhllc Library as an Educational Force 70 

, Puritan Family. Last Bepresentative of a Famous . 277 

Balelgh. Professor. Andrew Lang's Praise of ... 874 

Bare Books, Beoord Prices for 88 

Beferenoe-Library Idea, The 277 

BoUnson Crusoe's Island 216 

Bnral Free DeliTery for Libraries 70 

Boapegraoe of Story, The 278 

. Shakespeare, A National Monmnent to 276 

Shakespeare and Baleigh 188 

Shakespeare as Hero of a Novel 7 

Shakespeare, Mr. Ben Qreet's Mode of PreaenUng . . 278 

Shakespeare, Tolstoy's Attempted Overthrow of . . 6 

Graxefor- 245 

Shakespeareana Manofaotored in Bngland -for the 

American Trade « .188 

Sidney's Arcadia, First Draft of ........... TO 

Sizteenth-Oentnry Drama on a Twentieth-Centory 

Stage '>. . 868 

Smallest.Book Ever. Printed 70 

8neeie,The,Jn.Litera^ire 100 

Bpanialb'American Peoples, New Literary Movement 

among the . 174 

SpeUing-Beform, Bnf6rced, History and Futility of . 6 

Steerage, Literature of Jthe 945 

''Sobterraneanldteratore" in Gknnany 00 

Soperannnated Authors, Onaxdians for 178 

Teaching. Less than a Dollar a Day fbr 278 

Teaching the Young Idea how to Shoot 83: 

"Temple Bar," The Demise of 101 

Thefts, BztraoAUnaxy, Stories of .... , 868 

Things New but Not True 214 

Tolstoi's Peasant Critics 977 

Traheme, Thomas, Poems of 881 

Warren, Samuel, One Hundredth Birthday of ... 881 

Wells, H. Q., An Announcement from 70 

Women Writers of Fiction in England 914 

Words, Innate Depravity of 277 

World-Language, An Artificial 88 

Aknouncemsnt of Sprinq Books, 1907 191 

One Hundred Books for Summer Reading, A Descriptive List of 381 

Briefs on New Books « 17, 45, 81, 114, 145, 187, 228, 256, 288, 316, 343 

Briefer Mention 20,48,84,117,190,231,319 

Notes 20, 48, 85, 118, 149, 191, 232, 260, 292, 319, 347, 380 

Lists of New Books , 21, 49, 85, 118, 150, 199, 233, 261, 293, 320, 348, 384 


Abbot. Henry L. Problems of the Panama Canal, new edi- 
tion 819 

Aeton. Lord. Cambridge Modem HJstoiTf VoL IV., The 

Thirty Tears' War 

AcUm, Lord. Lectures on Modem Histoiy 

Adams, Charles Francis. Three Phi Beta Kappa Addresses 819 

Adama, Oacar Fay. Sicut Patribus. and Other Verse 268 

Addams. Jane. Newer Ideals of Peace 2tf 

•'A.L.A. Portrait Index'* 46 

Alexander, D. A. Militazy Histoiy of the State of New York 18 

Alexander, E. P. Military Memoirs of a Confederate 883 

AUen, Philip Loring. America's Awakening 116 

Archer, William, and others. Collected Works of Ibsen, 

117, 190, 280, 806 
Avebury, Lord. On Municipal and National Trading* new 

edition 298 

Baldwin, J. Mark. Mental Development, new edition 88 

Balfour, lady Betty. Personal and Literary Letters of 

Bobert, First Barl of Lytton 188 

Barelay, Armiger. The Kingmakers 879 

Barine, Anr^e. Princesses and Court Ladies 116 

Baring-Oould. B. A Book of the Pyrenees 880 

Barker, J. Bllis. Rise and Decline of the Netherlands 2R0 

Barrington, lira. Russell. Life. Letters, and Work of 

Frederic Leightdn 809 

Bates, Arlo. Talks on Teaching Literature 148 

Baitersby, H. F. Prevost. The Avenging Hour 148 

Wanghan, B. A. Music and Musicians 18 

Beebe. a William. The Biid 19 

Bdl, Gertmde Lowthian. The Desert and the Sown 871 

Bennett, John. The Treasure of Peyre Gaillard 227 

Benson, Arthur Christopher. Beside Still Waters 844 

Beny, Riley M. Fletcher. Fruit Recipes 960 

Blgelow. John. Peace Oiven as the World Qiveth 847 

Black, Bbeneser C. and George, Andrew J. New Hudson 

Frank W. Economics, new edition 820 

" Blanchan, Neltje." Birds Ereiy Child Should Know 960 

Boardnan. Roefam C. Lilies and Orchids^ 880 

Boome. Edward G. "Original Narratives of Early Amex^ 

icaa History" 84,960 

Bowen, Maxiorie. Th^ Viper of Biilan 16 

Breasted, James Henxy* Ancient Records of Snrpt 281 

Briggs, ^^'^''^^ A. International Critical Commentary on 

the Psalms 116 

"Bzock, Father Van den. Story of" 298 

Brooke. Emma F. Sir Elyot of the Woods 877 

Brookfleld. Frances M. The Cambridge ** Apostles " 184 

Brown. Charles Reynolds. Social Message of the Modem 

Pulpit 12 

Brown, Theron. Butterworth's Story of the Hymns and 


Browne. J. H. Balfour. Essays Critical and Political, new 

edition - 

Bruneti^re, Ferdinand. Balzao 

Bryoe, James. Studies in History and Jurisprudence, new 


Burgess, Gelett. Are Tou a Bromide f 97 

Burrill, Katharine. Loose Beads 188 

Burton, Theodore E. John Sherman 

Butler, Arthur Gray. Charles I., second edition 

Butler, ArthurGray. Harold, new edition 

Calvert. Albert F. " Spanish Series " 847 

Campbell. Douglas H. University Text-Book of Botany, 

second edition 847 

Oanfield, Arthur G. Poems of Victor Hugo 84 

Card. Fred W. Farm Management 820 

" Carnegie Library Catalogue " 288, 819 

Oarr, Sarah Pratt. ThelronWay 816 

Cams, Paul. Chinese Life and Customs 881 

Cams. Paul. Chinese Thought 881 

Carus,Paul. TheRiseofMan 881 

Gams, Paul. The Stoiy of Samson 881 

Gary, Elisabeth Luther. Works of James McNeill Whistler 218 

Chapman. Frederic. A Queen of Indiscretions 147 

Ghatfleld-Taylor. H. C. Moli^ Ill 

Cheney. John Vance. William Penn's** Fruits of Solitude" 48 

Cholmondeley. Mary. Prisoners 16 

Clark, Andrew. The Shirbum Ballads 819 

Caark. Victor S. The Labour Movement in Australasia. ... 288 

Clarke. Maud Umfreville. Nature's Own Garden 864 

"Classiques Franfiaise" 298, 880 

Clausen. George. Six Lectures on Painting, and Aims and 

Ideals in Art 288 

dauston. T. S. The Hygiene of Mind 291 

Clemens, Samuel L. Christian Sdenoe 190 




OlflivelMid. Ororer. Fiahloc and Sliootinff Skefedbai 189 

Oobb, Jobn Storcr. Vte KUMtaavnltod 90 

Oolbr. Frank Moon, And fitandemAn. Qtotwe. Nelaon's 


Oolby. MteJ.BoM. liUmtnre and Life In Sdbool 

Oonwaj, tfonowe DanlaL Uj PUgrimace .ta tlie Wiie Mad 

oCtheBMt 8 

Oook.AllMriB.. TlwBlKlMrBtiidj^ilBnsiUi. 17 

Gomiah, duurtesJ. AaiflMi AitiauoMk 

"Craddook^ChArlesBrbert.*' TbftAmntot 

'* Oraddook. caimrles Berbert." TheWtodftril 

Oraiff, W.J. Shakespeare's Works, Oiioid aditkn 90 

Onwtord, F. Marion. ALadyofRome 18 

Crockett, S. B. The White Flume 14« 

Ommp, Lucy. Letters of Gaorte Birkbeok Hill 7B 

Oondmll, Frank. Lady Nncent's Joomal 818 

CnnTnarhame, Henry H. European Rnamals 

Oast, Lionel. Anthony Van Dyck, condensed edition 

Dana, John Cotton, and Kent, Henry W. literatoie of 

Libraries in the Seventeenth and Blffhteenth Gsntnries 78 

Darran, OUtc Tilford. Lords and Lorsn 888 

Davidson, H. A. Irene's Sketch Book 117 

Davidson, John. Holiday , 

Davis, Mrs. M. E. M. The Price of Silence 

Davis, Richard Harding. Beal Soldiers of Fortanel , 

Dawson, Ooningsby William. The Worker 

Dawson. W. J. Makers of Bnglish Poetry, and Makers of 

English Prose, new editions 80 

De Morgan, William. Alice-for4hort 875 

De Morgan, William. Joseph Vance..... 18 

De Windt, Harry. Through Savage Borope 874 

Derby, George. A Conspectus of American Biography SftO 

Dillon, Mary. TheLeader 17 

Ditmara, Baymond L. The Reptile Book 886 

Dobaon. Anstin. Goldsmitb's Poems, revised edition 117 

Dow. SarleW. Bmandpation of Medinval Towns 847 

Doyle. A. Conan. Sir Nigel 14 

"Drawings of the Great Masters "series 281 

Dreyfus, Lilian Shuman. In Praise of Leaves 

Dodeney, Mrs. Henry. The Battle of the Weak 

Dunham, Edith. Fifty Flower Friends witb Familiar Faces 881 
Bdwardes, Marian. A Summary of the Literatorea of 

Modern Europe 881 

Edwards, A. Herbage. Kaknnono 19 

Edwards, William Seymour. On the Mexican Highlands 874 

Edwards, William Seymour. Through Scandinavia to 

Moscow 82 

Einstein, Lewis. Da Vinci's Thoughts on Life and Art 869 

Eldridge, William Tillinghast. Hilma 814 

Bliot. Charles W. Four American Leaders 48 

BUiot, Daniel G. Catalogue of Mammals in the Field 

Columbian Museum 819 

^'English Music," **Muslo49tory" series U 

Bsposito, M. Early Italian Piano Music 80 

'* European Galleries, Bepresentative Art of" 282 

Fairbanks, Arthur. Mythology of Greece and Borne 117 

Fiala, Anthony. Fighting the Polar Ice 186 

Field, Walter Taylor. Fingeipoata to Children's Beading. . 228 

Findlater. Jane H. The Ladder to the Stan 16 

FInot, Jean. Baoe Prejudice 280 

FItiGerald, Edward. ** Agamemnon " of iEschylus, Elm Tree 

Press edition 117 

Fleming, Walter L. Documentary History of Beconstruo- 

tion 10.890 

Fletcher, 8. W. Soils 117 

Fletcher, William I. Annual Library Index, 1906 200 

Fling, Fred Morrow. A Source Book of Greek History 880 

Flint, Bobert. Socialism .111 

Foord, Miss J. Decorative Plant and Flower Studies 229 

Forbes-Lindsay, C. H. Panama, the Isthmus and the Canal 84 
Forman, H. Buxton. Keats's Poems. Oxford edition. . . .48, 298 

Fox, Herbert F. Westminster Versions 48 

Eraser, John Foster. Pictures from the Balkans 44 

Fracar, M. D. Practical European Guide 881 

Fuller. Hubert Bruce. The Purchase of Florida 19 

Fyvle, John. Comedy Queens of the Geong^Um Bra 188 

Gale, Zona. Bomance Island 227 

Gallatin. Albert E. Whistler: Notes and Footnotes 846 

Gardner, Edmund G. The King of Court Poets 84 

Oamean, Alfred. PoMes 256 

Gterrod, H. W. The Religion of All Good Men 79 

Gasquet, Abbot. Lord Acton and his Circle 221 

Geddes, J.. Jr. La Chanson de Boland 48 

Gilman, Lawrence. Strauss' Salome 118 

Gilman, Lawrence. The Music of To-Morrow 224 

Goets^ius, Percy. TUrty Piano OompoeitionB of Men- 
delssohn 190 


Gould. Geoige M. Biographic Clinics, Vols. rv.-V 208 

Gowans, Adam L. The Book of Love 20 

**Great Btohen" aeriea 281 

Gfeely,A.W. Handbook of Polar Disooveries, third edition 88 

Grayer, FaiiL Napoleon, King of Bttia 287 

Gnllck. Luther H. The Effldant Life 288 

Guyer, Michael F. Animal Miorology 48 

Hadley. Arthur Twining. Waooalamreate ftddrassss 

Hadow, G. E. and W. H. Oxford Tiassuij of Bngliah 


Hapgood,.Hiitohlna. The Spirit of Labor 

Hapgood^Tsahal F. Tonrgninieira Wodta. naw sohscriptlon 

^ttkm ^ 819, Ul 

Barben. Wni N. AanBoyd 16 

Harwood, Bdftli. Notable Pldimrea in Boma 847 

Hawker, Mary Elixabeth. Old 

Hay, John, Addresses of 

Haydon,A. L. BookoftheV.C 118 

Henderson, W. J. Art of the Singer 11 

Hersbey, Amos S. International Law and Diplomacy of 

the Busso^apanese War 286 

Hlchens. Bobert. The Gall of the Blood 148 

Hlldrup, Jessies. Missions of California 282 

HiU, Constance. The House in St. Martin's Street 177 

Hill, David J. History of European Diplomacy, Vol. n 188 

Hill, Frederick Trevor. Lincoln the Lawyer 80 

Hilty,Oarl. The Steps of Life 188 

Hoare, G. Douglas. Arctic Exploration 281 

** Hobbes, John Oliver." The Dream and the Bnsinees 16 

" Hohenlohe MemoirB, The " 71 

Holdich, Thomas H. Tibet the BCysterious 44 

Holme, Charles. Studio Tear Book of Decorative Art 288 

Hope, Anthony. Sophy of Kravonia 142 

Horne. Henry. Psychologloal Prlndplas of Education 46 

Howard. Burt Bstes. The German Empire 106 

Hudson, Henry N. Essays on Eni^idi Studies 282 

Hulbert, Archer Butler. Pilots of the Bepublic 147 

Hume, Martin. Through Portugal 878 

Hunt, Gaillard. First Forty Tean of Washington Society 189 
Huntington, Helen. The Days that Pass. 

Button, Edward. The Cities of Spain 

HydOf HeniyM. The Upstart 814 

Ives. George B. Bibliography of Oliver Wendell Holmes. . . 288 

Jamas, H^ry. The American Scene 176 

Janrte, Jean. Btodiea In Socialism 110 

Jayne, Caroline Fnrness. String Figures « , 

Jenks, Tudor. In the Days of Goldsmith , 

Jernrid, Walter. Poems of Hood 117 

Jewett, Frances Gnlick. Town and City Il8 

Jowett, Benjamin. Interpretation of Scripture. "London 

Library "edition 288 

Kingsbury, Susan M. Court Book 46 

Klein, Abb6 Felix. La D^oourverte dn Vleux Monde 289 

Knox, George William. Development of Beligion In Japan 886 

Landon, Perceval. Under the Sun 872 

Lang, Andrew. Homer and his Age 248 

Lang, Elsie M. Literary London 48 

*' Tiangham Series of Art Monographs" 48 

"Large Print Library" 288 

Laoghlin. Clara E. Felicity 816 

Lawton, Frederick. Life and Work of Auguste Bodin 280 

Layard. George Somes. Sir Thomas Lawrence's LetteMMg 88 

Lee. Sidney. Shakeapeare and the Modern Stage 220 

Lefivre, Edwin. Sampson Bock of Wall Street 878 

Leland, Charles G., and othen. Collected Works of Heine . . 48 

Lenotre, M. Flight of Marie Antoinette 141 

Levussove, M. S. New Art of an Ancient People 149 

Lippmann, Fr. Engraving and Etching 846 

Lloyd, Albert B. Uganda to Khartoum 872 

Locke, William J. The BelovM Vagabond 142 

Lodge, John Ellerton. " The Agamemnon " 847 

Lodge, Sir Oliver. Substance of Faith Allied with Science. . 841 
Longfellow's ** Hanging of the Crane." Centennial edition. . 292 
Longfellow's Inaugural Address at Bowdoln College, limited 

retnint 149 

** Longmans' Pocket Library " 880 

Lonnsbury. Thomas R. The Text of Shakespeare 89 

" Love-Letters of Henry VIII. to Anne Boleyn " 81 

Lovett, Bobert Morss. A WlngM Victoiy 878 

Low, Sidney. A Vision of India 872 

Lowell, Pwdval. Man and its Canals 76 

Lucas, B. V. Fireside and Sunshine 288 

McCarthy, Justin HunUy. The Illustrious O'Hagan 146 

McCook. Henry Christopher. Nature's Craftsmen 866 

McCracken, W. D. The Italian Lakes 878 

McCutcheon, John T. Congressman Pumphrey 298 

MaoFaU, H%ldane. Ibeen 116 




MoGhtfiv* XRMsi. Ontdoon 870 

MoMMtar, John Baeh. Hiitory of the People of Uw United 

8t«tee.yoLVI 179 

MamalllOT'a " New Caaaricia Ubr»ry » IIB 

McFbenon. Locan O. The Working of Rftilroeds 

Madden, John. F6rest Friends , 

liaeterUnck. ManTJoe. Meaeure of the Houn 840 

MacfU. Edward moka. 8ixtj-flTe Yean hi the Life of a 

Taaeher 2B6 

Maltland. Ftederlc W. JAfe and Letters of Leslie Stephen. . 108 
Maltland. J. A. Fuller. GroTo's DIotionazy of Mnslo and 

linsicians.yol.III 266 

"Malet, Laoas." The Far Horlaon 386 

MareluBOotk Arthur W. In the Cause of Freedom 870 

Marsh. Oewrge U Bonroes and Analocoes of 'The Flower 

and the Leaf* 190 

Martin, Martha Syans. The Friendly Stars.. 817 

Maaon.A.X.W. Rnnninir Water 870 

Mason, Daniel Gtaegoiy. The Bomantio Composers 3M 

Masses. Georfe. Text-Book of Plant Diseases 819 

Mathew, Frank. Ireland, eheaper edition 880 

Manarham. B. O. F. Portngoess Bast Africa 878 

Maxwell. W.B. The Qnarded Flame U 

**Men of the Kingdom" series 890. 880 

Merrill, George P. Rocks, Bock Weathering, and SoUa. new 

edition 148 

M0II07. Fitigerald. Sir Joahna and his Cirole 116 

Monroe, William Bennett. The Seignorlal System in Canada 818 

Moore, Mrs. N. Hodson. Collector'a Manual 81 

Moore, Bobert W. German Literatore, aixth edition 281 

Mors, Paol Elmer. Sbelbnnie Baaaya, fourth aeriea 118 

Morgan. Thomaa Hunt. Bzperimental Zo5logy , 

Morley, Margaret W. Graashopper Land 

Morse. Edward S. Mars and its Mystery 75 

Moos.Maxy. The Poet and the Pariah 16 

Motteiay, Panl F. The Bridge Bine Book U7 

Monro, H. A. J. Tranalationa into Latin and Greek Verse 48 

Mnnson. J. Beminiscenoes of a Mosby Guerrilla 146 

Murray, Gilbert. Euripides' Medea, The Trojan Women, 

and Bleotra 118 

''Musicians' Library" 20, 190. 360, 847 

Neilson, William Allen. Shakespeare's Works, Cambridge 

edition 30 

Nettleship, B. L. Thomas Hill Green 47 

Nettleton, George Henzy. Maior Dramas of Sheridan 830 

Nerill, Balph. Beminisoences of Lady Dorothy Nevill 148 

"Newnes' Art Library" 288 

Nicholson, Meredith. The Port of Missing Men 227 

Nicholson, Watson. Struggles for a Free Stage in London 114 
IQoolay. John G., and Hay, John. Complete Works of 

Abraham Lincoln. Gettysburg editon. Vols. XI.-ZII .... 190 

Niooll, Bobertson. The Key of the Blue Cloeet «7 

Norton. Charles Eliot. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 117 

Noyes. Alfred. Poems 365 

Ogden,BoUo. Life of Edwin Lawrence GodUn 316 

Ozenham, John. TheLongBoad 876 

"Ozfbrd Editions of the Poeto" 117, 296 

"Oxford Library of Translations " 86 

"Oxford Higher French Series" 117. 380 

Page, Thomas Nelson. Collected Works of, *" Plantation" 

edition 190 

Page, Thomas Nelson. The Coast of Bohemia 363 

Papiinot, M. B. Dictionnaire d'Hiatoire et de Geographic 

dn Japon 84 

Pianiah. Bandall. Bob Hampton of Placer 16 

Parsons, Mrs. dement. Garrick and his Circle 18 

Pastors, Mrs. Henzy de la. The Lonely Lady of Groavenor 

Square 236 

Fanl, Herbert. Hiatozy of Modem England, Vol. V 114 

Payne, WilL When Love Speaka 

Fsary.B.E. Nsarest thePole 

Pekrobet, Frsnds N. Studies in the Book of Job 818 

Psmberton. Max. The Diamond Ship 877 

Fanfldd, Fredezic Courtland. East of Suez 871 

FhOipp, Isidor. Anthology of French Piano Music 847 

Pliillips. David Graham. The Second Generation 814 

Phillpotta, BdsD. The Whirlwind 876 

Pkillpotts, Eden, and Bennett, Arnold. Doubloons 144 

Pier. Arthur Stanwood. The Toung in Heart 817 

Plants, SamneL The Church and the Social Problem 18 

Piatt, Hugh B. P. A Last Ramble in the daaaica 88 

Ptamh. diaries S. Types and Breeds of Farm Animals 383 

Plankett, Charles Hare. The Letters of One 848 

Fond. Oacar Lewis. Municipal Control of Public Utilitiea. . 117 
Potter. Charlotte, and darke, Helen. Shakeapeare'aWorka, 

'* First F6Uo"ediUon 30. 383 

ThePrincesB 815 


Pratt, James B. Psychology of BeUgioos Beliaf Mi 

Prince, Leon a Blrd's-Bye View of American History . ., .. 847 

Prudden, T. Mitchell. On the Great Amsrican Plateau 874 

Putnam, George Haven. Censorship of theChnrdh of Boms 888 

QulllerOouch. A. T. Poiaonlaland 877 

Quiller-Conoh, A. T. Sir John Constantins 144 

Raleigh. Walter. Samuel Johnson 381 

Bavenel, Mrs. St. Jnlien. Charleston 3n 

Bawlinson, W. G. Turner's " Liber Stndiorum," new edn. 819 
Baymond. George Lansing. Essentials of ^aa^wi^. new 

edition in 

Belch, Emll. Alphabetical BncydopMdia of Institotipns, 

Persons. Events, etc, of Ancient History and Geography 118 

Bei6h.Emil. Suooess in Uf e 380 

Beid, Whitelaw. Greatest Fact in Modem History 819 

Beinecke, Carl. Twenty Piano Compositions of Moiart . . . 

Bexford. Eben. Four Seasons in the Garden 

Bhodes, James Ford. History of the United Stipes, 

Vols,VI.-Vn , 180 

Bicharda. Laura E. Lettera and Journals of Samuel 

GridleyHowe: The Greek Bevolution 187 

Bickett, Arthur. The Vsgabond in Literators 146 

Biedl, Frederick. History of Hungarian Literature 115 

Elvers, W. H. B. TheTodas 817 

Boberts, Charles G. D. Haunters of the Silences ifiB 

Bobinson . W . The Gtairden Beautif&l , 

Bodd. Sir Rennell. The Prlncea of Achaia and The 

Chronicles of Morsa 

Root, Robert K. The Poetry of Chaucer 46 

Rose, Eliss Whitlock. Cathedrals and doisters of the 

South of France 846 

Rose. J. Holland. Napoleon's Last Voyages 367 

Rosebery, Lord. LordRandolph Churohill 114 

RnsssU. G. W. B. Social Silhouettes 46 

RusadU, George W. E, Seeing and Hearing., 816 

'RyaUtJohnA. A Living Wage 388 

Schofield, William H. English Literature from the 

Norman Conquest to Chaucer 115 

SooUard. Clinton. Easter-Song 368 

Seams, Frank Preston. Life and Genius of Hawthcnne 46 

Sedgwick. Mabel Cabot. The Gkurden Month by Month. ... 868 
Seeley. E. L. Stories of the Italian Artists from Vasari .... 818 

Seignobos. Charles. History of dvilization 47 

SeUgman. EdwlnR.A. Principles of Economics 86 

Shaw, George Bernard. Dramatic Opinions and Essays. ... 18 

Sheehan. Father. Early Essays and Lectures 84 

Sherring, Charles A. Western Tibet and the British Bor- 
derland a 

Shoemaker, Michael Myera. Winged Wheela in France 878 

SIdgwiok, Mrs. Alfted. The Kinsman 877 

Sladen, Douglaa. Bncydopttdia of Sicily 380 

Slater. J. H. Engliah Book Prices Current, 1905-6 84 

Slicer. Thomas R. The Way to Happinesa 381 

Smith, Alice Preacott. Montlivet 17 

Smith, Goldwin. Labour and Capital , 

Smith, H. Maynard. In Playtime 

Smith, Ruel Perley. Priaoners of Fortune 878 

Snaith. John Collia. Henry Northcote 148 

Spaigo, John. Socialism 110 

Spears, John R. Short History of the American Navy 830 

Staley, Edgcnmbe. The Guilds of Florence. . . . ,, 41 

Stanley, Caroline Abbott. A Modem Madonna 879 

Stedman, Kdmnnd C, and Thomas L. Complete Pocket- 
Guide to Europe, 1907 edition 880 

Steel, Flora Annie. A Sovereign Remedy 336 

Stephen, H. L. Cobbett'a Engliah Grammar 190 

Stephen, Sir James. Essays in Ecclesiastical Biography, 

new edition. 383 

Stevenson. Burton B. AfEairs of State 16 

Stiles. Henry Reed. Jontel'a Journal of La Salle'a Laat 

Voyage, new edition 388 

Stone. Chriatopher. Sea Songs and Ballade 190 

Sturgis, RnsssU. History of Architecture, Vol. 1 187 

Swettenham, Sir Frank. British Malaya 848 

Sjmons, Arthur. Introduction to the Study of Browning, 

new edition 

Symons, Arthur. The Fool of the World 

SyngcM. B. Short History of Social Life in England 

Talbot. Rt. Bev. Bthelbert. My People of the Plalna 947 

Taylor, Bert Leaton. The Charlatana 336 

Taylor, Mazy Imlay. The Imperaonator 17 

"Temple Greek and Latin daaai<Si" 48 

Thistleton-Dyer, T. F. Folklore of Women 367 

Thomas, Calvin. Anthology of German Literature 118 

Thomas, Edward. Pocket Book of Poems and Songs for the 

Open Air 880 

Thomas, W.I. Sex and Society 146 




ThnuBt ThfOouM O. Hawallaa Polk IWm 

Tcnmue, MdgeHj. AbeUid md Hflotoe , 

TorvQjr, Bndfbid. Friendfl on the Shelf 145 

Torraurf Bradford. WiiUngs of Thoreaat Walden edition ... 107 
Tower. Walters. History of the Ameriean Whale Flehery. . 847 
Toner, Alfxed M. -OompenitiTe Study <>f the Mjiyae and the 

Laoandones 117 

Train. Arthur. The Prisoner at the Ber 301 

Trask, Katrina. Ni^ht and Morning 254 

Treffiy, BIferd E. Enoydopttdia of Familiar Qnotatione. . . 90 

TrinOk Ralph Waldo. In the Fire of the Heart 287 

Tncker, T. O. Life in Ancient Athens 148 

*' Tudor and Stoart Library** 257 

Tattle, Bt. Rev. T. S. Beminiaoeaces of a Missionary Bishop 247 

Underwood. Lorinff. The Garden and its Aooessories 81 

Vambeiy, Arminins. Western Coltore in Eastern Lands. . . 812 

Vaoffhan. Charles Edwyn. The Bomantic Bevolt 818 

Waddell. L. Anstine. Lhasa and ito Mysteries, third edition 48 

Wallace. Dillon. The Lone Labrador Trail 874 

Wallace. Lew, Antobiocraphy of 84 

Wallaee« Malcolm Wtf Abraham's Sacriflant 282 

Walters. H.B. The Art of the Greeks 147 

Ward, A. W. Works of Mrs. Gaskell, ** Knntsford " edition 281 

Washington, Booker T. Frederick Douglass 846 

Watscm, H. B. MaMott. A MJdsnmmer Day's Pream 

Watson, H. B. Marriott. The PriTateers 


Watscm, William^ Text-Book of Practical Physies 118 

Weingartner, Ftfiz. Symphony Writers since BeethoTcn. . 4S 
^'Welloome's Photographic Bxposore Beoord and Diary" 

for 1907 828 

WeUs,H.G. IntheDaysoftheOomet 14 

"Wesley's Journal," abridged edition 178 

Weyraan, Stanley J. C9iippinge Boroogh 144 

Whitlock, Brand. The Tom of the Balance 814 

Whitson, John H, The Oastle of Doubt 878 

''Who's Who" (English), 1807 117 

Williams, Elizabeth O. Sojooming, Shopping, and fiModying 

in Paris 881 

WHliams, Henry L. Linoolnics 117 

Woodbom, James A., and Moran, Thomas F. American 

Histoiy and Goyemment lis 

Woodrow, Mrs. '^Ison. The Bird of Time 845 

"Workingman, A Practical Programme for" UO 

Wright, OanoU D. The BatOes of Labor 287 

Wright, Mabel OsBood. Birdcraft, seventh edition. 819 

Wright, Thomas. Life of Walter Pater 288 

Wyld, Henry Oedl. Historical Stody of the Mother Tongue 844 
Toong, Pilson. Christopher Colmnbos and the New World 

of hi» Discovery , 

Toong, Filson. Mastendngers 

ZImmem. Helen. Italy, of the Italians 187 


Oonoordanee Society. The 

German and Amoriean Beading Habita. Ameriem 

LAhrarian .279 

London Times, The, and the Pablisbers. A Seientifle Editor 101 

Magazines. On Beading the. 8,P.Delanv 176 

Negro American. The ** Case " of the. W. B, B, DuBoU... 278 

Shakespeare for Children. CharUa WeUh 808 

Shakemare, Reading of, to Children. Walter Taylor .FVeld 279 

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No. 49S. JANUARY 1, 1907. Vd. XLU. 





Hie aerioiis Btody of Fiotioii. — The history and 
fntiUty of enforoed spelling-refoxm. — The old 
^ Farmer's Almanac" — Tolstoy's attempted oyer- 
throw of Shakespeare. — Alcohol as a stimiiliis to 
literary productivity. — The people who do not 
read books. •:— The Index Ezpnrgatoiins as a book- 
adTertiser. — Baron Mnnohansen's prototype. — 
The death of Charlotte Bronte's husband. — A 
norel with Shakespeare as hero. 


F.BiekneU 8 


y. I%omat 10 

MUSIC AND ITS VOTARIES. Jotiah Benick SmUh 11 


Bidkmond Henderson 12 

RECENT FICTION. William Morton Payne ... 18 
De Morgan's Joseph Vanoe. — Maxwell's The 
Qnarded Flame. — Conan Doyle's Sir NigeL — 
Wells's In the Days of the Comet. — John Oliver 
Hobbes's Dream snd the Business. — ^''Miss Find- 
later's The Ladder to the Stars.— ,Miss Choknon- 
deley's Prisoners Fast Bound. — Miiis Bowen's The 
Viper of Milan. — Crawford's A Lady of Rome. — 
StsTenson's Affairs of State. — Parrish's Bob 
Hampton of Placer. — Harben's Ann Boyd. — Miss 
Mom's llie Poet and the Parish. — Miss Taylor's 
The Impersonator. — Miss Smith's Montliyet. — 
^H Dillon's The Leader. 


IncentiTes to a higher range of literary study. — 
Garrick and the soeial life of his time. — The in- 
aemtaUe problem of New York politics. — The 
strnetnre and activities of birds. — Pleasant scenes 
from familiar Japanese life. — The story of the 
aoqnisitioB of Honda. — The legal side of Lincoln's 
life and charaeter. 





^^ Why have we made such a beggarly mess 
of our drama?" The question is a pertinent 
one, and Mr. Henry Arthur Jones, who first 
puts it and then attempts to find its answer, is 
an expert whose critical opinion is baoked by a 
record of very substantial performance in the 
field of dramatic craftmanship, a record coyer- 
ing a quarter-century of industrious activity. 
Mr. Jones, who recently visited this country, 
took occasion to deliver himself of certain views 
concerning the art which he represents, views 
which were primarily offered to academic au- 
diences at Harvard and Yale and are now being 
circulated in printed form aimong the larger 
American public. The Harvard address, upon 
^^The Comer Stones of Modem Drama," is 
published in pamphlet form ; while the Yale 
lecture, called ^^ Literature and the Modem 
Drama," appears in the ^^ Atlantic Monthly " for 
December. Both are thoughtful and weighty 
deliverances, sound in their fundamental con- 
tentions and deserving of the most attentive 

The primary cause of our barrenness in 
dramatic production is naturally provided by 
our inheritance of puritanism. If the better 
elements of our society — or even a large pro- 
portion of these better elements — avert their 
gaze from the drama, or are filled with suspicion 
when they actually give it a share of their atten- 
tion, it becomes a matter of course that support 
of the stage and encouragement of dramatic 
writing will be left to a public of lower average 
quality than would otherwise be the case. This 
lowering of the standards of taste will be notice- 
able all along the line ; it will give everjrwhere 
an undue advantage to the artificial over the 
natural, to the mediocre over the excellent, to 
vacuity over thought, and to vulgarity over re- 
finement. It is not too much to say, with Mr. 
Jones, — 

« We owe the imbecility and paralysis of our drama 
io-day to the insane rage of puritanism that would see 
nothing in the theatre but a horrible, unholy thing to be 
crushed and stamped out of existence. . . . The feel- 
ing of horror and fright of the theatre, engendered at 
the Restoration, is even to-day widely prevalent and 
operative among religious classes in England and Ame^ 
ioa. It muddles and stupefies our drama, and degrades 


[Jan. 1, 

it from the rank of a fine art to the rank of a somewhat 
disreputable form of popidar entertainment." 

This is surely an unwholesome condition, 
and, what is more to the point, it is an unnat- 
ural condition for the EnglishrspeaMng people. 
For our race ^^ is naturally and instinctively a 
dramatic race ; a race of action ; a race fitted 
for great exploits on the outer and larger stage 
of the world's history, and also for great ex- 
ploits on the inner and smaller stage of the 
theatre. We have proved our mettle on both 
stages. We hold ihe world's prize for drama." 
And yet our estate is now so miserable that even 
the smaller European countries are justified in 
pointing the finger of scorn in our direction. 

Turning from his general arraignment to 
more specific considerations, Mr. Jones proceeds 
to conduct a clinic upon our pitiable case, and 
indicates the ** symptoms and conditions " which 
seem to him the ^^ secondary and resultant causes 
and signs " of the disease from which we suffer. 
They are, in the order of statement (which is 
also the order of their importance) the following : 
The divorce of our drama from literature, the 
absence ** from modem English plays of any 
sane, consistent, and intelligible ideas about 
morality," the separation of tibe drama from its 
sister arts, the lack of standards and traditions, 
the want of suitable means for the training of 
actors, the star system with all its attendant 
evils, and the too great ** dependence upon trans- 
lations and adaptations of foreign plays." All 
of these discouraging facts are *^ inextricably 
related to each other ; many of them are, indeed, 
only different aspects of die same facts ; they 
are woven all of a piece with each other, and 
with that puritan horror of the theatre which I 
believe to be the cardinal reason that neither 
England nor America has to-day an art of the 
drama at all worthy the dignity, the resources, 
and the self-respect of a great nation." We 
might discuss each count of this indictment at 
length, but this condensed diagnosis is all that 
space will allow. 

InlUieir attitude toward the stage, Mr. Jones 
distinguishes three classes of people in the Anglo- 
American public. First, there are the mere 
seekers after amusement, ^^ newly enfranchised 
from the prison house of puritanism, eager to 
enjoy themselves at the theatre in the easiest 
way, without traditions, without any real judg- 
ment of plays or acting." This is the largest 
class, and next to it we have the class of those 
who occasionally visit the theatre, but generally 
feel uneasy about the drama, and are ^^ quite 
indifferent to its higher development and to its 

elevation into a fine art." The third ckss, a 
large one also, containing *^ some of the sound- 
est and best elements of the Anglo-Saxon race, 
very influential, very respectable, very much to 
be regarded, and consulted, and feared," assumes 
an attitude of active hostility to the stage and 
all connected therewith. This hostile spirit, 
imagining its motives to be of the highest, 
" everywhere sets up a current of ill-will and 
ill-nature toward the drama throughout the two 
entire nations ; it everywhere stimulates oppo- 
sition to the theatre ; it keeps alive prejudices 
that would otherwise have died down two him- 
dred years ago ; and it is, in my opinion, the 
one great obstacle to the rise and development 
of a serious, dignified, national art of the drama." 
This is the spirit against which missionary effort 
should be directed, not so much in the way of 
denimciation as of appeal, for it is, after all, a 
spirit of sincerity, however mistaken in its view 
and however narrow in its knowledge. 

Such an appeal is eloquently voiced by our 
author in a lengthy passage from which the fol- 
lowing sentences may be extracted : 

« The dramatic iostinct is ineradicable, inexhaustible; 
it is entwined with all the roots of our nature ; jou may 
watch its incessant activity in your own children; almost 
every moment of the day they are acting some little 
play; as we grow up and strengthen, this dramatic in- 
stinct grows up and strengthens in us; as our shadow, 
it clings to us; we cannot escape from it; we cannot 
help picturing back to ourselves some copy of this 
strange, eventful history of ours; this strange earthly 
life of ours throws everywhere around us and within 
us reflections and re-reflections of itself; we act it over 
and over again in the chambers of imagery, and in 
dreams, and on the silent secret stage of our own soul. 
When some master dramatist takes tiiese reflectioiis, and 
combines them, and shapes them into a play for us, very 
Nature herself is behind him, woricing through him for 
our welfare. So rigidly economical, so zealously frugal 
is she, that what is at first a mere impulse to play, a mere 
impulse to masquerade and escape from life — this idle 
pastime she transforms and glorifies into a masterpiece 
of wisdom and beauty; it becomes our sweet and lovable 
guide in the great business and conduct of life. * . . . 
This, then, is the use of the theatre, that men may learn 
the great rules of life and conduct in the guise of a play; 
learn them, not formally, didactically, as they learn in 
school and in church, but pleasantly, insensibly, spon- 
taneously, and oftentimes, believe me, with a more as- 
sured and lasting result in manners and conduct. . . . 
Look at the vast population of our great cities crowding 
more and more into our theatres, demanding there to be 
given some kind of representation of life, some form of 
play. . . . The effect of your absence, and your dis- 
countenance, will merely be to lower the moral and intel- 
lectual standard of the plays that will be given. Will you 
never learn the lesson of the English Restoration, that 
when the best and most serious classes of the nation de- 

* " The little mime which all children deliffht to play has but 

to wait for .^schylus. Shakespeare, Goethe, in order to receive for 

t« content the whole of human culture." — ThoriKu DavicUon. 



test and defame their theatre, it instantly justifies their 
abuse and becomes indeed a scandal and a source of cor- 
ruption? Many of you already put Shakespeare next to 
the Bible, as the guide and inspirer of our race. Why 
then do you despise his calling, and vilify his disciples, 
and misunderstand his art? " 

These are searching questions, and the foe of 
the theatre, if he will but heed them, should be 
led to an examination of his conscience that can 
hardly fail to soften inveterate prejudice and dis- 
arm hostile purpose. 

Having cleared the ground, as it were, by 
the preliminary ezpositioQ of the obstacles wit^ 
which the drama has to contend, Mr. Jones 
proceeds to lay the comer stones of the dramatic 
edifice of the future. They are four in number. 
One is *■*' the recognition of the drama as the 
highest and most difficult form of literature "; 
another ia the dramatist's right ^^ to deal with 
the serious problems of life, with the passions 
of men and women in the spirit of the broad, 
wise, sane, searching morality of the Bible and 
Shakespeare "; another is ^* tlie severance of the 
drama from vpopular entertainment " and its 
establishment as an art ^^ in marked and eternal 
antagonism to popular entertainment "; and the 
fourth is the establishment of suitable systems 
of training for actors, and of schools (not in the 
narrow sense) for the encouragement of serious 
dramatic composition. Upon all of these sub- 
jects the author has something to say, and the 
first of them in particular, the relation of the 
drama to literature, is made the theme of the 
entire lecture delivered at Yale. ^^ How many 
American plays," he asks, ^* are in active circu- 
lation among you, so that on reading them over 
you can put your finger on the fine passages 
that amused you or. stirred you when yon saw 
them acted?" The question is too evidently 
ironical to call for an answer. The essence of 
the argument that follows is that our drama may 
acquire the character of literature, not by cloth- 
ing its lines in the verbal garb of imitative blank 
verse, and not by clothing its characters in the 
costumes of past ages, but by plunging into 
the pulsating life of the present, and by por- 
traying real men and women in real relations 
one with another. 

In some respects, Mr. Jones looks upon Amer- 
ica as more favorably predisposed than England 
to foster the reformed drama of the future. Since 
his return, he has unburdened himself of the im- 
pressions made by his visit in the columns of the 
London " Daily Telegraph," noting particularly 
the immense hold which the theatre has upon our 
public, and the urbane spirit of the audiences that 
thrcmg our pla^ouses. With us, the theatre is 

^^ much more of an institution, less of an after- 
dinner entertainment " than with the English 
public. This view is flattering, but possibly a bit 
roseate. In similar strain, we read in the Har- 
vard lecture : ^^ Your nation has, what all young 
nations have, what England is losing, the power 
to be moved by ideas, and that divine resilient 
quality of youth, the power to be stirred and 
frenzied by ideals." We should like to believe 
this, and are inclined to think thdt there is some 
reason for such a faith. At least, we may do 
much to make it truth by taking to heart the elo- 
quent adjuration which closes this address. 

"Let your lives be fuller of meaning and purpose 
than ours have lately been; have the wisdom richly to 
endow and unceasingly to foster all the arts, and all that 
makes for majesty of life and character rather than for 
material prosperity and comfort. Especially foster and 
honour this supreme art of IJhakespeare's, so.much neg- 
lected and misunderstood in both countries: endow it in 
all your cities; build handsome, spacious theatres; train 
your actors: reward your dramatists, sparingly with fees, 
but lavishly with laurels ; bid them daxe to paint American 
life sanely, truthfully, searchingly, for you. Dare to see 
your life thus painted. Dare to let your drama ridicule 
and reprove your follies and vices and deformities. Dare 
to let it mock and whip, as well as amuse you. Dare to 
let it be a faithful mirror. Make it one of your chief 
counsellors. Set it on the sunmiit of your national es- 
teem, for it will draw upwards all your national life and 
character; upwards to higher and more worthy levels, to 
starry heights of wisdom and beauty and resolve and 


The serious study of fictton, so warmly advo- 
cated by Professor rPhelps of Yale, is finding favor 
with many novelists of the day — or, one .might 
safely affinn, with them all. Mr. Booth Tarkington 
enlarges on the benefits of such study, if devoted to 
novels of a certaift type, in familiarizing the student 
with Indiana life and manners. Mr. Upton Sinclair 
is reported as' declaring that novel-study will be 
required for a degree from the Jungle University, 
soon to be established at Helicon. Mr. Greorge Ade 
says a good word for the movement as one (we will 
suppose ) likely to result in a more serious study of 
college widowhood and other weighty sociological 
problems. Expectation is cherished that a student 
would gladly devote three or four times the number 
of hours to a course in modern novels that he would 
give to one in ancient language and literature, with 
a correspondingly gpreater intellectual quickening. 
Says Professor Phelps: ''The two most beneficial 
ways to study a novel are to regard it, first, as an 
art form, and, secondly, as a manifestation of intel- 
lectual life." To this Mr. Ade adds : <' But there 
are other ways. It is desirable to ascertain the 
identity of best sellers, and to study the reasons why 
they sell. The mechanism of publication should be 



[Jan. 1, 

studied also ; as, for example, the methods of pah- 
Ushers in negotiating royalties, the hest methods of 
street-car and hill-hoard advertising, the art of 
printing on rotten paper," etc. Manifestly the great 
novel-manufacturing industry must he recognized. 
Mumhling over the mummies of antiquity will no 
longer answer. ... 

The history and futility of enforced 
SPELLING-REFORM were ahly discussed hy Professor 
Mark H. LiddeU in a recent lecture hefore the 
Twentieth Century Cluh of Boston. So-called re- 
form was undertaken as early as 1200 B. C. hy 
Orm in his attempt to devise a method of distin- 
guishing long from short vowels. Queen Elizaheth, 
among countless others possessed of more zeal than 
knowledge, tried her royal hand at revising our 
spelling. (Our own chief magistrate follows a dis- 
tinguished precedent.) In the '^classic" age the 
movement halted, hut received fresh impulse in the 
middle of the nineteenth century. ''The current 
movement," said the lecturer, '' furnishes little that 
is new, in spite of a somewhat impossihle comhina- 
tion of amateur enthusiasm, professional heneficence, 
and executive authority." He well urged that easy 
spelling might prove hard reading. '* So many of 
our strong words heing monosyllahic, of two or three 
sounds, it would he very difficult to identify them 
rapidly if they were spelled phonetically." '' It is the 
eye that reads, not the ear: the value of an eye sug- 
gestion depends upon its distinction from the forms 
ahout it" Many other argruments were hrought 
forward against spelling-reform as at present under- 
taken ; hut it was not denied that reform is possihle, 
even desirahle, if instituted, for example, hy a rightly 
constituted National Academy. Si^iificant in con- 
nection with this whole suhject, and encouraging also, 
is the recent refusal of Congress to follow the lead 
of the White House in the matter of heterography. 

. • . 

The old '' Farmer's Almanac " is appearing at 
this new-year's season as a welcome visitor in many 
households, especially in the Eastern states. Its 
respeetahle antiquity and unchanging form make it 
almost an American institution. Worthy of Poor 
Richard himself are some of its maxims, as for ex- 
ample : '' Every man should attend well to his own 
husiness; hut this does not mean that he should 
never go from home." '' Economy is a virtue ; hut 
there is a true and a false economy." '' While the 
hay should n't he shaken out when the morning dew 
is heavy upon it, you need not lie ahed for the dew 
to dry ; there is plenty to do." Ohvious at a glance 
is the wider application of the following : '' It used 
to he thought that anything in the shape of apples 
would do for making eider ; hut if you want a first- 
class product, you must use good stock." The house- 
wife is warned that '' making mince pies is a serious 
matter and not to he lightly undertaken. All the 
materials should he of the hest quality, each ingre- 
dient have its due proportion, and the aggregate he 
hlended into a harmonious whole." Weather pre- 

dictions in this almanac are eminently safe and 
conservative. The likelihood of " cold, raw winds " 
in early March will he disputed hy none, nor the 
prohahility of " a few days of fine weather " later 
on. The occurrence of " a few warm days " toward 
the middle of May is put down as not heyond the 
hounds of reasonahle expectation. The unconscious 
humor of this historic annual niakes it very cheerful 
reading. , . . 

Tolstoy's attempted overthrow of Shake- 
speare now attracts the attention of the literary 
world. The first instalment of this remorseless dis- 
section of Shakespeare — wherehy it is intended to 
tumhle him down from a usurped eminence — ap- 
pears in the Decemher ^^ Fortnightly Review," and 
consists mainly in a picking to pieces of ^' King Lear " 
in order to display all its ahsurdities, anachronisms, 
improprieties, and impossihilities. "The unquestion- 
ahle glory of a great genius which Shakespeare en- 
joys," declares his latest critic, " and which compels 
writers of our time to imitate him, and readers and 
spectators to discover in liim non-€xistent merits — 
therehy distorting their esthetic and ethical under- 
standing — is a great evil, as is every untruth." 
With that the Russian reformer girds himself to his 
self-appointed task of rectifying error and exposing 
sham, with all the narrowness and all the devotion 
to one idea which we expect in a prophet hut hardly 
desire in a literary critic. Of course what this honest 
unheliever in Shakespeare fails to perceive, and what 
therefore puzzles him, is that literature and Hf e, how- 
ever closely related, are not identical ; that in litera- 
ture the ideal element enters in to color and transform 
the hald reality, else poetry (whether lyric, epic, or 
dramatic) would he impossihle. That his attack on 
Shakespeare will he taken seriously is not for a mo- 
ment to he apprehended, so amusing and at the same 
time so pathetic is this misdirection of great powers. 

• . . 

Alcohol as a stimulus to literary produc- 
tivity is the suhject of recent research prosecuted 
hy Dr. F. van Vleuten, a German poet and medical 
student. In no country are the delights of wine, 
woman, and song more keenly appreciated than 
among the Teutons ; and as they are preeminently 
a writing and a wine and heer drinking people, 
their ideas on the relation of liquor to literature are 
worth considering. Out of one hundred and fifty 
leading German writers who were questioned on 
their hahits and views in respect to the cup that 
cheers and also, occasionally, inehriates, one hun- 
dred and fifteen replied ; and the general nature of 
their replies is published in a Berlin literary journal. 
Ninety per cent avoid all alcoholic stimulants before 
work, hut in hours of recreation find a glass of wine 
or beer refreshing and invigorating. The older men 
rather favor a moderate indulgence in drink even in 
working hours, while among the juniors total absti- 
nence is not without its followers. Herr Adolf 
Wilbrandt, the novelist and dramatist, sends in a 
laconic answer : << I drink wine, I also drink beer. 



because they increase my joy of living and intensify 
my emotions ; but I never take a drop of liquor in 
any form before work." On the whole, it is en- 
couraging to note a growing tendency in Grermany 
to discredit alcohol as an aid to good brain-work. 
The cold-water poets are gaining ground. 

• • • 

The people who do not read books are in so 
overwhelming a majority that it is a surprise, and 
a wholesome one, to readers to be reminded now and 
then of their own insignificant minority. One sin- 
gular fact IB that writers of l^e greatest renown may 
have the fewest readers, — as, for example, Chaucer, 
Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton. Among eminent but 
litde-read living authors, a clever English critic men- 
tions Mr. Henry James and Mr. Meredith. This 
writer ( Mr. E. V. Lucas) says : " Few names could 
stand higher than his [Mr. James's], and yet it is prob- 
able that all the readers of his last novel could be 
comfortably housed in a town no bigger than Little- 
hampton. And if Hitchin were reserved for the 
genuine readers of Mr. Meredith there would prob- 
ably still be a number of empty houses." Those who 
really do read are these: ''Confirmed spinsters 
read books, studious bachelors read books, invalids 
read books; dons and schoolmasters read books; 
young men and women on their way to business 
read books ; school-girls and school-boys read books ; 
old-fashioned folk in the evening read books. And 
that i» about all. The vast mass of persons that 
remain . . . read no books. How can they ? ' Life 
comes first, and after life, play, and after play, sleep. 

Books are embroidery." 

• • • 

The Index Expubgatobius as a book-adveb- 
TISBB is demonstrating its merits in these days. 
*' Eve's Diary," withdrawn from circulation by a 
small country library, has leaped into something 
like national fame, and is in eag^r demand — all 
because the artist illustrating this harmless skit of 
Mark Twain's showed a natcual disinclination to de- 
part from accepted tradition as to Grarden-of-Eden 
fashions. Another of the same author's works, a 
book on Christian Science, is awaited with redoubled 
interest because of the unwillingness so long felt, or 
said to have been felt, by the publishers to issue it. 
The Hohenlohe memoirs have been speedily brought 
into world prominence by the German Emperor's 
explosions of indignation and wrath at their publi- 
cation. The Kaiser blames Prince Philip von Ho- 
henlohe, the late chanceUor's eldest son ; he in turn 
blames his brother Alexander; Prince Alexander 
throws the blame on Professor Curtius, the literary 
adviser ; the Professor passes it on to the publisher ; 
and the publisher — what can we suppose him to do 
but throw up his cap and shout long life to the 
Emperor? . . • 

Babon Mttnchausbn'b pbototype has been found 
by PM>f essor Wilamowitz-Mollendorff, or, rather, the 
professor has found a number of ancient ingenious 
of the Munchausen stripe. One of them is Anti- 

phanes of Berge. Stephen of Byzantium says that 
''to be a man of Berge is to speak nothing true." 
(Burge, by the way, is, as Strabo tells us, " a viUage 
in the land of the Bisaltians as thou goest up the Stry- 
mon, distant from Amphipolis about two hundred 
stades." ) In a certain city, which is nameless, Anti- 
phanes, in the fourth century B.C., " heard the sounds, 
in summer, which had been frozen the previous win- 
ter." Splendidly mendacious also was Antonius 
Diogenes, who lived about the time of Alexander of 
Macedon. His " True Hbtory " is a masterpiece of 
plausible lying, though he blundered into an accidental 
verity in describing the midnight sun in Thule, a bit 
of truth inadvertently admitted also to the pages of 
Ctesias of Cnidus. One Timteus, too, and a certain 
Pytheas are said to have been adroit narrators of 
things that were not so. But, after all, there is no 
monopoly in lying, the great lies are not copyrighted, 
and hence probably the preeminence of our amiable 
Baron, who stood on l^e shoulders of all his prede- 
cessors. • • • 

The death of Chablotte Bbonte's husband, 
in his ninetieth year, would pass unnoticed but for 
the still-living fame of the long-dead wife. And yet 
the curate of Haworth was a remarkable man, if 
only for his half-century and more of reticence in 
reg^ird to his illustrious better half. "I married 
Charlotte Bronte, not Currer Bell," he is reported to 
have declared when questioned about her. A recent 
writer calls him " a marvel of reticence in a garru- 
lous age." It was in 1854 that Mr. NichoUs mar- 
ried the daughter of the Rev. Patrick Bront^ after 
considerable opposition on the father's part Upon 
her death in 1855 the widower took on himself the 
care of his father-in Jaw, and protected him against 
biographers too little appreciative of the old man's 
merits. The last part of his life was passed by 
Nicholls on a small estate in Ireland, where he lived 
in seclusion, an enigma to the outside world, or to 
such small fraction of it as chanced to give him a 
thought . . . 

A NOVEL WITH Shakespeabe AS HEBO, and 
entitled "A Comedy on Kronberg," has just been 
completed by Mr. Sophus Bauditz, a populitf Danish 
writer of fiction. The story, which will probably 
appear in English as well as Danish, has to do wi^ 
a company of English actors that went to Denmark 
in 1586. On the voyage one of these actors, named 
Will, met with an accident, and on landing at Elsi- 
nore was nursed by Iver Kramme and his sister 
Christence. While convalescing he read the Latin 
Chronicle of Saxo Grammaticus, and became much 
interested in the story of Prince Amlet Christence, 
conceiving an affection for Will, and learning that 
he had a family in England, died, like Ophelia, by 
drowning. Among the characters, besides the En- 
glish actors, are Pteben Gyldenstjeme and JOrgen 
Rosenkrands. Years after these events in Denmark, 
Kramme received a copy of " Hamlet " ( first quarto ) 
and then first learned the identity of l^e man he 
had nursed. 



[Jan. 1, 

C^je "^tia $00hs* 

The Travels of a Tbuth-Sbeker.* 

Mr. Conway's ^^ Earthward Pilgrimage" — 
his bursting of the bonds of superstition and 
supematuralism — has proved (so most of his 
readers must think) a heavenward pilgrimage, 
a rising into regions of light and freedom, of 
breadth of view and deamess of vision. In the 
" Prolegomena " to his latest book, " My Pil- 
grimage to the Wise Men of the Eaflt," a work 
originally designed as a part of his Autobio- 
graphy, occur the following sentences, which well 
indicate the nature of the narrative : 

** Grateful am I to sit at the feet of any master, and 
nothing could give me more happiness than to find a 
master in the field to which the energies of my life have 
been given, — reUgion and religions. But herein my 
researches and experiences gradually developed eyes of 
my own. Whether they are strong or feeble, exact or 
inexact, they are my own organically, my only ones; 
and if they cannot weigh the full value of what they 
see, there is always the hope that others will derive 
from a truthful report some contribution to knowledge, 
-- if only an example of visual perversity I " 

Here we meet again that most engaging of 
John Stuart Mill's quahties — a willingness, an 
eagerness even, to be foimd in the wrong, if 
thereby the cause of truth can be served. As 
to the immediate occasion of this circumterres- 
trial voyage in quest of light, it appears that 
in 1882 Mr. Conway was invited to lecture in 
Australia, and as his South Place (London) con- 
gregation consented to give him a vacation after 
almost twenty years of faithful service, substi- 
tutes were found to carry on his work during 
his absence, and he embarked, July 21, 1883, 
for New York, whence he continued across the 
continent and the Pacific Ocean to Honolulu, 
Australia, Ceylon, India, and thence home by 
way of Aden, Venice, and Paris, reaching Lon- 
don March 13, 1884. His search for wise men 
— sages who could answer his queries and set 
his doubts at rest — was evidently as vain as 
that of Socrates in his much more restricted 
joumeyings, although he does not exactly fol- 
low the example of the son of Sophroniscus in 
asserting as much. Glimpses of the inquiring 
traveller here and there, and bits of anecdote 
and reflection from his pen, will best serve to in- 
troduce and commend his book to such as have 
not yet read it. *'*' How many books are to be 
found," he asks, ^^ which deal with the mental 
and moral facts of hiunan life without prejudice 


Moncare Daniel Conway, niiutrated. Boston : Houirfaton, 
Mifflin &Oo. 

and without estimating them by some tradi- 
tional standard of authority?" Few enough, 
certainly ; but of those few the volume before 
us may fairly be counted as one. 

In the days of Professor Andrews Norton, 
and of Mr. Conway's preparatory studies for 
the pulpit, the nJa^^diLiiyldente, who 
used a well-known text-book of Norton's, were 
wont to style his daughters the ^^ Evidences of 
Christianity." So also Mr. Conway found in the 
beautiful ladies of the late Colonel IngersoU's 
fanuly, evidences of the benign influence of free 
thought. Of the famous free-thinker's warm- 
heartedness and family affection, and of his at- 
tachment to Walt Whitman, our author writes : 

«0n IngersoU's last visit to Walt Whitman, — to 
whom he was boimtif ul, — he said, ' Walt, the mistake 
of your life was that you did not marry. There oaght 
to be a woman here,' he added, looking around at the 
poor chaotic room. (Ingersoll's address at the funeral 
of Walt Whitman was the grandest and most impressiye 
utterance of that kind which I hare ever heard.) One 
very intimate friend of the family told me that when- 
ever one of them applied for money, Ingersoll never 
asked how much, or what it was for, but pointed to a 
drawer and said, < There it is; help yourself.' " 

Comparatively brief is the author's account 

of his travels imtil he reaches Ceylon. To his 

f ar-eaAtem impressions let us therefore give the 

most of our attention. A certain highly-educated 

Singhalese gentleman had some interesting 

things to tell the stranger. 

« Mr. Perera, a highly educated Buddhist, told me 
that the story of some English authorities of Buddha's 
birth from a virgin is unsown in Ceylon. Buddha's 
mother, Maia, died some days after Buddha's death, 
and in popular belief she was bom a male god. My 
expressed hope that Buddha's father had become a god- 
dess amused him. . . . My friend was a loving reader 
of Emerson, but could not at all feel the interest of our 
philosopher in immortality. Indeed, he said that he 
thought a belief that death was entire extinction would 
be to the vast majority of the human race glad tidings. 
What he said on this matter* reminded me of Shake- 
speare's thoughts as expressed by Hamlet, and also by 
the condemned youth in < Measure for Measure.' The 
humble millions of the world fear death largely because 
they have been terrified by notions of torment after 
death, or of interminable joumeyings through vile 

A reflection with which the author closes 

one of his East-Indian chapters is noteworthy. 

After referring to the repulsiveness of certain 

clauses of the orthodox Christian creed, taken 

in their naked literalness, he concludes : 

" To those who like myself desire to preserve and 
continue all the varieties of religion in their own struc- 
tural development, it is a satisfaction to realize the 
extent to which the literalism of missionaries prevents 
their doing much real harm." 

A visit to the ^^ Countess " Blavatsky and 




her litde court of admirers at Adyar is enter- 
tainingly narrated. We quote a few passages. 

« Another penon present was Mr. W. T. Brown of 
Glasgow, a young man of pleasant manners, who told 
me some of his marvellous experiences; but when I in- 
timated that I would like to carry away some little 
marvel of my own experience, the reply impleasantly 
recalled vain attempts made through many years to 
witness a verifiable spiritualistio < phenomenon/ I was 
onoe more put off with narratives of what had occurred 
before I cap&e, and predictions of what might occur if I 
should come again. There was a cabinet shrine in which 
letters were deposited and swift answers received from 
the wonderful Mahatmas; but when I proposed to vmte 
a note, I was informed that only a few dajrs before the 
Mahatmas had forbidden any further cabinet corre- 
spondence. I said that was just my luck in such mat- 
ters; whenever a miracle occurs I was always too soon 
or too Iftte to see it. My experience was that of Alice 
in the Looking-glass, — < Jam yesterday, jam to-morrow, 
but never jam to-day. . . .* 

*< She [Mme. Blavatsky] asked what was my par- 
ticular proposal or desire. I said, < I wish to find out 
something about the strange performances attributed 
to yon. I hear of your drowing teapots from under 
your chair, taking brooehes out of flowers, and of other 
miracles. If such things really occur I desire to know 
it, and to give a testimony to my people in London in 
&vor of Theosophy. What does it all mean ? ' She 
said with a serene smile, < I will tell you, because you 
are a public teacher [here she added some flattery] , and 
you ought to know the truth: it is all glamour — people 
think they see what they do not see — that is the whole 
of it.' It was impossible not to admire the art of this 
confession. Mme. Blavatsky, forewarned by Professor 
John Smith of my intended investigatioi^ had arranged 
precisely the one manoeuvre that could thwart it.'' 

Of course the cunning of the Indian fakirs failed 
to deceive this troublesome investigator, who, 
with pendstence backed by rupees, soon arrived 
at an explanation of their mysteries. 

Passing to weightier matters, the author en- 
deavors to dear away some of our false notions 
in regardto various Orientalcustomsa^dbeUefs. 
One of these erroneous impressions is that Jug- 
gemant is . cruel god, and that sdf-immolation 
under the wheels of his car is acceptable to him, 
or indeed practised at all. On the contrary, Mr. 
Conway found him to be a benign and amiable 
deity, the ^^ Lord of Life " and not of death. 
Some accident due to the pressure of a too-eager 
throng of his worshippers may have started the 
rumor of his blood-thirstiness. Another false 
notion is refuted in the following : 

« The most curious and ohstinate error in Christen- 
dom is the notion that the Moslems are not Christians, 
and that Mohammed occupies the place of Christ. They 
are not only Christians, but the only ones in the East who 
maintain literally all of the miracles ascribed to Christ 
in the gospels, or relating to his birth. It is very rare 
to find among them a sceptic." 

Then follows a remarkable conversation with 
Arabi, at that time a prisoner in Ceylon, on the 

expected reappearance of the Mahdi to over- 
throw the powers of wrong ; " and with him," 
added Arabi, ^^will presently appear Jesus 
Christ, who will rebuke the errors of those who 
claim to be the only Christians, and will unite 
all in the worship of one Grod." Asked why 
Mohammed himself should not appear instead 
of Christ, he said : 

« < Mohammed cannot appear again on earth ; he is 
dead.' <But is not Christ similarly dead?' <No, 
Christ never died. There are two men who never died 
— Elias and Jesus. He who hung upon the cross was 
a mere efiBgy of Jesus. The crucifiers were deceived.' " 

The comparative mythology of religions inter- 
ested the author throughout his journey, and 
many instructive details were gathered* tc^ther 
by hun. The prosecution of his researches in Pal- 
estine was for some reason impracticable, and in 
opening his last chapter he regrets this. ^* My 
pilgrimage to the Wise Men of the East,*' he 
writes, ^^ could not be continued in Palestine. 
What Wise Men were there ? " And further : 

« But what I had seen and learned in Asia inspired 
me with a feeling that I had not yet come close enough 
for personal recog^tion to- the wise man to whom 
Christendom was crying Lord, Lord, while doing the 
reverse of what he said. I had known him as the cru- 
cified, had recognized him in the oppressed slave, and 
in many a suffering cause, but my occasional tentative 
essays about the individual Jesus — the flesh-and-blood 
man — still left him a sort of figurehead. There re- 
mained then a pilgrimage to be made, and I settled 
myself down to make it on shipboard during our 
week (nearly) of quarantine. But that exploration has 
continued to the day when this volume goes to press, 
and from notes written from time to time during 
twenty years are selected those contained in this final 

Into these still-continuing searchings for re- 
ligious truth there is here no space to enter ; we 
must take a reluctant leave of the book. Like 
its predecessor, Mr. Conway *8 Autobiography, 
the work shows him in the ripeness of his 
powers, and in the enjoyment of his fearless in- 
dependence as a free-thinker, but never playing 
the part of a scoffer ; a reverent seeker, rather, 
for light and guidance, if such there be other 
than the inner light and the guidance that is, 
after all, self-guidance. His perceptions have 
lost nothing of their keenness, his hand has not 
forgot its cunning in literary craftsmanship. In 
form and appearance the book is patterned 
after the two volumes of th& author's Autobi- 
ography, of which it constitutes an essential 
part. It has numerous illustrations, a photo- 
gravure frontispiece portrait of the author, 
facsimile letters addressed to him, copious foot- 
notes, and a good index. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 



[Jan. 1, 

Inside IiIGht on Becoxstruction.* 

The great problem which confronted the North 
at the close of the Civil War was first of all polit- 
ical, how the States that had attempted secession 
should be restored to their proper places in the 
Union. Closely connected with this waB a ques- 
tion at bottom social in its nature, but designedly 
made one of politics, — the future of the slaves 
that had just been freed. The great problem 
confronting the South was primarily economic 
and social. The question of restoration to the 
Union was indeed important, but of greater mo- 
ment was the rebuilding of ruined homes and the 
proper adjustaient of relations with the blacks. 

The political features of Reconstruction have 
been studied thoroughly, and have been presented 
fairly well in several cases; but it is doubtfid 
if the final word has been said on the subject. 
Indeed, it cannot very well be said until the com- 
paratively neglected field of economic and social 
Reconstruction receivesmoreadequatetreatment. 
The comparative neglect of this field is not hard 
to understand. There is a certain spectacular 
attraction about things done at Washington. 
The material for the political side of the contro- 
versy, consisting of speeches of Congressmen, 
Presidential Messages, Acts of Congress and of 
State conventions and legislatures, has been 
widely published and is easily accessible. The 
economic and social conditions, upon a knowl- 
edge of which legislative action ought always to 
be based, are often imperfectly known at the 
time and are not well described, and hence lose 
importance in the perspective. 

In view of the excellent work done by Mr. 
Edward McFherson in collecting documents on 
Reconstruction, one may naturally ask. Why 
another collection ? In the first place, McPher- 
son's has long been out of print and is now diffi- 
cult to secure. In the second place, compiling in 
the midst of the Reconstruction period, the author 
could not always distinguish the essential from 
the non-essential. And finally, the work is too 
^^ official," aiid lays too little stress upon the eco- 
nomic and social features of the case. That Dr. 
Fleming recognizes the importance of this ele- 
ment in our history is shown by the space allotted 
to it in his ^' Civil War and Reconstruction in 
Alabama," As might reasonably be expected, his 
collection of Reconstruction documents is note- 
worthy for the same reason. 

Most accounts of Reconstruction begin with 
the plans and tibeories, Lincoln's of course coming 

* DooxTMBMTABY H18TOBY OP Bboonbtbuotxon. B7 Walter L. 
Fleming. Ph.D. Volume I. QereUnd: The Arthur H. Clark 

first. The first chapter of Dr. Fleming's^* Docu- 
mentary History of Reconstruction " gives some 
idea of the destruction of property incident to the 
war and of the consequent destitution among both 
whites and blacks, and also of the general temper 
of both races, all consisting of contemporaneous 
accounts by Northern as well as Southern ob- 
servers. Regarding the feeling of the Southern 
whites over the results of the war, Northern opin- 
ion was divided at the time ; but the verdict of 
history is that they accepted defeat and all it 
meant as gracefully as could have been expected. 
Their economic ruin was well-nigh complete. It 
is hard to see how statesmen could ever have 
hoped to improve their feeling for the Union by 
a policy calculated to prolong this bad condition. 
Yet surrender was followed by confiscation frauds 
and the cotton tax of five cents a pound. The lat- 
ter was believed by the New York Chamber of 
Commerce to be imjust and oppressive, and an 
appeal was made to Congress to remove it, but 
to no avail. Such a policy appears more like one 
of revenge and punishment than of conciliation. 

The so-called " Black Codes " of the South 
called forth many diatribes at the time, and no 
doubt had their influence in bringing on some 
of the harsh legislation of Congress. When one 
studies the laws, as printed by Dr. Fleming in 
connection with a statement of the conditions 
they were designed to meet, they appear far less 
outrageous than when studied through the 
speeches of Congressmen, or in Blaine's ^^ Twenty 
Years in Congress." It is only to be regretted 
that the author did not see fit to print some of 
them in parallel columns with laws then on the 
statute-books of several New England States, 
Maine among them. A negro who lived at the 
time declared that while some of these laws 
were ^^ diabolical and oppressive," many of them 
were passed only to deter f reedmen from crime. 
In a prefatory note. Dr. Fleming speaks of 
these laws as never having been in force because 
suspended by the military authorities immedi- 
ately after their passage. In the very document 
from which we have just quoted, they are spoken 
of as being in force in Florida. However, they 
never were extensively or rigidly enforced, — 
conditions might have been better if they had 

Eighty pages of Dr. Fleming's book are 
devoted to the Freedman's Bureau and the 
Freedman's Bank, revealing the good these in- 
stitutions did and the wreck and ruin they finally 
wrought to both whites and blacks. The docu- 
ments relating to the bank, in particular, are 
interesting. At the time of its failure the de- 




positB amounted to (13,299,201. It was simply 
wrecked by *^ political jobbers, real estate pools, 
and fancy-stock speculators " who had no regard 
for the rights of the depositors. 

A document of interest in connection with 
the recent movement to limit the elective fran- 
chise in the South is one entitled ^^ A Southern 
Proposal for a Fourteenth Amendment." After 
the rejection of the amendment proposed by 
Congress, there was a meeting of Southern gov- 
ernors in Washington to propose a form which 
would be acceptable to the Southern whites. It 
differs from the Fourteenth Amendment in that 
it leaves it open to the States to disfranchise on 
account of race or color, but imposes as a pen- 
alty for so doing the exclusion of the entire race 
or color so disfiranchised from the basis of rep- 

The first volume of Dr. Fleming's collection 
of Reconstruction documents takes the story 
down to the readmission of the States. On the 
whole, the work is very creditable to both pub- 
lisher and editor. However, one can regret that 
there were not a few more editor's notes. In 
several cases, these were 'really necessary to 
throw light on the documents used. 

David Y. Thomas. 

Music axd its VoTABrBS.* 

In art, as in literature, we are acquainted 
with the phenomenon of an age of learning suc- 
ceeding an age of genius — the original output 
of one period becoming the quarry for the crit- 
ical scholarship of the next. To this law, if it 
be a law, music offers no exception. Grrieg and 
Saint-Saens are still with us as stars of magni- 
tude; the quality of Strauss and Elgar still 
awaits final appraisal ; but on the whole, since 
the passing of Wagner, Tschaikowsky, and 
Brahms, we may be said to have entered the age 
of books about music. ^^ Music — how it came 
to be what it is "— " What is good music ?" — 
" How to listen to music " — are slightly vary- 
ing titles of readable treatises by well-inform^ 
writers ; and there are doiens more like them. 
Every year the tide of books on musical subjects 
flows fuller and deeper ; and on its surface come 
to us the three volumes included in this review. 

The musical criticisms of Mr. W. J. Hender- 
son, contributed to different New York news- 

*THBARTOPTHx8nfoiat. By W. J. Henderson. New York: 
Cautfles Scribner't Sons. 

IHOLISB Music. (Miurio-Stozy Series.) New York: Imported 
hj Gharics Scribner's Sons. 

Ifusic AND MusidANS. Bj E. A. Baoffban. New York: 
John Lane Co. 

papers during the past twenty-five years, have 
generally been recognized as candid, fearless, 
and intelligent. Readers have found in him a 
trustworthy guide to what was really best in the 
annual ^* offerincps," and they will be fi^lad to see 
thi8 new book W his pen, kdclre<»ed primarily 
to the student of sing^, but fumisSng ve^ 
good readmg for the finished artist and the inter- 
ested layman. However, the book is eminently 
practical ; and with a minimum of technical 
phraseology it explains to the student the prin- 
cipal physiological problems in voice-training 
and the best methods of solving them. Yet 
vocal mechanics is only a means to an end ; and 
this end is found in Mr. Henderson's reiterated 
definition of the art of singing as ^^ the* inter- 
pretation of text by means of musical tones pro- 
duced by the human voice." In this definition 
is found^lie gravamen of his cha^ against the 
Italian school of teaching — that it made the 
production of beautiful tone the ^* ultimate pur- 
pose of vocal technic." Mr. Henderson has 
plenty of praise, however, for the great masters 
of teaching in Italy. He recognizes the forma- 
tive period of this art to have been the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries; its *^ bloom-time," 
the eighteenth, when ^^ technics were at their 
apogee, in the golden age of the art of singing." 
Two chapters, somewhat broader in their scope, 
may be recommended to many an allied 
«« artist." These are entitled '' The Artist and 
the Public " and « The Lyric in Style." A 
short passage from the latter will show the 
author's trenchant method of enforcing his dis- 

" Singers vie with one another in differences of style 
and interpretation. Madame Cantando sings Strauss 
after the manner of Milan, and Mademoiselle Chant 
sings Schumann according to the theory of the Boule- 
vardes, while Fran Singspiel delivers herself of « Caro 
mio ben " in the manner of Bayreuth. Each contends 
that the other is wrong. £ach proclaims that hers is 
the only true authoritative style. All the world won- 
ders. No one is quite sure of anything, except that 
there are more ways of singing a song than of cooking 
a goose. The critics vainly thunder. No one pays any 
attention to them. The glorified vocalist has her little 
army of worshippers, and in the religion of musician wor- 
ship there is neither conversion nor apostasy. . . Style 
is general; interpretation is particular. Style is the 
character of a school or a master. Interpretation is the 
disclosure of an individuality. Style may embrace all 
the songs of a single composer, though it seldom does; 
but interpretation can apply to only one at a time." 

Probably few Americans are aware of the 
existence of the Worshipful Company of Musi- 
cians in London. But its tercentenary was 
celebrated in June, 1904 ; for it was in 1604 
that its last definitive charter was granted, by 



[Jan. 1, 

James I. The powers therein assigned of licens- 
ing persons to ^^ use, practice, or teach the arts, 
mysteries, or occupations of music or dancing 
for lucre or gain within the City of London or 
liberties thereof " have naturally lapsed ; but 
the Company has taken an active and honorable 
part in encouraging the art in Grreat Britain. It 
was very sensibly decided to celebrate the anni- 
veraa^by a loi exWbiticm of muaical iiurtru- 
ments illustrative of the progress of music in 
England during the three hundred years. The 
exhibition, which lasted three weeks, was a pro- 
nounced success. Seventeen lectures were given 
by well-known artists and musical writers, with 
illustni^tive programmes — very much the same 
kind of entertainment that Mr. Arnold Dol- 
metsch has made so popular in this country. 
These addresses have been gathered and pub- 
lished IB a handsome volume forming one of the 
*'^ Music-Story Series," under the caption '^ En- 
glish Music," with a reproduction of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's picture " llie Heavenly Choir " for 
a frontispiece, and plenty of cuts of quaint old 
instruments, Bxtd Jucsimilea of musical scores. 
Of prime historical interest was the lecture on 
" The Evolution of the Piano-forte," by T. L. 
Southgate, tracing the development of our most 
familiar instrument from the ancient dulcimer 
down to the day of Broadwood, Erard, and 
Steinway. Some Americans may hear with sur- 
prise that the 'tune of ^* The Star-spangled Ban- 
ner," like that of " Home, Sweet Home," origi- 
nated in England. In his address on '^Our 
English Songs," Dr. William H. Cummings 
reminds his hearers that the words of ^^ Home, 
Sweet Home " were written " by John Howard 
Payne, the American, and the music was com- 
posed by our London-bom Henry Rowley 
Bishop, best known as Sir Henry Bishop." He 
then goes on to say : 

<< I would fain dwell on this union of race, this mar- 
riage of heart and Yoice, and will therefore call your 
attention to a song, the product of an Englishman, which 
has, by adoption, become one of the national songs of 
our kith and kin on the other side of the Atlantic. < The 
Star-spangled Banner,' beloved by all our brethren in 
the United States, was originally composed by John 
Stafford Smith, in London, about 1750, for a club which 
met at the * Crown and Anchor ' tavern in the Strand. 
The club was called the < Anacreontic,' and for its social 
gatherings the president, Ralph Tomlinson, wrote an 
ode commencing * To Anacreon in Heaven.' This was 
first published without a composer's name, but shortly 
afterwards Smith brought out a collection of Canzonets, 
Catches and Glees, which he sold at his house, 7 War- 
wick Street, Spring Gardens. In this volume, which 
contained only compositions by himself, we find * To 
Anacreon in Heaven.' The music of the Anacreon ode 
and that of < The Star-spangled Banner ' is the same." 

Mr. Banghan's book bearing the much-used 
title ^^ Music and Musicians " is a collection of 
articles contributed during the past dozen years 
to various British pZ^calsrsome of them 
containing good and enduring work, some still 
unpurged of the haste with which they were 
origmally put togetiwr. Hi. obeervations range 
over the whole musical field, from *' On Listen- 
ing to Music " to ^^ Is Opera Doomed? " These 
constitute the first half of the book, under the 
head of ^^Bandom Befiections"; the rest is 
made up of more detailed criticisms on Edward 
Elgar and his " Apostles," Wagner's « Ring," 
and the principal works of Richard Strauss. 

JosiAH Renick Smith. 

Social Sermons fob the Times.* 

In the discussion of social subjects, the 
preacher has certain great advantages over all 
other teachers. He is sure of an audience at 
regular times, and sure of general sympathy and 
reverent hearing. /There is a momentum of 
moral fervor in tixe spirit of the place, the hour, 
the theme. In the exposition of a sacred text 
which has a kind of authority even with the 
skeptical, the preacher can touch all aspects of 
human life. These advantages are finely illus- 
trated in the lectures, which are also sermons, 
which Dr. Charles Reynolds Brown delivered 
at Yale University. The main interest, of the 
volume lies in the method by which the Biblical 
story of Exodus is made to suggest moral factors 
in the labor problems of our own time and land. 
While the audience is thinking of the ancient 
^^ walking delegate " who led a strike against 
Egyptian taskmasters, suddenly it finds itself 
confronting modem instances of the same order. 

The lectures also illustrate the rigid limita- 
tions of the sermonic method of dealing with 
social questions. The audience is mixed, and 
the preacher must address the average man, not 
forgetting the young and the ignorant. The 
time is short ; the atmosphere is charged with 
emotion ; the demand for devotional effect is 
imperative ; and therefore a thorough and sys- 
tematic treatment is impossible. If the man 
in the pulpit, securely fortified against adverse 
reply, selects his illustrations of general prin- 
ciples from the conduct of his neighbors and 
hits them, they may ask for proof, or may quietly 

* The Social Message of the Modbbn Pulpit. By Charles 
Besrnolds Brown. New York: Charles Scrlbner's Sons. 

The Church and the Social Problem. By Samuel Plantc. 
Cincinnati: Jennincs A Graham. 




absent themselveB, or may manipulate agencies 
for securing his resigniition. It is not so peril- 
ous to *^ dfunn the sins we have no mind to," 
and the wrongs of cosmopolitan oppressors ; but 
the immediate effect may be slight. All this 
points to the necessity of organizing classes of 
young men for the free discussion of social 
ethics. In such classes the general statements 
of the pulpit can be criticized freely, a wider 
range d {set can be exploited, all sides heard, 
and representatives of conflicting interests given 
an opportunity to make defense, and the min- 
ister himself will find new materials for his ex- 
hortations. The sermons in the volume under 
review would be a powerful incitement to such 

In Mr. Plantz's book on '' The Church and 
the Social Problem," we follow the same theme : 
What can the Church do to promote the welfare 
of the wage-earners and further social peace? 
There is no contribution to knowledge in the 
volume ; every fact and opinion has been worked 
over by numerous economic writers, and some 
veiy important elements of a large practical 
policy are not mentioned. Of this one cannot 
complain, for the title does not promise a doc- 
tor's thesis, but a practical man's counsel in the 
light of contemporary knowledge. The social 
policy must be worked out in details by spe- 
cialists, not by sermon writers. The chapter on 
Socialism does not quite fairly separate the real 
economic issue from the metaphysical and ethi- 
cal eccentricities for which many of the leading 
Socialists have stood. One can believe in col- 
lective control of the instruments of production 
without a thought of atheism. The practical 
coimsels to the Church and its leaders are gen- 
erally sane, discriminating, and intelligent, and 
the plea for the thorough instruction of minis- 
ters in social science is enforced by cogent 
reasons and trustworthy authority. 

Charles Richmond Henderson. 

Someone has thought it worth while to resuscitate 
from the « Saturday Review " of ten years ago the dra- 
matic criticisms contributed to that journal by Mr. G. B. 
Shaw. They made sparkling reading in those days, but 
that is hardly sufficient to justify the preservation of 
such current chronicUngs in permanent form. We are 
not tempted to read them again, although we read every 
one of them with keen interest when it was written. But 
there are doubtless Shavians enough to provide them 
with an audience — not of the ilt but few who knew these 
mad outpourings from the start — but of the gregarious 
multitude who read this author because he is the fashion 
of the day. They make two volumes, called " Dramatic 
Opinion and Essays," are prefaced by Mr. James Hune- 
ker, and published by the Messrs. Breutano. 

Recent Fiction.* 

The fictional surprise of the season is offered by 
a novel entitled '* Joseph Vance," a long and delight- 
ful story cast in the form of an autobiography. The 
author is Mr. William De Morgan, said to be a man 
of advanced years, well-known in the indnstrial 
world besides being related to the learned author 
of '' A Budget of Paradoxes,*' but a stranger to the 
annalist of literary affairs. Hamlet's **• And there- 
fore, as a stranger, give it welcome," seems an 
appropriate text for onr reception of this singularly 
rich, mellow, and human narrative, which is gar- 
rulous in the genial sense, and as effective as it is 
unpretending. Possibly the author's frequently re- 
iterated disclaimer of literary intent may be thought 
to savor of affectation, but we cannot find nt in our 
heart to say anything that has even the suggestion 
of harshness about a book that has given us so much 
pleasure. It is almost as if a new Dickens had 
swum into our ken, but a Dickens who knows how 
to curb the tendency to indulge in caricature and 
humorous exaggeration, a Dickens whose sentiment 
escapes the touch of artificiality and mawkishness. 
The autobiographer is an Englishman of the peo* 
pie, bom amid humble circumstances in the early 
Victorian years, making his mark as an inventor 
and engineer by force of native talent, and display- 
ing a gift for affection and friendship that greatly 
endears him to us. His story is an intensely human 
one, a story of alternating failures and successes, of 
blended joys and sorrows, artfuUy contrived with 
what seems like an almost total absence of artistic 
design, and holding its readers by its great variety of 
incident and characterization, its humorous flashes 
and satirical sallies, and its deep and genuine pathos. 
The pathetic note \a forced almost intolerably in 

*JobbphVancb. An ni-Written Aatobiograpby. By William 
De Morsaa. New York: Henry Holt A Go. 

Thb Ouardbd Flamb. By W. B. Maxwell. New York: 
D. Appleton A Co. 

Sib Niobl. By A. Conan Doyle. New York: McClure, 

lir THB Days of thb Combt. By H. G. Wells. New York: 
The Century Co. 

Thb Dbbam and thb Bubinbss. By John Oliver Hobbee. 
New York: D. Appleton A Co. 

Thb Laddbb to thb Stabs. By Jane H. Findlater. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 

Pbibonbbs Fast BotTND in Mibbby and Ibok. By Mary 
Gholmondeley. New York: Dodd. Mesd A Co. 

Thb Vipbb op Miuln. A Romanoe of Lombardy. By 
Bfarjorie Bowen. New York. McClure, Phillips A Co. 

A Lady of Romb. By F. Marion Crawford. New York : The 
Macmillan Co. 

Affaibs of Statb. By Barton E. Stevenson. New York: 
Henry Holt & Co. 

Bob Hampton of Placbb. By Randall Parriah. Chicsco: 
A. C. McQniv A Co. 

Ann Boyd. By Will N. Harben. New York: Harper A 

Thb Pobt and thb Pabish; By Bfary Moss. New York: 
Henry Holt A Co. 

Thb Impbbsonatob. By Mary Imlay Taylor. Boston : Little, 
Brown, A Co. 

Montuvbt. By Alice Presoott Smith. Boston : Houghton. 
MiiBin A Co. 

Thb Lbadbb. By Mary Dillon. New York: Doabledaj. 
Page A Co. 



[Jan. 1, 

the later chapters, for we are led to helieve that the 
hero's sacrifice of his dearest friendship upon the 
very altar of his affections is to remain undiscovered, 
but the device of certain supplementary documents 
appended to his own life-story relieves us from the 
strain of this apprehension, and the book ends in a 
sort of glow of sunset peace. If any readers have 
fallen into the habit of taking these reviews of ours 
as a means of escape from reading the novels them- 
selves, or as a substitute for that often toilsome and 
thankless task, we urge them to make an exception 
to their rule in the present instance, and feel sure 

' that they will be grateful for the suggestion. 

Some time ago, in reviewing a novel by Mr. W. 
B. Maxwell, a name then unfamiliar to us, we ven- 
tured the opinion, based upon internal evidence 
only, that it was the work of a woman. This seems 
to have been a mistake, but we shall never cease to 
wonder at the insight with which the author of 
^' Vivien " assumed the feminine point of view. His 
new novel, '' The Guarded Flame," leads to no such 
suspicion as the earlier one, but has equally remark- 
able qualities, although of a different kind. The 
central figure is that of an English philosopher, 
grown old in the service of thought, the author of 
forty or more volumes that have earned for him the 
reputation of being the profoundest of living think- 
ers. He is a man of whom no one seems able to 
speak without bated breath, and in accents which 
are a mingling of reverence and awe in about equal 
proportions. One thinks of Herbert Spencer at 
times, some of the circumstances of whose life are 
worked into the pattern, and it is more than prob- 
able that the author has found some of his material 
in Spencer's ^^Autobiog^phy." But even the most 
extravagant laudations in which the Spencerians 
indulge seem pale in comparison with the terms in 
which Mr. Maxwell's imaginary philosopher is set 
before us. This paragon of a hero, this superhuman 
incarnation of the intellectual life, is not easy for the 
novelist to live up to ; he is ^^ too bright and good " 
for the companionship of ordinary mortab, and 
there is a striking incongruity between his imputed 
powers and the actual words that are invented for 
his utterance. In a word, Mr. Maxwell has over- 
done his philosopher, much as the poet was overdone 
in Miss Sinclair's " The Divine Fire," and the figure 
is not made convincing. The philosopher's house- 
hold consists of three young persons, and out of 
these the tragedy of the book — for it is essentially 
a tragedy — is woven. They are his young wife, 
married to him out of gratitude before her womanly 
nature lias awakened, a still younger niece who is 
practically his adopted daughter, and a brilliant 
young scholar who serves him as secretary and as- 
sistant. Presently the niece discovers that she loves 
the secretary, and he becomes betrothed to her, 
mainly because it is the philosopher's desire. But a 
guilty love for the philosopher's wife has been slowly 
taking possession of him, a love which is matched 
by her emotions, all the more violent because of 
their tardy development. The discharge of a Ley- 

den jar would afford an appropriate simile of what 
happens when the psychological moment arrives. 
Then the situation is made horrible by a stroke of 
paralysis that makes the philosopher helpless, and is 
followed by apoplexy, aphasia, and childishness. At 
this point the novel assumes the character of a study 
in morbid psychology, undeniably powerful, but 
almost unbearable to pursue. The girl learns of 
the infidelity of the betrothed, and ends her life 
with strychnine. The secretary departs, and ends 
his days wretchedly in a foreign country. The wife 
alone remains, to expiate her sin by devotion to her 
stricken husband during the long years which are 
needed to bring him back to activity and recollec- 
tion, and to learn in the end that he has all the time 
known and forgiven. ^^ Tout comprendre, c'est tout 
pardonner" might be the text of this strong and 
painful story. The impressiveness with which its 
ethical teaching is enforced is the justification for 
much that seems at the time intolerable in the pre- 
sentation. The effect of the work is considerably 
marred by the frequent use of a scientific jargon 
which is not demanded by any artistic consideration. 
Readers of " The White Clompany " will need to be 
told nothing more of Dr. Conan Doyle's " Sir Nigel" 
than that it deals with the same period, and has the 
same hero, as the earlier romance. It is not a sequel, 
because it tells of the deeds of Nigel Loring's youth, 
and of the services which won for him his spurs. 
These services are connected with the French wars, 
for the period of the romance is from 1348 to 1356 
— from England's slow recovery from the Black 
Death to 

" The glittering horror of the steel-topped wood " 

and the glorious victory of Poictiers. Next to the 
hero, we must praise his horse, who is a most faithful 
and fearsome beast. The figures of King and Black 
Prince appear conspicuously. The author has ac- 
quired great stores of learning respecting the period 
of these two novels, and exhibits it in rather bewilder- 
ing profusion. 

Since Mr. WeUs took to imagining Utopias he has 
become very tiresome. He used to spin capital yams 
after an improved Jules Verne fashion, but his recon- 
structions of society are neither exciting nor plausi- 
ble. We particularly resent the latest of them, because 
it comes in the guise of a novel, fascinatingly called 
^^In the Days'of the Comet," which at once fills us 
with anticipations of the joy with which we read ^'The 
War of the Worlds." But we are speedQy doomed 
to disappointment, for the sociological pill has only a 
thin sugar-coating of fiction, and its substance is vain 
imagining and indigestible paradox. The comet, it 
seems, causes a chemical change in the atmosphere 
which makes all mankind unconscious for a few hours, 
after which it awakes with a miraculously transformed 
character, and knows henceforth neither selfishness 
nor folly. This is the fantastic invention which the 
author- exploits as a device for setting forth his 
equally fantastic social theories. He has deceived us 
by false pretenses, and we shall hereafter regard his 
books with justifiable suspicion. 




Mrs. Craigie's posthnmous Bovel, '^The Dream 
and the Business/' is prefaced by an '^ appreciation " 
of the writer from the pen of Mr. Joseph H. Choate, 
in which deserved tribute is paid to her '^ lightness 
and delicacy of touch," and to the '^ chaste and fas- 
tidious taste" which was always a controlling ele- 
ment in her work. The book itself gives us increased 
occasion to mourn the loss of this brilliant woman, 
nineteen of whose thirty-eight years were devoted 
to a literary activity that was all the time broaden- 
ing in its scope and deepening in its sympathies. 
The growth in technical artistry during these two 
decades was perhaps not so marked, for Mrs. 
Craigie knew how to write almost from the begin- 
ning, and her instinct for style seems to have been 
bom with her rather than laboriously acquired. The 
new novel takes for its text the words of the 
Preacher: ^'For a dream cometh through the 
multitude of business." It is a study of a group of 
modem men and women, whose relations are made 
to constitute a plot of considerable interest, but whose 
chief significance is to be found in the way in which 
they mirror, from their several points of view, the 
restless striving, the feverish existence, and the in- 
stinctive groping for light which are so characteristic 
of the life of our time. Something of a catholicis- 
ing tendency is perhaps traceable, which the writer's 
faith makes natural enough, but Mrs. Craigie was 
too true an artist to put religious bias into her stories, 
and her fairness in presenting views opposed to her 
own is conspicuous. To this the last of her novels 
a place must be accorded not far below that occupied 
by '< Robert Orange " and " A School for Saints," 
her unquestioned masterpieces, and it is possibly a 
more remarkable production than either of those 
two in certain respects, as of its finished style, its 
economy of material, and its nice dramatic adjust- 

<< The Ladder to the Stars " gives us the fable of 
the Ugly Duckling as exemplified by a young 
Englishwoman of humble birth and provincial envi- 
ronment. The spark of genius has (after the unac- 
countable fashion of that element) been kindled in 
her soul, and it is fanned into flame by certain for- 
tunate accidents acting in conjunction wil^ her own 
persistency. She escapes from her depressing sur- 
roundings, goes to London, and achieves success as 
a writer. She nearly loses her balance through a 
temporary infatuation for an erratic foreign musi- 
cian, but shrinks from taking the last fatal step, and 
is thus saved for the amiable young statesman for 
whom fate has really destined her all the while. 
She is an interesting figure, but hardly more so than 
some of the suspicious and vulgar persons who con- 
stitute her provincial entourage — persons whose 
varied pettiness is described for us with searching 

Miss Cholmondeley, after several years of waiting, 
has now given us a successor to her admirable 
novel, '^ Red Pottage," but we can only characterize 
the new book as a disappointment " Prisoners Fast 
Bound in Misery and Iron " is about as preposterous 

a title as could be inmgined, and the story to which 
it belongs is both thin and unreal. There is, more- 
over, much padding in the form of neat but futile 
description and vapid philosophizing. The narrative 
deals with a young Englishman and the English wife 
of an Italian nobleman. There is a love affair be- 
tween them, the product of feeling on his part and 
of fancy on hers, but it remains an innocent com- 
plication. Unfortunately, he happens to be paying 
her a secret farewell visit at just the hour when a 
murder is being committed outside the palace, and 
the man accepts the imputation of the crime to save 
the reputation of the woman. He is sentenced to a 
long term of imprisonment, and she is contemptible 
enough to permit the sacrifice. Thus we have the 
prisoners, one ^' bound in iron " and the other ^< bound 
in misery" — the misery of such remorse as her 
shallow nature is capable of experiencing. Both 
escape from prison at last, he through the discovery 
of the assassin, and she by the confession which 
brings her relief, but the outcome is anything but 
satisfactory, for the woman gets into another senti- 
mental tangle and the nuui dies of a hiemorrhage. 
It makes a duU and unconvincing tale that leaves 
no lasting impression. 

The reader of ^^ The Viper of Milan " has supped 
full of horrors when he has reached the dose of this 
ingenious romance. The tale is of that monster of 
iniquity, Gian Galeazzo Yisconti, and of his war 
with the Scaligeri and their allies. It closes fitly with 
the assassination of the tyrant, whereby the ends of 
poetic justice are attained, but this consummation i» 
deferred (as history records) until the catalogue of 
his crimes has been lengthened out, and the imagin- 
ation has been given abundant opportunity to revel 
in their detaiL The story makes up in action for the 
shortcomings of its style. Since it is the work of a 
young woman in her teens, it would be unreasonable 
to expect from it anything more than the lively in- 
vention and garish color with which it is weU supplied. 

Mr. Crawford has been writing books for a quar- 
ter of a century, and now has about fifty volumes 
(mostly fiction) to his credit. This is an evidence of 
his industry and of the fluency of his pen, at least, 
while some of the fifty offer evidence of something 
approaching distinction in conception and treatment. 
Few would deny that his best work is that concerned 
with the social life of modern Italy, and that the 
^^Saracinesca" series of novels represents the high- 
water nuurk of lus invention, description, and analjrti- 
cal powers. Little need be said of his new novel, ^^ A 
Lady of Rome," beyond the statement that it moves 
in the social circles already depicted in many of its 
predecessors, and writes of them with the same sure- 
ness of knowledge and decorous interest of manner. 
It has perhaps rather less of plot and rather more of 
psychology than the author is wont to give us, but the 
story has both texture and strength, besides being 
thoroughly praiseworthy in its ethical implications. 
It is not often that the situation offered by a loveless 
union and an unlawful passion is handled with such 
delicacy and firmness of grasp. 



[Jan. 1, 

The ""AlEain of Stale'' whidh oonstitiifte the bads 
of Mr. Steveiuon's mDdly entertaining story relate 
to the soeeession of the Principality of SeUoshold* 
Marfcheim. It is a ease of OulidmuM contra 
numdwmy for the Grerman Emperor faTors one can- 
didate, and the rest of Europe supports the other. 
Affairs appfoaeh a erisis when the allied opposition 
sends a diplomatic representatiTe to the sednded 
Dotch watering-place where the head of the English 
foreign office is supposed to be recorering from an 
attack of influenza. In point of fact, this official is 
not there at alL but has sent his younger brother to 
impetwimie hb;>, tU dniwiiv. J it wV » heiring 
across his traiL Now it so hi^ppeus that an Amer- 
ican millionaire and his two charming daughters are 
sojourning at the same seaside resort, and the two 
young women are destined to become the de(B ex 
maehind in the solution of the diplomatic puzzle. 
Two courtly noblemen : two attraetiTe and roman- 
tically-disposed young women — the outcome is 
obTious. Mr. Stevenson does not disappoint our 
expectations; he settles the case of Schloshold- 
Markheim in the right way, and he makes four young 
persons happy. There are humorous episodes 
a-plentyy with a dash of the serious now and then, 
besides any amount of crisp dialogue. It makes a 
pleasant comedy. 

Mr. Randall Parrish has mastered the trick of 
popular narratiye after a comparatively brief ap- 
prenticeship to the trade, and is to-day one of the 
most effective of our story-tellers; effective, that 
is, in the way of entertainment and excitement, and 
in the skilful management of plot and dramatic sit- 
uation, for he makes no pretense of looking beneath 
the surface of character, or of exhibiting a style of 
any sig^fieance. fiOLs list now includes two romances 
of Indian days in the old Northwest, one of the 
Civil War, and his new book, '< Bob Hampton of 
Placer," which is a story of the seventies, and has 
for itB climax the Sioux uprising which resulted in 
the massacre of Custer and his men on the Little 
Big Horn. The hero is a disgraced army officer 
who has become a ^bad man" in the Western sense 
— a gambler, brawler, and dare-devil generally. 
He had not been g^iilty of the crime which was 
charged against him when he was dismissed from 
the service, but the appearances were all against 
him, and he was unable to offer anything in rebuttal 
of their damning testimony. The heroine is his 
daughter, whom he has not seen since she was a 
child, and who, grown to be a young woman, is 
rescued by him from the Indians before he has dis- 
covered her identity. That discovery made, he un- 
dertakes to provide for her, reforms himself in va- 
rious ways, and renews the effort to trace out the 
lustory of the crime which has mined his reputa- 
tion. The girl is placed in refined surroundings, 
and with amazing rapidity learns the speech and 
manners of the cultivated. But all this time Bob 
does not reveal his relationship to her or tell her of his 
history. The necessity of doing so becomes urgent 
when she falls in love with a young officer who is a 

son of the man whom Bob is reputed to have killed. 
Of course, the mystery is all cleared up in the end, 
the girl marries her lover, and her fathw, having 
cleared his name, fights gallantly with Custer and 
dies with his chief. 

^ Ann Boyd " may be described as a sort of minor 
masterpiece, and easfly the strongest piece of work 
that lb*. Harben has thus far produced. We have 
known him hitherto as the author of books in which 
various types of rustic Greoxgians entertained us by 
their quaint characteristies and the shrewd humor 
of their speech, but we have hardly thought of him 
as possessing the gifts of the construction novdist. 
^ Ann Boyd," however, is a book with a wett-contrived 
framework of plot to which all of its incidents and 
episodes are properly subordinated. It is, of course, 
a study of character also — and in the case of the 
woman who furnishes a name to the book a very re- 
mariuible piece of characterization — but the author 
keeps well in check the tendency of his imagination 
to indulge in desultory meanderings, and also holds 
himself fairly free from the control of sentimental 

Given, a young man who knows life as it really is, 
and a young woman who has never viewed it except 
through the smoked glasses of convention, and join 
the two in matrimony : you will then have material 
for a comedy or a tragedy, according to the degree of 
seriousness with which tiie situation is handled. In 
the case of ^ The Poet and the Parish," by Miss Mary 
Moss, there is at first comedy of a very crisp and de- 
lightful sort, and then the situation develops until it 
verges closely upon tragedy, and is only saved from 
that consunmiation by a tonic application of common 
sense to relations that have been strained almost 
to the breaking point. The poet is Felix Gwynne, 
who has spent his youth abroad, and returns to hia 
American home to enter into an inheritance. He 
is a lovable but rather irresponsible person, the 
creature of impube, but serious enough at heart to 
engage our sympathies. The young woman whom 
he marries is distinctly hamiey and her family and 
social environment are even more so. This makes 
difficulties, especially when Felix goes wandering 
about the country with a band of gypsies, and be- 
comes entangled (innocentiy enough) in the affairs 
of a masquerading actress whom he meets in the 
gypsy camp. His wife, with the thoughtful aid of 
her outraged parents and most of the neighbors, 
magnifies these indiscretions into huge proportions, 
and abandons the hapless poet. It is the situation 
of '^ El Gran Galeoto " lowered somewhat from the 
tragic plane of the Spanish dramatist, but stul seri- 
ous enough. It takes some plain speaking (or rather 
writing) on the part of Felix to bring his wife back, 
but his plea is effective. '< We are mismated, but 
we are mated. . . . How can you be so cruel to that 
unlucky girl? . . . Why, the poor child hardly 

knows me, yet I'm supposed There we sat, side 

by side, pelted by every filthy insinuation, ticketed, 
yoked. Was n't it enough to drive her — and she 's 
pretty, Adelaide, very pretty, and far cleverer than 




yoQ — into mj arms ? . • . Now I am waiting because 
there is an obstinate girl, twenty miles away, who 
is my wife, and to whom I 'm boond by a tie that 
doesn't readily break. It seems to me, at this 
minute, that yon have almost.every fault in the world, 
dear. All but one ! You are real ! But in the name 
of the love we have felt for each other, do n't let the 
fragments of our happiness be shattered beyond re* 
pair, for unreality, for other people's ugly dreams ! " 

One cannot feel quite comfortable in reading Miss 
Taylor's " The Impersonator," because the heroine 
(who naturally demands our sympathies) is placed 
by her own deliberate act in a position for which no 
justification is possible. A wealthy woman in Washr 
ington has yrritten to a niece in Paris, whom she 
has never seen, inviting her for a lengthy visit The 
niece in question, who is dabbling in art, does not 
want to go, and asks a friend to make the visit in 
her place and character. This friend, who is beau- 
tiful and accomplished, but extremely poor, weakly 
consents to engage in this proposed deception, 
allured by the prospect of a few months of luxury. 
The main body of the story tells us of this imper- 
sonation, successfully sustained through the social 
season, and at last rudely revealed by the sudden 
appearance of the woman to whom the name really 
belongs. But the heroine has played her cards skil- 
fully, and some of her friends remain loyal after the 
exposure of the fraud. One of these is a rising 
statesman who has fallen in love with her, and who 
at last perisuades her, in spite of all, to become his 
wife. This consunmiation is facilitated by the dis- 
covery that the young woman (whose parentage has 
hitherto been a mystery) is the legitimate daughter of 
the Spanish minister, and that she is not plain Mary 
Lang, but may daim the far more resounding name 
of Maria Francesca Luisa Quevedo, Countess For- 
tucarrero. Miss Taylor's novel moves in a milieu 
with which she is well acquainted, and, barring the 
fundamental obstacle to complete sympathy, is a 
work of animated interest. 

^ Montlivet," by Miss Alice Prescott Smith, is a 
romance of the old Northwest in the days when 
France was so strengthening its strategic position in 
America as to f orbode stubborn resistance when the 
inevitable struggle for supremacy should come. The 
exact year is 1695, and the scene opens with Cad- 
illac in doubtful power at Michillimackinac The 
f ature founder of Detroit is not, however, the hero 
of this story, but the French trader Montlivet, who 
has a magnificent plan for a league* of the Indian 
tribes in support of the French cause. So much for 
the historical setting. The fictional romance (aside 
from the historical) is provided by an English cap- 
tiTe, rescued from Indian captors by the hero, and 
taken with him on his mission to the tribes in the 
neighborhood of the Baie des Pnants — for thus 
pleasantly was Green Bay styled by its pioneer 
explorers. The captive turns out to be a woman in 
disguise — a woman of proud birth and spirit — and 
this the hero discovers after the expedition is well 
away into the wilderness. A variant upon the usual 

treatment of this theme is offered by their marriage 
early in the narrative, but the union is of expediency 
alone, and leaves all the wooing to be done. There 
are many exciting adventures and hairbreadth 
escapes from peril, with a suitably sentimental end- 
ing. Miss Smith has produced an exceptionally 
interesting piece of work, one which may perhaps 
be described as similar to the romances of the late 
Mrs. Catherwood with an added infusion of virility. 
Mrs. Dillon insists that her new novel, ''The 
Leader," is '' in no sense history." Nevertheless, it 
is chiefly concerned with the history of the St. Louis 
Democratic Convention of 1904, and tells the whole 
story of the struggle between radicals and conservar 
tives, of the nomination, of Judge Parker's famous 
telegram, and of Mr. Bryan's activities. The hero 
is obviously Mr. Bryan in disguise ; that is, in just 
enough of disguise to permit him to combine love 
with politics, and thus satisfy the imperative demand 
of the reader for a love-story. Although based upon 
familiar historical happenings, the story is artificial 
in a stagey fashion, and its vein of invention is too 
thin to yield anything very rich in the way of 
romantic ore. William Mobton Payne. 

Brlbfs oix New Books. 

r»«^#/..«. #» V. Professor Albert S. Cook of Yale 
higher range of University has done well to umte 
literary ttudy. under a suggestive title four " occar 
sional " papers on '< The Higher Study of English " 
(Houghton). By the word <* higher" is implied 
not merely the sort of systematic and philosophical 
research which Professor Cook has done much to 
promote in this country. Two of the essays, the 
first and the last, do indeed bear more directly 
upon graduate study and teaching. Yet the obvious 
note in all four is a general elevation of standards, 
both ethical and sBSthetic, throughout the entire cur- 
riculum of English — a broadening and deepening 
of our national culture through an intensive appre- 
ciation of the best that has been handed down to us 
in literature. Higher study means study of the best 
things in the best way. The best way is not always, 
or perhaps often, the easiest, above all in the case of 
those who are to be teachers of English. For them 
the higher superstructure means the broader, deeper, 
more carefully laid foundation. Like specialists in 
other fields, Uiey must know their subject from the 
bottom up ; they must know whiit is more important 
without slighting what the layman's imperfect sense 
of values may deem to be less; and they must know 
the relations existing between their own and allied 
disciplines. They must neglect neither the origins 
of the language in which their literature is enshrined, 
nor the ancient classics and the Scriptures from 
which it has drawn its chief inspiration, nor the 
brotherhood of languages and literatures among 
which it has grown up. They must strive to com- 
pass an ever widening realm ; to rise to an ever 



[Jan. 1, 

mounting ideal ; and nobly to despise the so-called 
limit of the attainable. Yet they most be modest, 
too, and moderate, not hoping to exercise aathority 
in scholarship until they are proved faithful in atten- 
tion to detail, nor by frantic haste to win the prizes of 
equable speed. It is not sufficient, thinks IVof essor 
Cook, to say to the graduate student, ^' Here is the 
body of English literature; come and read it, and 
then go and teach it." There must be order, dis- 
cipline, regulated toil. The professional teacher 
must possess the professional orderly will. Never- 
theless, *^he who has not been a passionate reader 
of good literature from the age of ten . . . and who 
does not give promise of remaining a passionate 
reader of good literature to the end of life, should 
be gently, but firmly, discouraged from entering 
our profession." With reference to this volume we 
have but one regret : we wish that the author had 
been able to include his notable essay on ^'The 
Artistic Ordering of Life," which is germane enough 
to the papers here contained, in that it represents 
the final philosophy of a thinker who is also a great 
teacher of English. 

^ . . . It has been said that each successive 

the iociai life epoch of theatrical history presents 
of hit time. ^^e same picturesque image of sto- 

ried regret — memory incarnated in the veteran, 
ruefully vaunting the vanished glories of the past. 
Gibber, surviving in the best days of Grarrick, Peg 
Woffington, and Kittie Clive, praised the days of 
Wilks and Betterton ; aged playgoers of the period 
of Edmund Kean and John Philip Kemble believed 
that the drama had been buried, never to rise again, 
with the dust of Garrick and Henderson, beneath the 
pavement of Westminster Abbey. But even to-day 
many of us still ding to the belief that Garrick was 
the greatest of English actors, while realizing that 
he is as much a centre of legend as King Arthur and 
that the ordinary Grarrick story rests on a veritable 
morass. Grarrick lived in an age when public and 
national life was in a condition of great flux and pro- 
gress — mirroring the decay of Jacobitism, the soften- 
ing of religious bigotry in England, and the growth 
of modern forms of political dbcontent In " Grarrick 
and his Circle " (Putnam), Mrs. Clement Parsons has 
embodied a true picture of the social life of the day, 
while weaving a portrait of her subject, a record of 
his triumphs and a study of his methods. In a strict 
sense, her book is not a biography, — her aim has 
been to make each one of a series of vignettes illus- 
trate Grarrick's character or career in contact with this 
or that group of outside characters or events. She 
points out that the actor's personality is an elusive 
one. Apart from his theatric art, Grarrick's vivacity 
is his individualizing label for all time ; he was born 
with such a fund of animal spirits as rarely occurs in 
association with high mental gifts. He was a genius 
with the right amount of worldly ballast for worldly 
success, and remains the ruling figure of the stage in 
eighteenthrcentury annals. In Burke's words, " He 
raised the character of his profession to the rank of a 

liberal art" To quote Mrs. Parsons, ^' There have 
been many great actors, but never another great actor 
who was at the same time so great a personality out- 
side of the theatre. Grarrick belongs to the history 
of England." With vivacity, fidelity, and keen dis- 
crimination,, the author has presented a study of the 
theatrical society of the period — its whimsicalities, 
vulgarities, f railities, and manners, as well as its esti- 
mable qualities. Her portraits have that fulness and 
unity which impart a conclusive notion of personality, 
set with a due sense of perspective against a well- 
balanced background. 

The intcrutabie A book which undertakes to solve 
^ew ^York ^^ problem of what James Parton, in 

politics. his Life of Andrew Jackson, written 

fifty years ago, described as " that most unfathom- 
able of subjects, the politics of the State of New York " 
is the Hon. D. A. Alexander's two-volume ^^ Political 
History of the State of New York" (Holt), which 
we are told grew out of the difficulty experienced by 
the author in obtaining ^' an accurate knowledge of 
the movements of political parties and their leaders 
in the Empire State." Oliver Wolcott, a member of 
Washington's Cabinet and later governor of Con- 
necticut, once wrote: ^^ After living a dozen years 
in New York, I don't pretend to comprehend their 
politics. It is a labyrinth of wheels within wheels, 
and is understood only by their managers." Mr. 
Alexander, himself a prominent figure in the polit- 
ical life of New York, does not claim to understand 
the politics of the State any more then did Wolcott, 
but he may justiy lay claom to the distinction of 
possessing intimate knowledge of its political move- 
ments and familiarity with its leading politicians. 
He is not the only historian who has cherished the 
ambition to write an elaborate political history of the 
Empire State. Jabez Hammond's ^' Political History 
of New York," completed in 1848, covered the early 
field with remarkable thoroughness, although with 
less accuracy and system than characterized Mr. 
Alexander's work. The latter's method is rather 
that of the biographer than the historian. He dus- 
ters his facts around the careers of the great leaders, 
and makes them the central theme of his discussion 
of particular movements ; for, according to his view, 
^' the history of a state or nation is largely the his- 
tory of a few of its leading men." It is ta*ue, as he 
says, that it would be difficult to find in any common- 
wealth of the Union a more interesting or picturesque 
leadership thiMi is presented in the political history 
of New York. Some of those whose careers he traces 
through ^^ the tangled web of New York politics " are 
Alexander Hamilton, George Clinton, Aaron Burr, 
DeWitt Clinton, Martin Van Buren, and Thurlow 
Weed, each of whom successively controlled the 
political destinies of the State. In addition to the 
portraitures of these great leaders, the work is en- 
livened with entertaining sketches of the struggles 
between " Bucktails " and " Clintonians," " Hunkers " 
and '^ Barnburners," and other factions into which 
the leading parties were at different times divided. 




The ttructure Books dealing with the classification 
and aetivUies of birds, or handbooks to local or to 
o/ bird*. more extended faunas, are numerous, 

and studies of birds afield with gun or camera have 
multiplied almost to the limit of popular interest. 
Fortunately, we have in Mr. Beebe's '^ The Bird, its 
Form and Function " (Holt) a worthy treatise on the 
bird itself considered from the standpoint of its 
structure. The book is no dry assemblage of descrip- 
tive anatomical detail couched in technical terms 
which only the specialist in comparative anatomy 
can analyze. It is, rather, an untechnical study of 
the bird as a product of the process of organic evo- 
lution ; of a living structure wonderfully adapted in 
manifold ways to the complex environments in which 
birds are found. Although the author deals constantly 
with the structural elements of the various organs 
of the animal — with shaft and barb, feather and 
claw, syrinx and gizzard — the anatomical skeleton 
is always clothed with a living interest and rendered 
full of meaning as illustrative of some broad bio- 
logical law, and is related to the significant funda- 
mental principle of the evolution of all life. The 
author marshalls his facts with the skill and judg- 
ment which are evidently the result of an adequate 
training in the biological sciences, and he has added 
to his knowledge the zeal of an enthusiastic lover 
of the feathered tribes. He loses no opportunity to 
inculcate a love for '^ the little bundles of muscle and 
blood which in this freezing weather can transmute 
frozen beetles and zero air into a happy, cheery little 
Black-capped Chicadee," and to engender a respect 
for the living brain which ^' can generate a sympathy, 
a love for its mate, which in sincerity and unsel- 
fishness suffer little when compared with human 
affection." The illustrations in the work are mainly 
from photographs — most of them presented here 
for the first time, — drawn often from sources in 
the New York Zo(ilogical Gardens or the American 
Museum of Natural History. With a few possible 
exceptions, they really illustrate the text, and are 
well chosen and well executed. The work is a wel- 
come addition to the popular literature of ornithol- 
ogy, of substantial merit and permanent value for 
every lover and student of denizens of the air. 

Pleasant. cene. The fascination of Japan fincb a sym- 
from familiar pathetic mterpreter in A. Herbage 
Japanese life, Edwards. The sketches that make 
up the volume entitled " Kakemono ''^ — upon the 
supposition, it may be assumed, that the word, liter- 
ally ^^ bang-up-thing," signifies a picture or pictures, 
there being no plural form in Japanese, whereas it 
denotes the manner of mounting rather than the 
pictures themselves — are charming word-paintings, 
wrought with alight touch and true poetic feeling. In 
their daintiness and half-veiled impressions, many of 
them seem to have been inspired by the Tiokku or 
short odes that play such an important part in the life 
of the people of that unique country. The subjects 
are all familiar; indeed, nothing else could be ex- 
pected, so thoroughly have Japan and its inhabitants 

been written about But in literary art, as in pictorial, 
it is the treatment that makes the difference. De- 
scriptions of the ascent of Fuji-san are so common 
that one's first inclination is to skip another relation 
of the toilsome climb. Yet to pass by the account 
here given would be to leave unread what is perhaps 
the most delightfully written of them all. Even more 
impressive is the story of a trip to the summit of the 
ever active volcano Asamayama. The dismal horror 
of the experience, in striking contrast to the more 
arduous but tamer journey to the top of Fuji, is made 
very real by a recital of the pleasing anticipations 
with which it was undertaken. These episodes occupy 
but a small part of the -book. Religion, art, travel, 
the people and their customs, and personal experi- 
ences of the author, furnish the material for most of 
the sketches. Especially striking is the one entitled 
^^ The Altar of Fire," in which the Shinto ceremony 
of hiw(Ua/ri<t or walking barefoot over a bed of live 
coals, is graphically described. No attempt is made 
to explain the seemingly impossible phenomenon: 
for that, the reader must have recourse to the pages 
of Percival Lowell. The essay upon ^^The Art of 
the People " contains many observations worthy of 
serious consideration. A complete view of Japan, the 
book does not give ; the unpleasant features are left 
for others to portray. But that omission makes it the 
more agreeable to read. (A. C. McClurg & Co.) 

Thettoryof ^^' Hubert Bruce Fuller's account 
the acquUitUm of " The Purchase of Florida," even 
of Florida. ^j^h the sub-title " Its History and 

Diplomacy" (Burrows Brothers), does not quite 
comprehend the subject-matter of the work. What 
the author has attempted to do is to give an account 
of the conditions that made the acquisition of Florida 
by the United States imperative for her own peace 
and safety, and of the forcible seizures and diplo- 
' matic negotiations that finally accomplished this 
result. He has given a very full account of some 
things which, so far as the main thesis is concerned, 
might have been dealt with much more briefly. On 
the whole, however, the work has been well done, 
and the book is a valuable contribution to our his- 
torical literature on this important subject The 
style is easy and readable, and the author's judg- 
ments are well balanced, in spite of occasional sharp 
words about the conduct of such men as Jackson, 
J. Q. Adams, Pickering, and Ellicott. Of positive 
errors the writer has discovered only a few, and 
these are of minor importance. The change of the 
boundary of West Florida from 31® to 32® 28' was 
made in the commission of Greorge Johnstone, Gov- 
ernor of West Florida, June 6, 1764, instead of in that 
of Governor Elliott ( p. 34 ) . ( S ee Commons Journal, 
vol. 39, p. 174.) One could wish for a little more 
exactness in some of the statements, — for example, 
that Amelia Island ^^was soon abandoned by the 
American marines " to escape yellow fever (p. 236). 
How soon? It was occupied December 24-26, 
1817, and General Gaines was there more than a 
year later. The chief defect of the book lies in its 



[Jan. 1, 

paucity of references. Such a book must appeal 
first of all to the specialist ; and the specialist must 
have footnotes. The author has brought out a good 
deal of new and interesting matter for which he has 
given no authority whatever. References to diplo- 
matic papers are abundant, but often details are 
given which can hardly have been gathered from 
this source. 

The legal side ^^ ^^ * pleasure to readers of Lincoln 
of LineoWa life literature to come upon a really in- 
and charaetei'. gthictive book in that much-worked 
field. There are books and articles without number, 
largely the result of working over the same old 
material, many of them with the same old miscon- 
ceptions and the dubious or disproved anecdotes. 
Mr. Frederick Trevor Hill, in his ^^ Lincoln the 
Lawyer" (The Century Co.), has developed some 
new points of interest in Lincoln's life. Taking well- 
known facts and adding to them important new ones 
of his own discovery, he has combined what is known 
of Lincoln's legal career in such a way as to show 
conclusively that he was a lawyer of very superior 
ability both in working out his cases and in his 
success in the courts. In competition with a bar 
remarkable for force and talent, he became the 
acknowledged leader, . manifesting in the highest 
degree the various qualities demanded for success in 
his exacting profession. But more important than 
the fact of Lincoln's professional success is the bear- 
ing of his legal attainments on his great public 
career. It was his insight into the fundamental 
principles of law and logic, and the training that he 
had received from his long and successful practice, 
that enabled him to triumph over Douglas in debate, 
to make the Cooper Institute Speech that carried his 
reputation into the East, to dissect the slavery 
question so thoroughly, and to meet the various diffi- 
cult problems of his later career. Mr. HiU has done 
well in bringing out this important side of Lincoln's 
training and equipment. Incidentally, he destroys 
some of the myths that have been handed down 
from one writer to another, some of them detracting 
from the real dignity of the man ; and for this also 
we are grateful. 


Sig. M. £spoBito is the editor of a coUeotion of « Early 
Italian Piano Music," just added by the Ohver Ditson 
Co. to their " Musicians' Library." The introductory 
matter consists of biographical sketches of the composers 
represented, and descriptive notes on the harpsichord and 
clavichord, with full-page photographic plates. The 
composers, seventeen in number, range ^m £rcole Pas- 
goini (1580) to Muzio Clementi (1752-1832). The two 
Scarlattis have a large share of the space, Alessardro 
being represented by six pieces, and Domenico by the 
series of nineteen sonnets, with the << Cati Fugue " as an 
appendix. Readers of " Consuelo " will be interested 
in the specimen fugue from Porpera, and students of 
Browning by the piece from Galuppi — a sonata and 
not a toccata. 

A new translation of « The Nibelungenlied," made by 
the late John Storer Cobb, and now edited by his widow, 
is published in a handsome volume by Messrs. Small, 
Maynard & Co. The form is a rhymed f oujvline stanza 
in iambic octometer, the rhymes being in couplets. It 
is a jog-trot movement, and grows very monotonous after 
a few pages. But a g^reat poem, in the higher sense, this 
epic is not, and a fair sense of its historical importance 
is obtainable from the present version. 

Two new editions of Shakespeare, each complete in a 
single volume, call for a word of hearty praise. One is 
added to the « Cambridge " poets of Messrs. Houghton, 
MijGBin, & Co., and the editorial work has been done by 
Mr. William Allan NeUson. There are upward of twelve 
hundred pages, with portrait, biography, glossary, and 
special introductions to the several plays. The other 
edition comes from the Oxford Clarendon Press, and is 
edited by Mr. W. J. Craig. This volume, iHth about one 
hundred more pages than the other, has portrait and 
glossary, but practically no editorial matter. Both edi- 
tions are clearly printed on thin paper, two columns to 
the page. 


« As You like It " and « Henry the Fif t " are the 
latest additions to the '< First FoUo " Shakespeare, ba 
edited by Misses Porter and Clarke, and published by 
Messrs. Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

« The Lodging House Problem in Boston," by Dr. 
Albert BenecQct Wolfe, is a volume of <' Harvard Eco- 
nomic Studies," published at the expense of the Baldwin 
endowment by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

.The Fleming H. Re veil Co. publish new and revised 
editions of the Rev. W. J. Dawson's « Makers of En- 
glish Poetry" and « Makers of English Prose," two 
volumes of agreeable and for the most part sound and 
sensible literary criticism for popular consumption. 

James Russell Lowell and Mr. Henry James are the 
subjects of two new volumes in the series of beautifully- 
printed bibliographies of American authors published 
by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. For the former, 
Mr. George Willis Cooke is responsible, and Mr. Le 
Boy Phillips for the latter. 

A new *< Encyclopedia of Familiar Quotations," com- 
piled by Mr. Elferd Eveleigh Treffry, is published by 
the Frederick A. Stokes Co. The selections number 
five thousand, and if many of them may not properly 
be styled « familiar," they are all likely to prove usefiU 
for purposes of pointed illustration, and this is very 
largely what such collections are for. 

"The Book of Love," compiled by Mr. Adam L. 
Growans, and published by Messrs. George W. Jacobs 
& Co., is described as a collection of ** one hundred of 
the best love-poems in the English language." The 
description is fairly justified by the contents, although 
it would not be difficult to collect another hundred 
lyrics of equal, or nearly equal, beauty. 

The Chicago Madrigal Club, which has offered yearly 
prizes for musical compositions to accompany poems 
chosen by it for a musical setting, will this year vary 
its programme by offering its prize for an original 
lyric poem to be hereafter set to music. The prize is 
fifty dollars, and the competition is open to all writers 
residing in the United States. A printed circular giv- 
ing conditions of the contest may be had by addressing 
Ml'. D. A. Clippinger, 410 Kimball Hall, Chicago. 




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ISmo, silt top. nncat. pp. SIC ** French Men of Letters." 

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tut top, pp. 419. "American Stateemen." aecond aeriee. 

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Tha OoUaotor'a Xanoal. By N. Hudson Moore. Dins., 4to, 
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[Jan. 1, 1907, 


FOR 1907 

••This first number comes into the library like a well- 
bred person who knows how to sit before the fire and 
talk at ease; who has seen the world, who knows 
books, and has learned and practises the art of human 
intercourse. The magazine starts quietly, and puts Into 
the hands of its readers, In a style which is in line with 
food literary traditions, matter which Is worth reading." 
— The Outlook. 


rpHE JANUARY NUMBER contnins a. fuU account, by Robert F. Gildeb, of hu recent 
M_ finding, in a grave-tnound in Nebraalu, of the ekoll of a linraan being of lower cranial develop- 
ment than any other yet naearthed in America. A similar discovery, some years since, in Java, 
and another in Switzerland, give special significance to this skull as indicating the existence of a 
race of inferior intelligence to any other of which recnrde exist, and Mr. Gildeb's important find is 
attracting the attention of the leading biologisto of the country. The discoverer's personal narrative, 
together with the supplementary papers of a scientific character, is appropriately illustrated. 


In connection iritii a similar article bj RlCRARD 
B. Knioht, printed in January, 1853, in the first 
number of " Putnam's," this paper strikingly 
marks the first as an interesting piopheej of 
Cuban history. 

Great Characters of Parliament 

By Henry W. Luct, the well-known "Toby 
M. P." of " Punch." Illustrated by a distinctive 
series of porttaits. 


By Professor Hrnry L. Nelson. The writer 
was associated with lit. Schurs in the manage- 
ment of " Harper's Weekly " aiul succeeded him 
as editor of the paper. 


By President SCBDRfaAN of Cornell University. 


Miss Carolyn Wsixa allows her humorous pen 
to make a series of piquant sketches of her first 
impressions of England and France during the 

iP of 1906. 


Geokok S. Street, in a series of papers, presents 
noteworthy figures who have been connected with 
London's thoroughfare. The illustrations are 
characteristic of the sketches. 



A series of essays on matters connected with their 
art, by Signor Salvoh, the most eminent living 
actor, and by the late Mme. RiBTORI, the most 
famous actress of the recent past. The latter 
discusses the question of the endowed theatre, 
while the former gires his views on the Famons 
characters he has impersonated. 


Professor H, Pabkbr WnjJB, under this title, 
pays a tribute to the life and service of the late 
Waiiam L. Wilson. 


By Hestbr Rttchib, the granddaughter of W. M. 

" Shattered Idylls," by Fooazeaso, the author 
of " The Saint" ; "Mortmain,"byH.G.DwioeT; 
and "The Barge," by Arthur Coltom. 


Thomas Wentworth Hiooimbon, Henry 
Holt, Ford Madox Hueffer, Thomas Bailey 
Aldrich, Arthur C. Benson, Frederick 
Teevor Hnx, AoNKB Repplier, W. J. Rolfe, 
Montoouery Schuyler, Charles de Kay, 
Charles H. Cafpin, R. M. Bache, Mrs. 
John Lane, G. S. Lee, Miss Mary Mobs. 


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[Jan. 16, 1907, 


The companionships of books 









Dr. Hale's 

at Home 


Mr. Lucas's 

A Wanderer 

in London 





Mars and 

its Canals 

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this hook? 

The Memoirs of Prince von Hohenlohe 

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9 ftemi>iW(mtt|ls Journal of l^fterarg Crfttcfem* Mwawian, anli Infonnatfoiu 

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No. 494. JANUARY 16, 1907. Vol. XLU. 





Leonard Moore 28 


Some of the problems of book pnbliahing. — The 
reTiTBl of interest in the drama. — The endowment 
of " lasyahips" at Harvard. — Tead^ng the young 
idea how to shoot — Aqwoti of American ei^es. — 
A onrioaity in oommeroial literatore.— London lit- 
erary happenings. — An artificial world-langnage. — 
Hero-woiahip on the wane. — The right to publish 
private letters. — The death of Ferdinand Brone- 
tiAre. — Reoord prices for rare books. 

THE AUTHOR OF "BEN-HUR." Percy F. BiekneU 34 

ICS. M. B.Hammond 36 


Ckarlee H. A. Wager 80 


ITALY. Laurence M. Lareon 41 


CoblenU 48 

Waddell*s Lhasa and its Mysteries. >-SheRiBg*s 
Western Tibet aad the British Borderland.— 
HoUieh's Tibet the Mysterions.— Eraser's Pictures 
from the Balkans. 


Education, is it a science or sn art ? — Altennath 
of the Hawthorne centenary. — Good work by the 
Library of Congress. — Sketches from the note- 
book of a jonmaliBt — A sensible appreciation of 
Chancer. — So saith the Preacher. — Begin^ng of 
a history of Civiliaation. — Memoir of a philosopher 
and historian* 


NOTS8 48 



In one of the lectures which he gave in this 

country, when he visited us seyeral years ago, 

Brunetiere used the following words : 

« The first condition of disinterestedness is neyer to 
follow. one's tastes, and to begin by diBtmsting the 
things which give us pleasure. IRie most delicious &hes 
are not the most wholesome; we never fail to distinguish 
between our cooks and our doctors. In the moral world 
the beginning of virtue is to distrust what is most natu- 
ral to us, and the same is true in the intellectual world. 
To distrust what we like is the beginning of wisdom in 
art and literature." 

We quoted this passage at the time when the 
distinguished Frenchman was our guest, and 
we now quote it again because it illustrates so 
clearly the fundamental characteristic of Bru- 
neti^re's critical attitude toward literature. 
First and last he stood for authority in criticism 
as opposed to impressionism and caprice, for 
objective standards as opposed to subjective 
fancies, for law as opposed to anarchy in the 
appreciation of books. 

As the chief champion in our time of the 
principle of authority in criticism, Brunetiere 
occupied a distinguished position, and his loss 
is one of the most serious possible to the world 
of letters. He stood like a rock amid the flood 
of critical writing that has been steadily swelling 
of recent years, and that has no other creden- 
tials to ofPer for its acceptance than the posses- 
sion of verbal charm, the display of intellectual 
agiliiy , and the appeal to the hedonistic impulses 
of our nature. In his resistance to the disinte- 
grating forces that seemed to him to be threat- 
ening disaster to the fine art of literature, he 
grew more and more uncompromising in his 
pronouncements, more and more reactiomiry in 
his attitude, and the end found him standing 
apart, in grim isoktion, from most of tiie ad- 
vancing movements and liberalizing tendencies 
of his age. It was a stand that challenged admi- 
ration, even when it revealed him as the foe of 
justice in the Dreyfus affiair, as the enemy of 
social and political pn^ress in his ultramontane 
partuanshi^ and aa ti£ opponent, in the name 
of the classical seventeenth century, of those 
literary developments which, not wholly for good 
but assuredly not wholly for ill, were bestowing 



[Jan. 16, 

a distinctive character upon his own age, and 
were preparing the way for the age that should 
comelift^S. . 

The man who commits himself to the prin- 
ciple of authority in criticism incurs certain 
dangers, no doubt, which Bruneti^re's career 
illustrates. He is sure to be a conservative, and 
extreme conservatism is almost as much to be 
avoided ss extreme radicalism. The conserva- 
tive view is pretty sure to be the sound one in 
the majoriiy of cases, because it results from 
the tested opinions of many minds ; whereas the 
radical view is always experimental, and stands 
a fair chance of being proved untenable. But 
no lesson drawn from the history of thought is 
plainer than that radical views are sometimes 
right, and that the conservative ideas they op- 
pose may be crusted prejudices rather than rear 
ionedjudgments. The critic of to^y is the heir 
of all the ages, but he is also an observer from 
the vantage-point of the new time, with its more 
refined instruments and its broadened horizons. 
There can hardly be a doubt that Bruneti^re set 
his gaze too resolutely toward the past, and that 
his devotion to the ideals of Bossuet and Bacine 
made him incapable of doing full justice to 
Renan and Hugo. 

There was, moreover, an irreconcilable con- 
tradiction between the critic in his character of 
laudator tempor is acti and his character as the 
expositor of the principle of literary evolution. 
This principle was the philosophical basis of his 
later writings, and his defence thereof constitutes 
his chief claim to a permanent place in the his- 
tory of criticism. One of the many statements 
that he made of it may be quoted. 

« A given yariety of literature, for instance, the En- 
glish drama of the sixteenth century, or the French 
comedy of the seventeenth century, or the English 
novel of the eighteenth century, is in process of devel- 
opment, slowly organizing itself under the double influ- 
ence of the interior and exterior < environment.' The 
movement is slow and the differentiation almost insen- 
sible. Suddenly, and without its being possible to give 
the reason, a Shakespeare, ^ Moli&re, or a Richardson 
appears, and forthwith not only is the variety modified, 
but new species have come into being: psychological 
drama, the comedy of character, the novel of manners. 
The superior adaptability and power of survival of the 
new species are at once recognized and proved, indeed, 
in practice. It is in vain that the older species attempt 
to struggle: their fate is sealed in advance. The suc- 
cessors of Ric&ardson, Moli^re, and Shakespeare copy 
these unattainable models until, their fecundity being 
exhausted — and by their fecundity I mean their apti- 
tude for struggling with kindred and rival species — 
the imitation is changed into a routine which becomes 
a source of weakness, impoverishment, and death for 
fhe species. I shall not easily be persuaded that this 
ja^^ffaer of considering the history of literature or art 

is calculated to detract from the originality of great 
artists or great writers. On the contrary, as is doubt- 
less perceived, it is precisely their individuality that is 
responsible for the constitution of new species, and in 
consequence for the evolution of literature and art" 

It is not difficult to see that the principle thus 
formulated must act as a solvent of the trar 
ditional criticism of authority, and that its ac- 
ceptance must render obsolete, in very large 
measure, the method of judging contemporary 
products by the closeness with which they meas- 
ure up to classical standards. And it is also 
fairly evident to the reader of Brunetiere's crit- 
icism of contemporary literature that his admi- 
ration of the past deadened his alertness to the 
possibilities of the present, and to no inconsid- 
erable extent dulled in him the prophetic sense. 
But the extremes to which modem impres- 
sionism has gone are such as to drive almost 
any judicially-minded critic into the camp of 
reaction ; and it is small wonder that Brune- 
tiere's balanced intellect, with its sense of his- 
torical perspective and its temper of essential 
sanity, should have been repelled by the restiess 
extravagances of current critical expression, and 
should have sought refuge in the haven of a past 
of defined and realized ideals. The tide of recent 
criticism has set so strongly against any form 
of law or any sort of acceptance of authority 
that we cannot but be grateful for the steadying 
influence exerted — always forcibly if not ex- 
aetiy gracefully — by the great critic who has 
just died. He has fought stoutiy for thirty years 
in what must be admitted, despite certain defects 
of sympathy and aberrations of judgment, to 
have been a good cause, and his memory is de- 
serving of all honor. Whether or not his books 
will continue to be read far into the future, we 
cannot foretell ; if they fall too speedily into 
neglect and forgetfulness, we feel bound to 
believe that it will be so much the worse for 
the future. 


Death is the shadow whieh defines light It is 
the mystery which underscores and emphasizes life. 
It is the negration which makes the assertion of 
existence valuable. The poetry of life, even the 
poetry of love, cannot compare with the poetry of 
death. At the touch of death the common masks 
of life are dropped, the vulgar veils of flesh dissolve, 
and high and stately forms step forth, — imagina- 
tions miembodied on earth, possibilities onhinted in 
the race we know. 

I have no desire to add a page to Drelincoort on 
Death. Bat impatience consumes one at our modem 
attitude to the gpreat, serious, and tragic themes of 




thought and art Especially does our American 
hedonism, our love of pleasure, our fear of pain or 
shock, rebel at the best and highest in literature. 
We grasp at the shallow criticism which speaks of 
the pessimistic, the melancholy, the gloomy, as the 
minor note. Even in music, from which this term 
is borrowed, it is not true that melancholy themes 
or notes which excite sad impressions are secondary. 
Most of the great symphonies, oratorios, requiems, 
are sad and stormy and terrible. And the same 
conditions are so plain in literature that *a critic 
must apologize for pointing it out. But, our childish 
readers say, there is enough that is painful and 
shocking and horrible in life, — why reiterate it in 
literature? Wordsworth prayed for frequent sights 
of what is to be borne. We do not acquire fortitude 
by running away from danger, and a literature of 
lollipops IB not likely to make a strong race. The 
tragic part of literature is the most tonic and most 

But to our task, which is to try to draw out the 
themes and situations in literature which have to do 
with death. First, there is the bier, the tomb, the 
graye themselves. Shakespeare frequently intro- 
duces the dead upon a bier. Antony comes to bury 
Cesar, not to praise him. Richard wooes Anne over 
the bier of her husband. King Lear's heart cracks 
as Cordelia is borne in. Then there is the tomb of 
the Capulets, Hamlet at Ophelia's graye,.the funeral 
of Imogen. Hugo has Hernani amid the tombs of 
the kings ; and in Byron's ** Prisoner of Chillon " 
the prison becomes a grave. The grave yawned at 
every step in English eighteenth-century literature. 
Gray's " Elegy," Blair's « Grave," Young's « Night 
Thoughts," testify to the nerves of a people who 
were not afraid to face death. The Romantic school 
in Grermany dealt so much in shrouds and cerements 
and fleehless bones that tiieir literature is like an 
undertaking establishment. 

Burial alive is a theme which so fascinated the 
imagination of our greatest American literary artist 
that he made it the basis of several of his stories. 
Its possibilities are summed up, however, in Juliet's 
speech. Suspension of life by means of drugs is a 
common enough factor of plot Juliet herself simu- 
lates death in that way. The deception of death is 
used by Shakespeare in the << Winter's Tale" and 
^* Much Ado about Nothing." 

Temples, cathedrals, churches, are man's tribute 
altars to death. From Delphi and Stonehenge down 
they have been favored haunts of fiction, and in 
*' Notre Dame" Victor Hugo has summed up and 
expressed the sentiment that attaches to them. 

Dead cities, ruins, relics of the past, these breathe 
forth the very odor of death. Marius meditating 
over the ruins of Carthage, Ossian apostrophising 
Baldtttha, Childe Harold wandering among deserted 
fanes, — these are figures that occur in this con- 

Waste places, deserts, mountain tops, — tiiese are 
nature's monuments of death. The first Christian 
anchorites, each one of whom was a memento moriy 

a living denial of life, retired to the edge of the 
Egyptian desert Bakac's '< Passion in the Desert " 
expresses some of the sentiment of such places, and 
Flaubert's Tanto^ion de St Antaine gives the hal- 
lucinations which arise in them. Leopardi's " Ode 
to the Ginestra " expresses the mountun desolation 
and much besides. 

Men are subject to partial deaths — loss of limbs, 
decay of faculties, paralysis, age. Invalidism is in 
literature in a thousand forms. Two of its oddest 
figures are the hero of Bakac's Feau de Chagrin 
who had his life shortened every time he made a 
wish, and Peter Schlemihl who lost his shadow. 

There is a vast deal of poetry dedicated to the 
death of the year — Autnnm. I am inclined to 
think that the Spring poets are not so prolific, nor 
have they so good a subject 

World engulfments, such as earthquakes, tidal- 
waves, volcanic destructions, are, like great wars, 
on too big a scale for literature to handle easily. 
Bulwer's ''Last Days of Pompeii" is an effort in 
this field, and there is a story of Jules Verne's about 
the partial destruction of the earth by a comet 

All these matters, however, are the mere fringe 
of our subject, the penumbra of the black eclipse. 
The central body of tragedy is concerned with the 
agonies and deaths of single figures and selected 
groups. The wholesale massacres of war are, as I 
have said, at once too vast and too business-like to 
be of much use in fiction. The execution done by 
the ancient epic heroes was more interesting than 
anything of the kind since. As a fighter in the Iliad 
or ^neidj you had a rather intimate and engaging 
task before you. You met your opponent face to 
face ; you could select the special joint or organ you 
wished to carve or aim at ; you saw the blood g^h 
and the death-spasm convulse him, — and then you 
passed on to other work. In the middle ages, when 
your foe was a moving tower of steel, you were a 
great deal less in touch with him; and in modem 
times, when unseen you pump lead at an invisible 
enemy a mile away, there can be no personal inter- 
est in the business at alL 

In' the main, epic poetry is outward rather than 
inward, physical rather than spiritual, martial rather 
than tragic. The glitter of arms, sounding of trum- 
pets, neighing of horses, descriptions of apparel, 
houses, cities, — all the panorama of earth, ocean, 
air, — these, ordered of course by some great event, 
are its subject matter. The deaths in it are inci- 
dental rather than inevitable. But in tragedy every- 
thing draws onward to the final stroke of fate. In 
the Agamemnon, all the incidents, — the first glare 
of the beacon, the murmuring of the chorus about 
the dreadful past of the House of Atreus, the 
shrinkings and vaticinations of Cassandra, — lead 
up to the moment when the doors are thrown open 
and Clytemnestra is seen leaning on the blood- 
stained axe. The whispers of the Witches on the 
blasted heath fearfully presage the horrors that are 
to come in Macbeth. The ghost appears to Hamlet, 
and then there can be nothing but death and deso- 



[Jan. 16, 

lation at Ebinore. It is this concentration of all 
effects upon a certain point, and that point the death 
of one or more great characters, which makes 
tragedy the most impressive work of man. 

There are deaths of high and holy mystery, — 
such as that of Moses, rapt away to his unknown 
grave ; EHisha, caught up by the fiery chariot ; and 
CEdipus at Golonus, whose death, " if ever any was, 
was wonderful." Another is the living death of 
Prometheus, chained to the rock, his vitals continu- 
ally eaten and continually renewed, until he consents 
to yield his secret to Zeus. 

Death scenes which hardly amount to high tragedy 
may yet rank as most pathetic and effective pages 
of fiction. How many tears have been shed over the 
death of Little Nell or Paul Dombey ! What rather 
higher emotions have been roused by the passing 
away of Lef evre or Colonel Newoome ! And the 
death of Porthos, — that scene alone would make 
Dumas immortal. 

Nevrspaper writers invariably condemn the intep> 
est in murders as morbid. I am not sure I know 
what morbidity means, for I continually find myself 
applauding tlungs in literature which persons of 
more delicate sensibilities tell me are tainted with 
that quality. I suppose the morbid is the abnormal, 
the unnatural. If this is so, the whole human race 
must be steeped in it, for there is nothing that so 
attracts and interests mankind as a murder. De 
Quincey's grotesque papers on ^ Murder considered 
as a Fine Art" hardly overstate this interest. I 
suppose the feeling of the many in this matter is a 
compound of sympathy with the victim whose per- 
son and past is suddenly lifted into a glare of light, 
a sickening sense that the same thing might happen 
to themselves, a desire for revenge, and a shock of 
excitement which raises them for the moment above 
the dull routine of life. All these feelings are nat- 
ural. Probably three-fourths of the tragic pieces of 
the world, and a goodly share of the novels, are 
based on mujrder or suicide themes. 

Death overhanging but evaded, as in hair-breadth 
escapes, heroic histories, adventures by land and 
sea, forms a main strand of fiction. 

But death is the gate to the other world. Man- 
kind marches through its open portals, and comes 
not back. What do come back are troops of ghosts 
and gods, philosophies and religions, thoughts that 
assuage and assure. 

The scientific method has of late been applied 
to animism — to occult and spiritual phenomena. 
Cases have been counted and tabulated, the credi- 
bility of witnesses investigated; a vote has been 
taken, as it were, on the subject Probably the re- 
sults will not convince anybody who did not believe 
before. But it is made certain that animism is as 
deeply rooted in the modern world as it ever was. 
And it is equally certain that its manifestations 
afford the best kind of literary material — that they 
are the very brood of awe and wonder and mystical 

Ohosts are the most natural, tiie simplest, of the 

spirit tribes. The human being desires or dreads 
companionship with the departed, and the Appear- 
ance comes. Or more frequently the Apparition is 
driyn to walk th« ear^ expikte erimT^mmit. 
ted there, or to relieve itself of the burden of some 
secret. The ancients had suck a fuUy equipped 
establishment of spiritual agencies that ihej did not 
have much recourse to ghosts. And these were too 
tame and gentle for the demonologists of the Daric 
Ag^. Shakespeare really did most to propel them 
into literature. The ghost in Handet, Banquo's spirit, 
the apparitions that rose before Richard, these estab- 
lished the standing of the family in literature. 

The opposition between Good and Evil in the 
world was largely the origin of Demonology. People 
saw plainly enough that Evil usually had the upper, 
hand, so they proceeded to worship or propitiate its 
deities. Europe kept a huge standing army of these 
things on foot for centuries, reaching from Beelzebub 
himself down to the humblest gnome or elf, with 
witches and warlocks for their human intermediaries. 
The D}inns, Afreets, Grenii, Ghouls of Persia and 
Arabia, were an allied race. Folk4ore and popular 
legend are full of such imaginations, and Goethe has 
pictured their Olympus in Faust. 

Magicians, minude-workers, interpreters of signs, 
infest all ages. Such were the Enchanters who 
failed before Aaron, or the Magi who had to g^ve 
place to Daniel. The early men of science were not 
only accounted miracle-workers by the populace, 
but themselves struggled to acquire occult powers. 
Pythagoras, Empedodes, Apollonius of Tyana, Par- 
acelsus, Fiiar Bacon, and even in recent times 
Mesmer and Cagliostro, were probably half impos. 
tors, half seekers for the truth. The whole spirit of 
such personages is summed up in fiction by the single 
figure of Faust Dumas's ^^ Memoirs of a Physician " 
is an immense and amusing explication of it 

Grods are an integral part of the greatest litera- 
ture. In the big times of poetry, writers began from 
Jove and not from their neighbor in a street^sar. 
And audiences took it as a compliment to them- 
selves to see divinities fighting, or conversing with, 
or making love to, their own ancestors. The vast 
elemental mythologies of India or Greece or Scan- 
dinavia tell yet on our imaginations. They tell 
more profoundly than anything that can be devised 
to-day. It cannot too often be repeated that religion 
and philosophy and literature are one. They are 
synonymous terms for the same thing. Religion is 
sometimes the text, philosophy the comment, and 
literature the visualising agency ; but sometimes one 
precedes and sometimes another. The theogany of 
Hesiod came after the creation of Homer. The 
hymns of the Rig-Veda, the Upanishads, and the 
Hindu epics, followed in unknown order ; but they 
are all literature, and all religion, and all philosophy. 
The vast Catholic mythology was built up with scant 
reference to the Scriptures. 

The religious principles which have to do with 
death and tiie hereafter, the ideas of resurrection 
and imnoortaUty, have their philosophic counterparts 




in Flato'g Theory of Ideas and the Hindu thought 
of Maya or Illosion. Bat the philosophical schemes 
are comparatively barren for literature; whereas 
the religious ones burst out into creation everywhere. 
The final scenes of the Mahabharata, the episodes in 
the Greek and Latin poets dealing with Hades and 
Elysium, and, final summation of the whole, Dante's 
great poem, testify to the fruitfulness of those ideas. 

Multiplicity rather than unity is the ruling spirit 
of literature. It must have opposing forces, strife, 
varied pictures of life. The tribcd systems of Indian 
cosmbgany, the dualism of Zoroaster, the delicately 
divided mythology of Greece, are all conformable 
to its laws. Even when it gets a pure monotheism 
like the Jewish, it proceeds as quickly as possible 
to transform it into a dualism and then into a trinity 
of good opposed to multiple powers of eviL For 
this reason, the Buddhistic idea of Nirvana can 
woik little good for literature. There is a question 
whether the true doctrine of Nirvana is annihilar 
tion, or only resumption into God and the being 
freed from the pain of new birth. The latter inter- 
pretation is probably the Hindu one, while Euro- 
pean thinkers who have accepted the doctrine — 
Schopenhauer above all — lean to the first. It is 
obvious that neither branch of this principle has any 
possibilities of literary growth and efflorescence. 

Modern science is also in 86me sense paralyzing 
to literature. When it discovers myriads of organ- 
ized creatures in a drop of water, and divides these 
again unto infinity into atoms and units of force, 
the human imagination is appalled and dismayed. 
Siflrilarly, when it shows us streams of stars, clouds 
of nebulflB, universe upon universe, floating like 
bulil>le8 on the bosom of ether — which substance 
itscSf is like death, a neg^ation, yet the most potent 
thing there is — we may be inspired, but it is with 
an inspiration which cannot realize itself in concrete 

In beginning this series of brief inquiries into the 
root^ideas of fiction, I said that all literature is built 
up from a few scraps of nature and human experi- 
enee. This is not to say that it is, in its results, simple. 
Many, perhaps most, writers have a predilection for 
a eertain set of impressions, a certain sphere of action 
or thought They write love lyrics, and they think 
that love lyrics are the whole of poetry ; they pho- 
tograph contemporary life, and they insist that such 
work is all that is worth doing. But if from the two- 
Bmte or more of syllabled sounds all the languages of 
the world have been built up, if from the eighty sim- 
ple elements there Lb made the whole universe, what 
an the possibilities of scheme and combination with 
the individual units of the human race? The count 
of those that are or have been rise in their myriads to 
numbers beyond name. Yet no two have been alike. 
Each human being has viewed and reflected the uni- 
verse at a different angle and has been shuffled among 
his compeers in a different way. The possibilities 
of character and situation and plot are practically 

^^' Charles Leonard Moore. 


Some of the problems of book fubushino are 
brought out in a forcible way by Mr. John Murray, the 
veteran London publisher, in an article in the December 
« Contemporary Review." Referring to the << Times 
book-war," and intimating that the « Thunderer" is 
grievously in error as to divers book-trade matters, Mr. 
Murray passes on to points of general interest in con- 
nection with his business. Some of its difficulties are 
experienced in the sudden and mysterious dead stop 
that may occur in the sale of almost any book at any 
time; in the unacknowledged and unpaid-for editorial 
supervision that a work may call for after acceptance; 
in the large demand for fiee copies of books (five for 
copyright purposes alone, in England); and in the 
doubling, in the last thirty years, of a publisher's gen- 
eral establishment expenses. The popular belief that 
Gladstone could secure the success of any book was 
proved false in the failure of three promising biographies 
published by Mr. Murray, two of them at Gladstone's 
instigation, and all three puffed by reriews, speeches, and 
private commendation from the great statesman. Pride 
in producing works of lasting value prompted the issue 
of the ** Dictionary of Christian Biography," the « Dic- 
tionary of Hymnology," aiid the ** Classical Atlas "; but 
these praiseworthy undertakings still show a deficit of 
more thousands of pounds than the publisher cares to 
name. No business id London, concludes the writer, 
except perhaps the management of a great newspaper, 
demancUi so much unremitting labor, alertness, and atten- 
tion t6 infinite detail, as the business of publishing books. 

• • • 

The revival of interest in the drama manifests 
itself in more ways than one. An encouraging symptom 
is the establishment in Berlin of a ** chamber theatre " 
for the elect of cultured and discriminatingly apprecia- 
tive play-goers, those who enjoy « intimate " acting and 
to whom the conventional clap-trap of the stage is 
wearisome. In an oblong room panelled with mahogany, 
with no galleries or boxes, and without painted decora- 
tions, the spectator sinks into a luxurious arm-chair 
(for which he has paid twenty marks, by the purchase 
of eight tickets for the season) and is entertained by 
(let us say) a presentation of Ibsen's « Ghosts," in which 
the actors depend for effect wholly on their own intel- 
lectual and emotional equipment, foregoing the adven- 
titious aid of false hair on head or face, of paint, and of 
all the arts and devices employed in the ordinary stage 
"make-up." Any forcing of the note would be out of 
hannony with the smallness and the tasteful simplicity 
of the " chamber theatre," and there is nothing to mar 
the enjoyment of the play as the production of a master 
mind interpreted by gifted and sympathetic artists. 
The only regret is that the sphere of immediate influence 
of so praiseworthy an innovation should, of necessity, 
be so restricted. Yet even thus some measure of leav- 
ening downward may be looked for, as always in move- 
ments that make for the elevating of art and literature. 

• • • 

The exdowmekt of « lazybhips " at Harvard ¥ras 
once recommended by Lowell. The wisdom of the 
learned man which cometh by opportunity of leisure, as 
the Preacher puts it, is not exactly the wisdom striven 
for by the late President Harper's ideal professor who 
was to toil strenuously and gladly eleven months of the 



[Jan. 16, 

year in order to recuperate (in a sanatorium) during the 
twelfth — or perhaps to be cut off in his prime, as was 
Dr. Harper himself. The decay of academic leisure is 
deplored by Mr. Irving Babbitt in the current ** Har- 
yard Graduates' Magazine." This writer aptly quotes 
Professor Bosanquet*s words: *< Leisure — the word 
from which our word * school ' is deriyed — was for the 
Greek the expression of the highest moments of the 
mind. It was not labor; far less was it recreation. It 
was that employment of Utie mind in which, by g^reat 
thoughts, by art and poetry which lift us above our- 
selves, by the highest exertion of the intelligence, as 
we should add, by religion, we obtain occasionally a 
sense of something that cannot be taken from ub, a real 
oneness and centre in the universe; and which makes 
us feel that whatever happens to the present form of 
our little ephemeral personality, life is yet worth living 
because it has a real and sensible contact with some- 
thing of eternal value." The lesson is an old one, but 
not the less timely: what we are is more important 
than what we do; wise passiveness is sometimes better 
than bustling activity. The present low estate of poetry 
has been ascribed to our lack of that contemplative 
leisure which is more and more difficult to find in the 
strenuous conditions of our modem life. 

Teaching the toung idea how to shoot (with 
rifles) is a development that probably the poet did not so 
much as dream of when he penned his. familiar line. 
Yet the advocates of general conscription in England, 
the "Blue Funk School," as they have been styled, 
appear to have inflamed the. patriotic frenzy to such a 
pitch that the phrase ** children in arms " now takes on 
a new meaning. A Devonshire vicar, evidently a repre- 
sentative of the ehurch militant, is even quoted as de- 
claring: « I would have every girl as well as every boy 
taught the use of the rifle, so as to be prepared, in case 
of emergency, to defend their homes, together with 
their brothers, husbands, and fathers. This is the spirit 
I inculcate in my parish. We want patriotic men and 
women, not cowards and sneaks." This reminds one of 
the turbulent paterfamilias and his blustering pronun- 
ciamento, << I vfill have peace in the family if I have to 
fight for it." The educational imbroglio in England 
has its amusing aspects, especially as viewed from out- 
side; but even an outsider can sympathize with the 
editor of " The Westminster Review," who thus frees 
his mind: <<That rifle shooting should be taught in our 
elementary schools with the sanction of a Liberal Min- 
ister for education, affords an astonishing commentary 
upon our much-vaunted principles of < Peace, Retrench- 
ment, and Reform.' " He trusts that the permission to 
add this new study to the curriculum will be speedily 
withdrawn — a consummation devoutly to be wished by 
all who hold that the reading-book is mightier than the 

ELrag-Jorgenson rifle. 

• • • 

Aspects of American cities, as seen by an English 
visitor, Mr. Charles Whibley, best known as a sprightly 
essayist and the author of << A Book of Scoundrels," 
" The Pageantry of Life," and " Studies in Frankness," 
have lately been receiving attention in " Blackwood's 
Magazine." Of New York this observer says that " the 
most vivid and constant impression that remains is of a 
city where the means of life conquer life itself, whose 
citizens die hourly of the rage to live." Visiting Boston, 
he is moved to declare that no more sudden or striking 

contrast can be found in Amerioa than between these 
two cities. The comparative quiet and decorous aspect 
and conduct of the New England capital pleased him. 
<< Nowhere in Boston," he afiOrms, " will you find the 
extravagant ingenuity [in architecture] which makes 
New York ridiculous." Beacon Street he pronounces 
one of the most majestic streets in the world. Boston 
Common, the Old South Meeting-House, Faneuil Hall, 
the great university across the Charles — these and 
other places and institutions he warmly admires; but in 
asserting that Harvard *< still worships the classics with 
a constant heart " he must be deceived as to how little 
of Latin and how much less of Greek (or is it now none 
at all ?) are at present required for a B. A. degree from 
our oldest university. << Culture," he says, <* has always 
been at once the boast and the reproach of Boston "; 
and he proceeds to criticise, with some deserved ridi- 
cule, the Boston passion for lectures, an American 
eagerness to acquire much in the least possible time. 
But he adds, referring to culture: <* Even now Boston, 
its earliest slave, is shaking off the yoke ; and it is taking 
refuge in the more modem cities of the West. Chicago 
is, I believe, its newest and vastest empire. There, 
where all is odd, it is well to be thought a * thinker.' 
There, we are told, the elect believe it their duty * to 
reach and stimulate others.' But wherever culture is 
found strange things are done in its name, and the time 
may come when by the light of Chicago's brighter lamp 
Boston may seem to dwell in the outer darkness." 

• • • 


same time a gratifying bit of evidence that, in these 
days of mammon-worship, of graft, of investigating 
committees, and of mud-rakers, we are not all going 
straight to perdition, is found in a seedsman's trade 
catalogue from an Eastern business house. With a sub- 
lime trust in man's (and woman's) better nature, the 
head of this establishment has built up a prosperous 
business with none of the modem appliances of book- 
keeping and auditing, checks and balances, that seem 
to rest on the theory that everybody is presumably a 
rog^e until he is proved honest. The following reads 
like a page from the description of trade me&ods in 
some Utopian Spotless-Town: «The head clerks (they 
are ladies) pay themselves each week from the funds 
received by the one acting as treasurer. From year's 
end to year's end no receipt passes between us. When- 
ever the treasurer finds more money on her hands than 
she needs she passes it over to me, and I put it in my 
pocket without counting it. It is the same with the 
clerk below; he pays off the men, and from time to time 
passes over to me the surplus, no receipt for moneys 
received or paid out ever being passed between us. The 
clerks at large have always been paid by the hour; they 
keep their own accounts, hand tiiese in to the lady in 
charge of their department at the close of each week, 
and are paid accordingly. During all my fifty years in 
business there has never been any reason to doubt the 
honesty of these weekly accounts." All this, and more 
in the same pleasant strain, is in reply to a customer 
who, having sent money in an unregistered letter and 
failed to hear of its receipt, imputed dishonesty to some 
clerk in the firm's employ. We are tempted to contrast 
with these humane methods the system in use at an 
institution of quite another sort, an institution dedicated 
to the cause of polite literature, — a public library, in 
short, — where the assistants are not free from the 




irksome and humiliating, if not demoralizing, restraints 
and checks that are so happily miknown and unneeded 
in this other institution whose avowed object is the 
pursuit of gain. • • • 

London literart happenings, past, present, and 
future, are claiming attention with the coming in of 
the new year. Miss Mary Cholmondeley's ** Prisoners " 
is pronounced to haTC been « the novel of the year " in 
England. The last twelvemonth has seen the death of 
many eminent English authors, including Dr. Richard 
GameU, Mrs. Craigie (« John Oliver Hobbes"), Mrs. 
Chesson («'Nora Hopper "), William Sharp (a dual or 
multiple personality, « Fiona Macleod " being but one 
of his phases), and F. W. Maitland, the biographer 
of Leslie Stephen. While we are preparing for our 
Longfellow centenary in February, the English are 
planning to celebrate, two months later, the two hun- 
dredth birthday of a genius of quite another order — 
Henry Fielding. The London literary correspondent 
of a leading New York journal proclaims, in addition, 
the forthcoming observance, in December, .of still 
another bicentenary — that of John Wesley. But this 
good man and ever-enjoyable diarist was duly belauded 
and be-written three years and a half ago. Probably 
the correspondent means John's brother Charles (he 
says his man wrote 6500 hymns), and the hymn-writer 
was indeed bom in December of the yeaf 1707 — incor- 
rectly given in the old reference books as 1708. 

• • • 

Ak artificial woeld-language, even for business 
uses, may be an impossibility, but the claims of Espe- 
ranto as a medium of international intercourse among 
Aryan peoples are not inconsiderable. Such is its sim- 
plicity that with only two thousand roots (the greater 
part of them intelligible even to one who knows only 
English) seventy thousand words may be easily formed 
— enough, surely, for every-day purposes. Professor 
Greorge Macloskie, writing in the "North American 
Review,'* considers the new language a work of genius, 
and takes exception to the late utterances of Professor 
MOnsterberg, who, he avers, condemns Esperanto for 
the sins of Volapuk. Dr. Zamenhofs address at the 
recent Esperanto cong^ress is published in the same num- 
ber of the " Review." The inventor of this tongue is 
an idealist as well as a practical- linguist. He hopes 
great things for humanity from the spread of Espe- 
ranto: it will help to break down international barriers 
and to promote " brotherhood and justice among man- 
kind." Even so cool a head as Professor Wilhelm 
Ostwald has caught the enthusiasm. Speaking at the 
Aberdeen University celebration last September, he 
regretted the existing diversity of tongues as a hin- 
drance to international peace, and added: ** I express 
my strong conviction that this problem is on the way of 
bcong solved by means of an intemational auxiliary 

W«»«e" . . . 

Hero-worship on the wane is the lament wafted 
to our ears from across the water. Shelley's notebooks 
— three little leather-covered memorandum books g^ven 
by the poet's widow to Sir Percy Shelley, and by hun to 
the late Dr. Richard Cramett — have been suffered to 
pass under the auctioneer's hammer in London to a rich 
American bibliophile, for $15,000. In Scotland Lord 
Rosebery has been trying, with no very brilliant success, 
to persuade the canny Caledonians to "chip in" and 
save the " Auld Brig o' Ayr " immortalized by Robert 
Bums — before some odious American multimillionare 

shall appear on the scene and have the stones of the 
bridge numbered and carried off, to be built up again in 
his own back-yard. Another Scotchman whom it was 
some time ago proposed to honor with a monument in 
his native land is the great hero- worshipper himself; for 
him a replica of the Chelsea statue was suggested, but at 
last accounts the originators of this plan were disposed 
to accept with thanks enough money to pay for a me- 
dallion portrait. As a gratifying exception to the rule, 
the preservation of the Coleridge cottage at Nether 
Stowey by an English society with a characteristically 
long name (The National Trust for the Preservation df 
Places of Natural Beauty and Historical Interest) seems 
now not unlikely to become an assured fact. 

» • • 

The right to publish private letters has re- 
cently become an interesting subject of discussion in 
England. A late decision of the Court of Appeal, 
whereby the right to publish certain letters of Charles 
Lamb was declared to reside with their present pos- 
sessor or his agent, seems to entitle, in England, the 
receiver of letters to publish them without the consent 
of the writer, or of his executor or other legal represen- 
tative if he be dead. This, in the opinion of many, is a 
perilous state of affairs, and calls for leg^lative cor- 
rection. The persons most interested in the correspon- 
dence of a recently deceased celebrity are, manifestly, 
the surviving relatives and near friends, and not, in idl 
cases, the recipients of the letters, or even the literary 
executor; but the family and friends have at present 
no legal right to interfere with the publication of post- 
humous matter of this sort. Will the frankness and 
freedom of friendly correspondence suffer from all this 
something like a cold chill, and lose the charm of its 
careless informality? 

The death of Ferdinand BRUNETikRE is appro- 
priately noticed in a black-bordered leaflet inserted, 
evidently at the last moment, in the mid-December 
Revue dee Deux Mcndee^ with which the eminent littered 
tear was so long connected as contributor and editor. 
The obituary notice, from the pen of M. Paul Leroy- 
Beauiieu, president of the magazinie's supervisory coun- 
cil, is merely preliminary to a longer and more studied 
article that is soon to follow. The Reime justly prides 
itself on having extended to Bruneti^re the hospitality 
of its pages when he was poor and friendless, and on 
having retained and honored him' until his death. That 
even in bodily suffering and decay he could still handle 
with an assured touch and a calm judgment the literary 
questions and contemporary problems that interested 
him, was evidenced by his latest contributions to the 
magazine which he conducted, and whose, very last 
number of the year dying with himself was made up 

under his direction. 

• • • 

Record prices for rare books, so far as this 
country is concerned, were paid in the year just closed 
— another proof of commercial prosperity, if not of 
increased interest in literature. It was at Libbie's, 
in Boston, that the highest price for a single volume 
(Poe's <*AJ Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems," 
Baltimore, 1829) and also for a lot (the four folios of 
Shakespeare, first and third imperfect) was paid at 
public auction. The Poe brought $1560, the Shake- 
speare 88950. An uncut copy of the former sold in 
1901 for 81300, and a perfect set of the latter realized 
£10,000 at private sale in 1905. 



[Jan. 16, 

Cj^t |(tfaT §00ks. 

The Author of ** BEN-HtJB." * 

It is nearly a twelvemoDth since General Lew 
Wallace died, in his seventj-eightli year. A 
full account of his ]ong and remarkably eventful 
life, down to the summer of 1864, had been 
written by him in the preceding eight or nine 
years; and this autobiography his widow, 
assisted by a frieud. Miss Mary H. Krout, now 
edits, with a continuation of the narrative. The 
whole is published in two octavo volumes of five 
himdred pages each, the final two hundred being 
the continuation. Portraits, facsimile lettf^rs, 
maps, and other illustrative matter, are amply 
provided, and the result is a work of more than 
ordinary interest, especially to the veterans of 
our great Civil War and to the survivors of the 
Mexican conflict. This earlier war takes up a 
hundred pages of the book, while the later one 
fills the last half of the first volume and two- 
thirds of the second. Besides being spirited 
and well written, this military narrative throws 
light on several matters of historic controversy. 

The pages devoted to the author's early lit- 
erary aspirations and activity, and those describ- 
ing his rise and progress as a lawyer, a politician, 
and a diplomat, are thus cut down to compara- 
tively small propoiiions ; but this smaller sec- 
tion of the whole, especially the fraction of it 
that deals with die writer's literary interests, 
may perhaps best be more particularly consid- 
ered in this review. The general outline of the 
author's public life is too familiar, or at least 
too easily accessible in books of reference, to 
detain us here. What is less knovm is his early 
indication of artistic talent, which, combined 
with an equally early and pronounced passion 
for the paraphernalia of armed encounter — a 
passion nourished by the Black Hawk War then 
in progress — resulted in a series of battle- 
pictures such as by no means every boy could 
haye drawn. Two of these spirited sketches are 
reproduced in the opening pages of the book. 
A fondness for poe^ and romance, as for lit- 
erature generally ; a love of nature, especially 
of rivers, with an incurable tendency to play 
truant from sunrise to sunset ; and a delight in 
public oratory, whether set off by the imposing 
surroundings of a law-€ourt or by the more 
turbulent accompaniments of a political gather- 
ing — these youthful likings and affinities fore- 
shadow the varied pursuits and achievements 

* Lew WAUiACB. An Aatobioffraphy. Illustrated, 
volumes. New York: Harper & Brotbera. 

In two 

of the grown man. His education and shaping 
were largely his 0¥ni. Though the son of one 
who rose to be governor of his state (Indiana) 
and was afterward sent to Congress, young 
Wallace's early environment was of the rudest, 
and the untimely death of his mother removed 
one of the few gentler influences that had soft- 
ened its asperities. Although he goes so far as 
to attribute wholly to his wife '^ what of success 
has come to me, all that I am, in fact," a reser- 
vation must be made in favor of the mother, to 
whom he also pays tribute as follows : 

« My mother, the Esther French Test already men- 
tioned, died in her twenty-seventh year, leaving me so 
yoimg that her sweet motherliness is a clearer impres- 
sion on my mind than either her qualities or her appear- 
ance. Of the latter, all I can now recall are her eyes, 
large, sparkling, and deeply brown. They follow me 
yet. Indeed, through my seventy years there has never 
been a day so bright or a night so dark that, upon re- 
currence of the thought of them, I have been unable to 
see them seeing me." 

The reminiscences of a rejected suitor supply us 
with details of her beauty and grace, the charm 
of her innocent coquetry, her fondness for dan- 
cing, and with it all her Puritan devoutness, 
her goodness and charity. The father too 
deserves more than a passing word. He had a 
fine taste in literature and could render effec- 
tiyely the productions of the great writers. A 
description is given of one of these family read- 
ings, of rare occurrence in summer, ^'rather 
sovereign graces reserved for winter evenings," 
when solemn preparation was made by piling 
high the old-fashioned fireplace with fuel, and 
putting in place the table, lamp, and easy chair. 
Then at last ^^ we were ready ; so was the leader." 

** My father had a face complementary of a beautiful 
head. A more serviceable voice for ^e carriage of 
delicate feeling I never heard. It was of all the mid- 
dle tones, and remarkably sensitive to the touch of the 
thought to be rendered. . . . He delighted, for ex- 
ample, in the Essays ofElia; Shakespeare and Milton 
he regarded with a kind of awe. It was from him 
I first had the full effects of « The Lay of the Last 
Minstrel " and ** Childe Harold." He fixed my standard 
of pulpit eloquence by the sermons of Dr. Chalmers, 
Robert Hall, Bossuet, and Bourdaloue. Once he gave 
an evening to Thucydides, and so powerful was his ren- 
dition of the retreat of the Athenians from Syracuse 
that it has since been one of my exemplars in historical 

Another pen-portrait must be given. Lawyer 
Wallace and his friend Daniel W. Voorhees — 
both of them recently established in their pro- 
fession at Covington, Indiana — had taken 
advantage of a leisure day to hire a horse and 
buggy and drive to Danville, Illinois, where 
court was in session. In the tavern bar-room, 
after supper, 'sat three of the best stoiy-tellers 




of Indiana, ^^ swapping anecdotes" with two 
^* famous lawyers and yam-spinnera of Illinois." 

** The oiisa-oroesing went on till midnight, and for a 
long time it might not be said whether Slinoifl or 
Indiana was ahead. There was one of the oontestants, 
however, who arrested my attention early, partly by his 
stories, partly by his appearance. . . . His hair was 
thick, coarse, and defiant; it stood oat in every direc- 
tion. His features were massive, nose long, eyebrows 
protrusive, mouth large, cheeks hollow, eyes gray and 
always responsive to the humor. He smiled all the 
time, but never once did he laugh outright. His hands 
were large, his arms slender and disproportionately long. 
His legs were a wonder, particularly when he was in 
narration; he kept crossing and uncrossing them ; some- 
times it actually seemed he was trying to tie them into 
a bow-knot. His dress was more than plain; no part 
of it fit him. . . . About midnight his competitors were 
disposed to give in; either their stores were exhausted, 
or they were tacitly conceding him the crown. FVom 
answering them story for story, he gave them two or 
three to their one. At last he took the floor and held 
it. And looking back I am now convinced that he 
frequently invented his replications; which is saying he 
possessed a marvellous gift of improvisation. Such was 
Abraham Lincoln.'* 

Other reminiscences of Lincoln occur later. It 
was in one of the debates with Douglas that the 
author first heard him address a large audience. 
After the first ten minutes all inclination to 
laugh at the orator's grotesque appearance 
▼anished. ^^ He was getting hold of me," says 
the writer. *' The pleasantry, the sincerity, the 
confidence, the amazingly original way of put- 
ting thing^, and the simple, Westrai^ed iLi- 
ner witfial, were doing their perfect work ; and 
then and there I dropped an old theory, that 
to be a speaker one must needs be graceful and 
handsome." More follows, graphically descrip- 
tive of this memorable debate. 

Mrs. Wallace has inserted a pen-picture, 
from an early friend of her husband, of his ap- 
pearance at tiie age of twenty-one. To complete 
this series of portraits, it may be well to give 
this one also. It is from an old letter of Miss 
Mary Clemmer (afterwards the brilliant news- 
paper correspondent and author, Mary Clemmer 

** He is fashioned of the jrefined clay of which nature 
is most sparing, nearly six feet high, perfectly straight, 
with a fine fibred frune all nerve and muscle, and so 
thin he cannot weigh more than a hundred and thirty 
pounds. He has profuse black hair, a dark, beautiful 
face, correct in every line, keen, black eyes deeply set, 
with a glance that on occasion may cut like fine steel 
Black beard and mustache conceal the firm mouth and 
chin. His modest, quiet manner is the only amende that 
can be made for being so handsome. In a crowd any- 
where you would single him out as a king of men. 
Marked for action rather than words, he is habitually 
reticent, yet when the time comes for speech is ready 
with eloquent words, given with a voice at once sweet 

and strong. A man of convictions, earnest in every 
nerve of lus being, intensely earnest." 

Wallace's early writing of ^^ The Fair Gk)d " 
under the immediate suggestion of Presoett's 
^'Conquest of Mexico," with no thought of 
printing, and its resurrection and publication 
long afterward, make a good story, but cannot 
here be retold. One incident, however, con- 
nected with the book is too amusing to be passed 
by. A smooth-tongued gentleman, announcing 
himaftlf as agent for a well-known New York 
publishing house, approached the young lawyer, 
engaged him in conversation on literary matters, 
incidentally betrayed a wonderful and enviable 
intimacy with all the foremost writers of the 
day, then veered off to the subject of competi- 
tion among publishers, indicated the earnest 
desire of his house to hunt up and bring forward 
hidden talent, and finally begged to see the un- 
published novel which Mr. Wallace was known 
to have in his desk. Then followed an exami- 
nation of the manuscript, enthusiastic praises of 
its merits, a promise to reoommend it warmly 
for publication, and, last of all, a courteous 
demand of a fee (fifteen dollars) for services 
rendered. The fee was cheerfully paid, and the 
velvet-voiced gentleman departed. One knows 
not which to admire more, the ingenuity and 
skill of the self-styled agent or the frankness of 
his victim in telling the story. 

The Mexican War, whose outbreak the young 
TpHia^ift law-student eagerly awaited, that he 
might be among the first volunteers to hasten 
to the front, he in his sober maturity does not 
hesitate to pronounce justifiable. Despite much 
inglorious hardship endured by him in a wretch- 
edly unsanitary camp at the mouth of the Rio 
Grande, where hundreds died of a loathsome 
disease, and despite his smallness of opportunity 
to smell gunpowder, he unfalteringly declares, 
" From <iat day to this I have never regretted 
the year left behind me as a soldier in Mexico ; 
neither have I at any time since been troubled 
with a qualm about the propriety even to right- 
eousness of the war." In his detailed account 
of his Civil War experiences — a military his- 
tory to be placed beside Grant's and Sherman's 
and Sheridan's similar reminiscences — the 
author gives a verbatim report (published prob- 
ably for the first time) of the findings of the 
commission that inquired into the conduct of 
the army under Buell in Kentucky and Ten- 
nessee. Wallace, then a Major General, pre- 
sided at the sessions of this commission. His 
report, forwarded to Washington, was lost or 
stolen ; but luckily he had kept a copy, and this 



[Jan. 16, 

copy is now printed. Its general tenor, as has 
long been known, was not favorable to Buell. 

The book is excellent reading, especially for 
those fond of miKtary history. Brisk and vivid 
in style, it has, if one may say so without un- 
kindness, the swing and vigor of ^^ a soul con- 
fident in itself | almost] to the superlative of 
vanity " — as the author writes in description 
of his young manhood. Even Mrs. Wallace's 
continuation of the narrative is so largely com- 
posed of letters and other matter from her 
husband's pen — including a reprint from " The 
Youth's Companion " of " How I Came to Write 
Ben-Hur^' — that we hardly notice the transi- 
tion. Errors of haste or negligence, including 
even lapses in grammar, and other more delib- 
erate faults, can be found by the critical ; but 
their enumeration would be a thankless task, 
and, now that the author is no longer living to 
profit by a friendly word of criticism, a motive- 
less one. Let the last word, then, be one of 
praise for this apparently faithful record ; for, 
as Carlyle has said in words now familiar to 
many, '' There is no life of a man, faithfully re- 
corded, but is a heroic poem of its sort, rhymed 
or unrhymed." Peecy F. Bicknell. 

The Teaching of Element a»y 

Few fields of college and university activity 
have had so remarkable a development in Amer- 
ica during the last two decades as that enjoyed 
by the department of Economics. Although 
Political Economy had for years prior to 1885 
held a place in the curricula of our colleges and 
universities, it was seldom pursued for more 
than one term, and its teaching usually devolved 
upon the professor of history, or more likely 
upon the president, who in addition to his ad- 
ministrative duties gave instruction in this sub- 
ject and in '^ Moral Philosophy " to the coU^e 
seniors. Earely indeed was the institution to 
be found which had the work in Political Econ- 
omy organized as a separate department. 

The character of the teaching in this subject 
was almost, if not quite, as backward as the 
organization of the work. The subject of Eco- 
nomic Theory was in all essentials the same as 
it had been left by Kicardo, Mill, and Senior. 
The cost theory of Value, the abstinence theory 
of Interest, the Wage-fund theoiy, all had 

*Pbinciplbs of Economics. With SpeoUl Reference to 
American Conditions. By Sdwin B. A. Seli^man. New York: 
Longmans, Oreen, ft Oo. 

been subjected to little modification by the ep- 
igones who undertook to re-write and expound 
the doctrines of the masters. The discussion 
of most practical problems was equally ready- 
made. Chdy the subject of Protection awakened 
keen controversy, and here the teaching was that 
of the doctrinaire. The student might choose be- 
tween the free-trade doctrines of Sumner, Perry, 
and Wayland, or the protectionism of Bowen 
and Thompson ; there was no middle ground. 
Bimetallism received some attention, and Tax- 
ation was not wholly neglected. The ^' trust " 
question had not yet begun to loom big on the 
horizon, trade-unionism was merely noticed as 
a desperate device of laborers to overthrow the 
laws of God and man, and railway rates and 
discriminations perplexed the shippers and the 
legislators more than they did the economic 

In 1885 the American Economic ABSociation 
was founded by a small body of youns: men who 
had for the m<^t part reoei/ed tLr laming in 
Germany, and who on their return to America 
placed themselves on record as opposed to the 
traditional methods of teaching Political Econ- 
omy then current in our colleges. It is chiefly 
the work of these men which has made itself felt 
in the kter-day instruction in economic science. 
There is no place within the limits of this re- 
view to discuss the ways in which the work of 
these men has modified the dider doctrines and 
methods. This much, however, may be said : 
the teaching of Economics has ceased to be the 
work of doctrinaires^ aadd is now almost every- 
where pursued according to the same methods 
that have proved so fruitful in the domain of the 
physical and natural sciences. 

This change in the methods of instruction has 
met with a hearty response on the part of both 
the general public and the student body. Peo- 
ple are bound to become interested in a subject 
which occupies the attention of most men during 
the majority of their waking hours, and men of 
affairs welcome an analysis of business relations 
and institutions based upon historical research 
and statistical observation. There is abundant 
evidence of the growing confidence which busi- 
ness men and statesmen feel in the methods 
and conclusions of economic investigators and 
teachers. In all branches of the government 
service there is a pronounced tendency to utilize 
the services of men trained in the universities to 
conduct thorough and elaborate investigations 
into the workings of business institutions ; while 
within the imiversity the latest development of 
the field of Economics is that which ha;B been 




prompted by the demancLs of the business world, 
Yiz., the expansion of the work so as to include 
instruction in accountancy, banking, commercial 
geography, commercial and industrial organi- 
sation, corporation finance, insurance, transpor- 
tation, etc., for the purpose of training men for 
administrative positions in the industrial world. 
If we consider the fifteen or twenty leading 
universities in the country where the elective 
system has made most headway, we shall find 
that the elections within this department usually 
equal, if they do not exceed, those of any other 
department. Such an interest in the subject 
would not appear, were it not for the feeUng 
that instruction in it is capable of yielding infor- 
mation which has for its possessors great practi- 
cal importance. 

The expansion of the field of Economics and 
the change in the mode of treating its subject- 
matter could not but react upon the pedagogical 
methods of the instructors. For some years after 
the revival of interest in the ^' dismal science " 
— now no longer dismal — the method of teach- 
ing was mainly by lectures. This was partiy 
due to the fact that the text-books in existence 
were littie more than re-statements of the doc- 
trines of the classical economist ; and, as already 
stated, these doctrines did not commend them- 
selves to the younger school. Another consid- 
eration which led to the selection of the lecture 
method was the fact that the majority of these 
younger teachers had been trained in the Grerman 
universities and were desirous of introducing 
German pedagogical methods into this country. 
Experience showed, however, that the/^ pouring 
in " process did not succeed well with the aver- 
age undergraduate whose mind may be likened 
to a sieve rather than to a mould. The weak- 
ness of the lecture method became more appar- 
ent as the growth of the elective system pro- 
ceeded, and the ambition to increase the number 
and the size of the classes led to the gradual 
admission into the courses in Economics, first 
of the juniors, then of sophomores, and even in 
some cases of freshmen. The demand for a 
suitable text-book which should either displace 
the formal lecture or supplement this method of 
instruction made itself felt. The first works 
of this character to present modem views were 
those of the late Francis A. Walker, in many 
respects the most original of American econo- 
mists. These text-books ' of General Walker 
were well written and were full of suggestion to 
pupil and teacher. They were produced, how- 
ever, before the more recent theories of Value 
had made their influence felt on this side of the 

water, and as these theories gradually met with 
acceptance the Walker texts were not easily 
reconciled with them. Furthermore, there were 
many points in Walker's theory of Distribution 
— in particular, his residual claimant theory 
of wages -— which, while marking a decided 
advance over the older theories, proved unsatis- 
factory to many economists. An English trans- 
lation of one of the earlier editions of Gide's 
^* Principles of Political Economy" also met 
much favor for a time, but it too had been writ- 
ten before its author was thoroughly familiar 
with the marginal-utility theory of Value, and 
it represented a very unsatis&ctory attempt to 
harmonize the utili^ and cost theories. Pro- 
fessor Marshall's weighty treatise on Economics 
was abridged for text-book purposes, but it 
covered only a part of the field, and proved 
difficult for many beginners. Professor Ely's 
\*' Outiines " furnished a clear and concise state- 
ment of economic principles ; and the same may 
be said of Professor Bullock's ^^ Introduction." 
Both of these books were widely used as text- 
books for some years, and are still in use in 
many of the smaller colleges where perhaps only 
one term's work can be given to the elements of 
Economics. In the larger universities, however, 
where it is the custom to give four or five hours 
a week during a semester or even three hours for 
an entire year, these books furnished too brief 
an outline of the subject. Hadley's ^^Ekx>n- 
omics" served the purpose better, but this 
excellent work possesses some peculiarities of 
arrangement which have seemed to hinder its 
general adoption. 

Within the last two or three years there have 
appeared four text-books prepared with especial 
reference to their use in university classes. A 
new translation of Professor Gide's book, which 
had been largely amplified and given an Ameri- 
can dress by its translator. Professor Veditz, 
and two books written by two of the most bril- 
liant of our younger economists, Professor 
Seager of Columbia and Professor Fetter of 
Cornell, made their appearance about the same 
time. These works were well received and have 
been widely adopted in university classes. The 
last of the four books to leave the publishers is 
that of Professor Seligman of Columbia Uni- 
veisity. Professor Seligman is the youngest of 
that group of scholars who, as already men- 
tioned, introduced the historical method of 
treatment of Economics into this country, and 
thus began a new epoch in its teaching and 

The value of any text-book will largely de- 



[JaQ. 16, 

pend upon the teacher who handles it ; and for 
this reason it is impossible to criticise such a 
work in a way which shall do much more than 
reflect the personal judgment of the critic. Of 
Professor Seligman's scholarly abilities in this 
line of work there can be no difference of opin- 
ion. He has long ranked as one of the most 
patient investigators and keenest of critics now 
engaged in this field of knowledge. Having an 
easy command of four or five languages, and 
possessing the largest private library in Econ- 
omics in the world, Professor Seligman has had 
splendid opportunities for becoming familiar 
with economic literature, and these opportunities 
have not been neglected. The advantages of 
his wide reading, probably not equalled by that 
of any other scholar on this side of the Atlantic, 
are in the present work shared with his readers. 
Perhaps the feature which commends it most 
strongly to the teacher is the carefully selected 
and wdl classified lists of books, periodicals, 
and government documents, which serve as an 
introduction to the book or appear at the head 
of the various chapters. Even the man who is 
pretty familiar with the literature of the sub- 
ject will be grateful for this accurate list of 
authorities and for the brief but pointed com- 
ments which accompany many of the titles. 

In the present reviewer's opinion, Professor 
Seligman's volume is likely to prove of more 
value to the teacher of Economics than to the 
beginner in the subject for whose benefit pri- 
marily it was written. This is not because of 
any lack of clearness or other defects of style. 
It is due rather to the fact that the author has 
attempted to cover too much ground and to 
introduce the student to too great a variety of 
subjects. It is true that a complete compre- 
hension of principles cannot be had without 
considering all their applications and all the 
institutions to which economic activities have 
given rise. Thiis does not necessitate, however, 
introducing a beginner to a piecemeal consid- 
eration of all these subjects in order to furnish 
him an opportunity to get a firm grasp of fun- 
damental notions. In the present work, besides 
the subjects ordinarily covered in elementary 
treatises on Economics and formerly arranged 
under the general headings of Production, Ex- 
change, and Distribution, we have chapters on 
" Economic Law and Method," " The Economic 
Stages," ^' The Historical Forms of Business 
Enterprises," including a discussion of theories 
concerning the clan and the family, ^^ The De- 
velopment of Economic Thought," "Private 
Property," " Competition," " Freedom," " Pov- 

erty and Progress." As brief statements, these 
chapters are excellently well done ; but in the 
case of most of these subjects it is not possible 
in the space allotted to give to the beginner such 
information as wiU enable him to comprehend 
the significance of these institutions or the part 
they pky in economic life. The most unfortu- 
nate result of their introduction, however, lies 
in the fact that this necessarily curtails the space 
assigned to the treatment of the unsettled prob- 
lems of Economics, and this in turn leads to a 
rather dogmatic treatment of these problems. 
The discussion of the many vital and difficult 
questions which, taken together, constitute the 
so-called " labor problem " is compressed within 
nineteen pages. This means in the case of many 
of these questions only the barest outline. The 
subject of Industrial Cooperation, for example, 
covers less than a page of the text. Professor 
Seligman expects very little from this move- 
ment ; but whatever one's attitude of mind may 
be toward the practical results to be obtained, 
it is at least desirable that enough space should 
be given to the subject to make the student 
realLse the high ideal which Cooperation offers 
as a solution of the labor problem. 

The treatment of Credit is too briefly stated 
to be comprehended by a beginner, while the 
discussion of Socialism is almost superficial. In 
some instances, however, this brevity of treat- 
ment has proved conducive to lucidity, as, for 
example, in the case of the discussion of the rate 
of international exchange. The difficult subject 
of Value, fortunately, commands more space 
than is assigned to it in any of the other text- 
books to which we have referred ; not less than 
one hundred pages — one sixth of the book — 
being taken up with its discussion. Nor is this 
a disproportionate emphasis when one takes into 
consideration the fundamental character of the 
subject and its difficulties for beginners. The 
discussion is not only thorough but clear. Espe- 
cially commendable is the section which deals 
with Social Values. It has been the experience 
of the reviewer that most text-book writers have 
failed to make clear to the student the distinc- 
tion between individual and social valuations ; 
or, rather, they do not make clear the fact that 
an individual's valuation of a commodity is 
completely altered whenever it is possible to 
take advantage of other people's valuations of 
the same commodity. 

One of the striking features of the book is 
the large place which is given to the influences 
of the physical and historical environment on 
the economic activities and theories of a people. 




Professor Seligman seems to have been influ- 
enced, more than most American economists, by 
the Grerman historical school, though he is no 
blind foUower of that school. As a general rule, 
there is no criticism to be passed upon this part 
of the book, but in some instances the author 
seems to have taken an extreme attitude, as 
when he seeks to explain the change from En- 
glish individualism to Australian socialism by 
mere differences in climate. 

Professor Seligman follows closely the lead 
of his colleague. Professor Clark, in his devel- 
opment of the theory of Distribution. Like the 
latter, he seeks to show the universality of the 
law of rent, and the return to each factor in 
production is calculated according to the yield 
of its final unit employed. While not an un- 
qualified supporter of a protective tariff, the 
author attaches more weight to the arguments 
for protection than most economists have done, 
and he believes that a protective policy has been 
and still is a wise policy for the United States. 
His defense of what has come to be called the 
^* dumping policy^) ' of leading American manu- 
fiicturers, whereby a surplus at home is unloaded 
upon the foreign market at lower prices than 
these goods are sold for at home, is very weak. 
^^ It does not follow," he says, ^* that the lower 
foreign prices make the domestic price higher 
than it would otherwise be." But the price is 
certainly higher when a portion of the supply is 
withdrawn to sell abroad than it would be i^ it 
were kept at home. It was because the whiskey 
producers could not prevent over-production 
during the early '80s that a pool was formed 
for the purpose of selling the surplus abroad in 
order to maintain prices at home. 

Always careful to avoid the criticism of beine 
a bfindVtisaii, Professor Seligman does not 
hesitate to declare his position in regard to the 
perplexing problems of the present. His own 
treatment of these problems throughout the 
present work well illustrates the attitude of 
mind which on the closing page of his book he 
urges the student of Economics to take. ^* The 
economic student, if he is worthy of his calling, 
will proceed without fear or favor ; he will be 
tabooed as a socialist by some, as a minion of 
capital by others, as a dreamer by more. But 
if he preserves his deamess of vision, his open- 
ness of mind, his devotion to truth, and his 
sanity of judgment, the deference paid to his 
views, which is even now b^inning to be appar- 
ent, will become more and more pronounced." 

M. B. Hammond. 

Echoes of a Famous IjItbbabt 


In his pre&ce to '*■ The Text of Shakespeare," 
Professor Lounsbury virtually admits that the 
title is a misnomer. The volume is primarily 
a contribution to the literary histoiy of the 
eighteenth century, and it will stand in our 
libraries among the commentaries on Pope. It 
is a long arraignment, based on the most ample 
evidence, of Pope's mystifications and falsifica- 
tions of fact, his cowardly fighting from behind 
masked batteries, his unscrupulous malevolence 
in attack, and his astound!^ assumption of a 
severe and unassailable morality. *^ His repu- 
tation as a poet, he asserted, or intimated, was 
but little in his thoughts ; what he desired to be 
considered was a man of virtue " (p. 470). ^^ It 
is my morality only," he wrote to Aaron Hill, 
^^ that must make me beloved or happy " (ibid.). 

The occasion for this new exposure of Pope's 
" indirect, crook'd ways " is the story of his 
long quairel with Theobald over the constitu- 
tion of the text of Shakespeare — if that can be 
called a quarrel which consists of unremitting 
and malignant depreciation and calumny on the 
one side, and an almost entire dependence upon 
the plain statement of facts on the other. The 
present volume is an attempt to reverse the 
decision of Pope's case by his enlightened con- 
temporaries, and by all but experts at the present 
day. The preternatural cleverness of Pope, the 
reverence in which he was held as the first poet 
of his age, the unscrupulous zeal of his disciples, 
and, the tendency of an uncritical public to 
accept as true whatever is repeated with suffi- 
cient frequency and emphasis, all contributed to 
bring about a miscarriage of justice. In the 
minds of any intelligent and attentive jury. 
Professor Lounsbuiy, though he declares that 
he does not hold a brief for Theobald, must be 
considered to have secured a judgment for him, 
though at the eleventh hour. 

The book has, therefore, the additional merit 
of being an attack upon what its author calls, 
not unjustiy, ^^that collection of notions and 
fancies and prejudices and traditional beliefs 
which we dub witii the titie of literary criticism " 
(p. 485). For it is imdoubtedly true that the 
current opinion of Theobald, so far as his name 
is known at all, is the one of Pope's creating. 
Many of his admirable emendations and inter- 
pretations of the text of Shakespeare have been 

• Tbb Tbzt of Bhakbspbabb. Its Histoiy ftom the Publioa- 
tion of the Qnartoe and Folios down to and indadlnff the Pub- 
lication of the Edition of Pope and Theobald. By Thomas R. 
Loansbai7« L.H.D. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 



[Jan. 16, 

appropriated by editors who have depreciated 
the man whom they plundered. Hi^ own scru- 
pulosity in giving full credit to anyone from 
whom he took a suggestion luus been so effectu- 
ally used against him that, sus Professor Louns- 
bury wittily puts it, " anyone who familiarizes 
himself with the practice he pursued, and the 
treatment which he received as a consequence of 
it, will become thoroughly disabused of any 
belief in the truth of the maxim that honesty i« 
the best policy" (p. 539). The authoritative 
edition of Pope's works by Elwyn and Court- 
hope says of Theobald : " He was pedantic, 
poor, and somewhat malignant. He had at- 
tempted with equal ill-success original poetry, 
translation, and play-writing ; and had indeed 
no disqualification for the throne of Dulness 
except hia insignificance " (vol. iv., p. 27). Yet 
Professor Lounsbury makes it clear that Theo- 
bald was no pedant, imless exact and extensive 
scholarship be pedantry, that he was not poor, 
and that his ^^ malignancy," when compared with 
Pope's, strangely resembles generosity ; that his 
poetic gift was regarded sus sufficient to entitle 
him to be considered for the laureateship, and 
that a play, written when he was twenty, was 
performed by the two principal tragedians ol 
the time ; and finally, that he was as little en- 
titled to the "bad eminence" to which Pope 
raised him in the original Dunciad as the great 
Bentley himself. Theobald's " childlike confi- 
dence in the fairness of future generations," 
says Professor Lounsbury, *' was never bom of 
insight " (p. 587), nor was his understanding 
of human nature very acute when he wrote 
of his corrections of Pope's text : " Wherever 
I have the luck to be right in any observa- 
tion, I flatter myself Mr. Pope himself will 
be pleased that Shakespeare receives some 
benefit" (p. 191). But Mr. Pope was not 
pleased. Instead, he prefixed, apparently for 
all time, the epithet " piddling " to Theobald's 

The stoiy of the quarrel is so interesting an 
illustration of " the amenities of literature " that 
a brief summary of Professor Lounsbury's am- 
ple treatment may perhaps be welcome. In 
1725 appeared Pope's long-heralded edition of 
Shakespeare, about which, as Professor Louns- 
bury remarks, "everything was excellent but 
the editing " (p. 82). Despite his professions. 
Pope had entirely failed to perform the plain 
duties of an editor. He had made no careful 
collation of the original texts, and indeed had 
so little perception of the value of the First 
Folio as to write, " It is from it that almost 

all the errors of succeeding editions take rise " 
(p. 82). He ignored or suppressed variants, 
he made silent emendations, he neglected to ex- 
plain difficulties in the text, or explained them 
wrongly. His chief contributions of value were 
certain verbal re-arrangements in the interest of 
metre, the addition to the Folio text of many 
lines taken from the quartos, and the elimina- 
tion from the canon of six non-Shakespearean 
plays that had been included in the Third Folio. 
Even the much-lauded poetical taste displayed 
by Pope as an editor, in which, despite his de- 
fects, he was and still is regarded as supreme, 
did not prevent him from suspecting that " The 
Winter's Tale " and " Love's Labour's Lost " 
were not wholly Shakespeare's work. Theo- 
bald's " Shakespeare Bestored : or, a Specimen 
of the many Errors, as well committed, as un- 
amended, by Mr* Pope in his late Edition of 
this Poet," etc., which appeared in 1726, was 
not, therefore, an impertinence. Moreover, says 
Professor Lounsbury, " his treatise surpasses in 
interest and importance any single one of its 
nmnerous successors " (p. 155). It abounds in 
felicitous and what now seem inevitable emen- 
dations, among them the famous " a babied of 
green fields "; and these emendations are not the 
result of mere conjecture but are supported by 
parallels drawn from other plays. " In short," 
as Professor Lounsbury says, " his method was 
the method of a scholar, and wherever he erred 
it was the error of a scholar, and not of a hap- 
hazard guesser " (p. 160). . But one serious error 
he made from which scholarship could not save 
him, — of which, indeed, scholarship was the 
direct cause, — he proved himself to be, as an 
editor of Shakespeare, the manifest superior 
of the leading poet of the age. This would 
probably have been sufficient to gain Pope's 
enmity, which was never merely passive ; but it 
must be granted that Theobald was not inclined 
to depreciate or conceal his superiority to the 
poet in this particular, — a failure, as the sequel 
proved, not more in civility than in discretion. 
For, in 1728, he found himself elevated by the 
Dunciad to the very throne of Dulness. He was 
dethroned, to be sure, by the edition of 1743, in 
favor of CoUey Gibber, but this was too late 
for his fame. Thanks to Pope's diligence and 
influence, most of the men whom he stigmatized 
as dimces ar^ to-day regarded as deserving the 
title, and Theobald is no exception to this rule. 
Nevertheless, it should be remembered that, in 
Pope's mind, Bentley too was a dunce, and 
Theobald may well have felt consolation, if not 
pride, in being pilloried with that great scholar. 




In 1734, he made a reply to Pope's charges that 
all competent judges must deem sufficient : he 
brought out his own edition of the works of 
Shakespeare, which, for correctness of method 
and felicity of emendation and explanation, was 
as superior to Pope's as to most of its successors. 
Some of Professor Lounsbury's most interesting 
and valuable pages are devoted to illustrations 
of these excellences. The attacks upon Theo- 
bald were not, however, on this account remitted, 
but continued in the pages of ^^ The Grub Street 
Journal," which *^owed its conception and crea- 
tion . . . mainly to Pope " (p. 885). 

Such, in brief, is the histoiy of the great 
** Shakespearean War " of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, the outcome of which was far enough from 
being a " Judgment of God." " The fate of 
Theobald," concludes Professor Lounsbury, ^^ is 
likely to remain for all time a striking instance 
in the annals of literary histoiy, of how suc- 
eeaafnlly, to use the words of the author he did 
so much to illustrate, malice can bear down 
truth " (p. 667). 

In style, this volume is delightfully dear and 
entertaining, despite some rather painful lor^ 
ffueurs. Professor Lounsbury wears his learn- 
ing lightly, and the reader, dierefor^, feels no 
burden. It is full of the personal touches, 
keenly or blandly satirical, which his readers 
always expect, and in which no American lit- 
erary scholar surpasses him. His luminous and 
personal style should be an example to all who 
practice the difficult art of criticism. 

Charles H. A. Waqer. 

The Trabe Organizations of 
Medieval. Italy.* 

To the general reader of history, mediaeval 
Florence is the city of Dante and Petrarch, the 
home of the Benaissance, the birthplace of mod- 
em culture. Early Florentine history is to him 
a long and importont chapter in the story of 
European civilization ; from the city on the 
Arao the popular imagination views at the same 
time the Renders of the Athenian past and the 
still grander accomplishments of our own age. 
While it is true that the achievements of Flor- 
ence in the field of intellect constitute her chief 
glory, still her history is not wholly concerned 
with letters and art. Even genius has certain 

*Tbx OuiLoe OF Flobbncb. By Edgcumbe Staley. 
tomted. Chteaco: A. C.McCluts&Oo. 


material wants that somehow must be satisfied. 
The city that first acquainted western Europe 
with the treasures of Grreek learning was the 
city that coined the florin. In conmierce and 
industry, as well bs in matters of culture, Flor- 
ence was for several centuries one of the leading 
centres of Europe. 

The material side of Tuscan history has been 
made the subject of an extended study by Mr. 
Edgcumbe Staley, an enthusiastic student of 
the Florentine past. Mr. Staley's investigations 
make a volume of about six hundred pages ; it 
is provided with a large number of splendid 
illustrations, nearly all of which are reproduc- 
tions of miniatures and are consequentiy of 
great historic value; it also contains several 
excellent photographs of buildings and other his- 
toric survivals. The author groups his sources 
under four heads : manuscripts, printed matter, 
letters from authorities and friends, and per- 
sonal knowledge of the city and its people. The 
work is, however, to some extent a compilation 
merely, bs the author, instead of making a per- 
sonal examination of the manuscript sources, 
seems to have depended largely on the conclu- 
sions of earlier students. 

There can be no doubt that the intention of 
the pubhshers was to produce a popukr history 
rather than a strictiy scientific work. The 
author's intentions are not so dear, though the 
volume closely resembles the popular type in 
many respects. It is not provided with notes 
of any sort, and the literary style is too exu- 
berant to be that of an historian writing pri- 
marUyforstudente. In hw opening paragraphs 
the author speaks of the three young sisters 
that were fostered in the vale of Amo, — Art, 
Science, and Literature, — and continues as 
follows : 

« No question ever arose as to whose was the subtlest 
witchery, but each developed charms, distinct and rare, 
yet not outrivalling one the other. With harmonious 
voices blended, and ambrosial tresses mingled, the three 
interlaced their comely arms, and tossing with shapely 
feet the flowing draperies of golden tissue, which softly 
veiled the perfect contours of their beauteous forms, 
they gaily danced along. Their enchanting rhythm was 
the music of the new civilization : — it we know — and 
them — but what of their origin ? whence came they ? 
and who were their forebears ? " 

It would only be doing justice to the author 
to say, however, that rhetorical outbursts like 
the one quoted are not general throughout the 
volume. The spirit of the writer seems in the 
main to be that of the true historian : he quotes 
freely from his sources, and at least aims to be 



[Jan. 16, 

accurate in his statement of facts. To such an 
extent has he filled the work with details of 
all possible sorts, with dates and statistics, with 
Italian words and phrases, with allusions to 
laws and constitutional changes, with lists of 
merchants and bankers, and with other data 
both historic and scientific, that the reading of 
even these beautifully printed pages after a 
time becomes somewhat tedious. The author 
has presented too much of his materials in an 
undigested form: as a popular historian, he 
has not been entirely successful. 

The author introduces his subject in two 
chapters of a general nature in which he dis- 
cusses the extent of Florentine commerce and 
the methods of the mediaBval merchant. In the 
'first he sketches the rise of Florence from com- 
paratiye obscurity in tie days of Charlemagne 
to the high place that she held seven centuries 
later. ^' From the twelfth to the sixteenth cen- 
turies Florence easily held the first place in the 
life and work of the known world : she was in 
&et Athens and Rome combined." This pre- 
eminence is ascribed to ^^ accidents of climate, 
geographical position, and peculiarities of race." 
^^The cumulative energies of the Florentines 
had their focus in the corporate life of the trade 
associations, and in no other community was the 
guild system so thoroughly developed as it was 
in Florence." The general history of this sys- 
tem is the principal theme of the second chapter. 
As to the origin of the guilds, the author be- 
lieves they have been ^^ rightly traced to the 
corporations of merchants and artisans which 
existed in Spme under Numa Pompilius." Ap- 
parently Mr. Staley has no doubts as to the 
existence of that venerable monarch, or the 
credibility of the early traditional accounts of 
him. These corporations were revived in the 
Lombard region in 825, although more than 
two centuries passed before they secured a firm 
footing in Florence. As the years went by and 
the guilds grew in importance they developed an 
elaborate constitution, or rather a type of guild 
government, as the various corporations had 
their own constitutional peculiarities ; of these 
matters the author gives us a fairly clear state- 
ment. In the same connection he also discusses 
the authority exercised by the guild officials in 
the general government of the city. 

In the course of time the trade organizations 
of Florence came to be grouped into seven 
greater, five intermediate, and nine minor guilds. 
To each of the seven greater guilds the author 
devotes a chapter. First in rank was the cor- 

poration of jndges and notaries ; next in impor- 
tance were the dealers in foreign doth and the 
merchants engaged in the wool trade ; important 
also was the guild of bankers and the dealers 
in silk ; the guilds of doctors and apothecaries 
and of furriers and skinners held a somewhat 
lower place, but were still counted among the 
seven. In each case the author tries to famil- 
iarize us not only with the histoiy of the guild, 
but with its work as an organization, with its 
opportunities and its limitations, with its meth- 
ods and its importance at home and abroad. 
We are told how cloth was woven and silk was 
dyed ; how furs were prepared and drugs were 
mixed ; how banks were conducted and lawyers 
were trained. The reader is taken into the 
courts, the counting-house, the apothecary shop, 
the market, and the factory, and in each par- 
ticular place the work is inspected with consid- 
erable care. 

Two chapters are devoted to the five inter- 
mediate guilds : those of the butchers, the black- 
smiths, the shoemakers, the masters of stone 
and wood, and the retail cloth-dealers. Three 
chapters are given to the nine minor trades. The 
same style of treatment is employed throughout, 
though naturally the lesser trades, which were 
of local importance only, are not discussed so 
fully as the greater guilds, whose agents and 
representatives were f oimd in every commercial 
centre in the known world. 

It is not likely that very many readers will 
be able to plough through all of the twenty 
chapters of " The Guilds of Florence." Too 
much technical matter has been inserted, and 
the details are often uninteresting and unim- 
portant ; at least they will seem so to all who 
have not made a closer study of the Renaissance 
period. But no one with any interest in the 
general subject can afford to miss the last hun- 
dred pages of the book, in which the author 
treats such matters as the market, the streets, 
the squares, and the bridges ; the religion, the 
patronage, and the charity of the guilds ; and 
the wealth and power of the great Tuscan city. 
In these pages, as well as elsewhere in the work, 
the reader is given a close view of Florentine 
life, and he cannot fail to understand the later 
middle ages better from having read them. No 
doubt the author's enthusiasm has led him at 
times to employ strong and vivid colors ; but 
the Florentine student can hardly avoid being 
enthusiastic, and the world understands and 
judges accordingly. 

Laurence M. Lakson. 





AmicUt the almost nmnberless books of travel, 
there are some of the better sort that rise above the 
mere interest of commonplace descriptions and the 
ordinary experiences of the traveller. They awaken 
in OS a lively sense of the untried and the unknown ; 
they quicken our minds and arouse our emotions by 
the evidences of energy, self-reliance, foresight and 
heroism which they display. As long as there 
remains an unexplored foot of ground, or an uncon- 
*quered race, so long will mankind feel an absorbing 
interest in books which depict vividly man's cour 
quests over man as well as over the obstacles of 
nature. The books in our present group, dealing 
with exploration and travel in little known or mys- 
terious regions of the Far East and the Near East, 
satisfy this higher interest, and present many engag- 
ing racial, religious, and political problems for our 

Lieutenant -G>lonel Waddell's volume entitled 

^ Lhasa and Its Mysteries " tells the story of the 

Tounghusband Mission, in 1903-04, to Lhasa, the 

sacred city of the Tibetans. Li a graphic and lucid 

style it portrays the strange life and strange religion 

of a people who have been but recently introduced 

to the world. Colonel Waddell's account of his first 

sight of this wonderful place is a good example of 

the impreesionistic method of travel-writing. 

** The fint glimpse of the nored metropolie is drsmatio 
in its snddennesi. As if to sereen the holy capital from view 
mttil the last moment, Nature has interposed a long curtain 
of rock which stretches across between the two bold guardian 
hills of Potala and the Iron Mountain. . . . The Tista which 
then flaakes up before the eyes is a vast and entrancing 
panorsma. On the left is the front view of the Dalai Lama's 
palaoe, which faces the east, and is now seen to be a mass of 
lofty buildings eoYering the hillside — here abont 300 feet 
hagh — from top to bottom with its teitaoee of many-storied 
and many-windowed houses and buttressed masonry, batde- 
ments, and retainii^ walls, many of them 60 feet high, and 
forming a gigantic buildii^ of stately architectural propor- 
tions on the most pictoresque of craggy sites. The central 
duster of buildings, crowning the summit and resplendent 
with its fiye golden pavilions on its roof, was of a dull crim- 
son, that gives it the name of the 'Red Palace,' whilst those 
on the other flank were of ^*«*»S'»g white ; snd the great 
■tsirway on each side, leading down to the ddef entrance and 
gardens below, zig-zagging outwards to enclose a diamond- 
shmed design, recalled a similar one at the summer palace 
of Peking. A mysterious effect was given to the central 
portion of the building by long curtains of dark purple yak- 
hair cloth which draped the verandahs, to protect the frescoes 
from the rain and sun, but which seemed to muffle tiie rooms 

Of the thirty thousand people living in the vicinity 
of thb splendor, two-thirds are monks. Although 
in a state 6i miserable poverty and isolation, they 
have much of the human in them ; they are given to 

*Lbasa ahd Its 
WaddeU. Ulustrated. 
S.P. DnttonAOo. 

Wnsnair Tibkt and ran BnmsB BoRDnBLAND. Bj Georre 
A. Sherrlng. Illustrated. New York : Longmans. Green A Oo. 

Tramt ran MTSTBaxous. Bj Ool. Sir Thomas H. Holdich. 
Olnstrated. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Oo. 

Pionmas fbom thb Balkans. Bj John Foster Fraser. 
nittstmted. New York: CMseUAOo. 

B. By Lient.*Ool. L. Austins 
Third and cheaper edition. New York : 

games, sports, sacred theatrical performances, and 
have an inordinate love of jewelry. There are hut 
few children and few old people among them, the 
rigorous climate permitting only the survival of the 
strongest. The greatest interest that Colonel Wad- 
dell found in this city of the Great Buddha was 
connected with the religious rites and ceremonies of 
the monks and the explorations among the scrupu- 
lously g^uarded secret places of the great palace. 
Here the author b most impressive, and does much 
toward lifting the veil that has so long hung over 
the mysteries of Lhasa. 

The connection between the book just noticed and 
the one entitled << Western Tibet and the British 
Borderland," by Mr. Charles A. Sherring, is more 
intimate than at first appears. That the treaty of 
Lhasa, consummated by Uie Younghusband mission, 
marked a new era in the political and commercial 
relations between Tibet and Lidia is evident from 
thiB cordiality and friendship extended by the native 
officials of Western Tibet, or Nari, toward the mem- 
bers of Mr. Sherring's mission. This mission, which 
was sent into Nari for the purpose of inquiring into 
the commercial possibilities of that little-luLOwn 
country, met with a friendliness hitherto unknown. 
Its connection with the mission described in Colonel 
Waddell's book is thus explained by Mr. Sherring : 

^'These offieials of * The Forbiclden Land ' were at first a 
little anxious to cast a veil of mystery over things generally, 
and especially oyer all matters religious ; and it was not for 
us to intrude where we were not wanted. But when the 
JoDgpen came to our camp another day I took Waddell's 
' Tihmia and Its Mysteries ' and systematically took him 
throng all the photos, pictures of persons, officials, temples, 
and aU the most sacred spots, and die most priTate details of 
the highest functionaries. . . . When he had seen pictures 
of all that used to be so secret and mysterious in Lhasa, 
there was, in the words of Holy Scriptures, * no spirit left 
in him.'" 

Mr. Sherring asserts that ^ the concessions, that 
have been obtained by the treaty at Lhasa in regard 
to Grartok [the capital of Western Tibet] are of 
greater importance to the native subjects of Hb 
Majesty than the whole of the concessions in 
Eastern Tibet By far the larger part of the popu- 
lation of India is composed of Hindus, who are not 
traders or miners, to whom wool and borax do not 
appeal. . . . But the Hindu is first and foremost 
a devotee, and to him the claims of this religion 
incomparably outweigh all else that is secular." 
Hence this, treaty, which permits free ingress into 
Tibet, invites the Hindu to make pilgrimages to 
holy Kailas and to other equally saored shrines in 
Western Tibet Out of these pilgrimages may come, 
so thinks the author, an increase in commerce. But 
if Mr. Sherring's own descriptions of Western Tibet 
are to be taken as evidence, it will be a long time 
before that country will be productive enough to 
repay commercial encouragement Surrounded by 
lagged mountains, with a scanty population living 
on the wide wind-swept and waterless plateaux, and 
with an extreme elevation. Western Tibet offers lit- 
tle inducement to the trader. There is, to be sure, 



[Jan. 16, 

gold in the mountainB, bat the physical difficulties 
are too great to mine it with profit. For these rea- 
sons it will probably remain, for a long time at least, 
only a dwelling-place of the Hindu gods. The best 
parts of Mr. Sherring's volume are the chapters 
devoted to the legends and myths of the natives, 
especially the Bhotia tribes of the frontier, and to 
the quaint customs and manners of the British 
Borderland. Here Mr. Sherring, who has for some 
years been Deputy Commissioner of Almora, is 
more at home than he is at Tibet, and he knows his 
subject so thoroughly that he writes with more 
fulness and freedom than when discussing the pos- 
sibilities of Nari. Dr. T. 6. Longstaff, who accom- 
panied the author on his journey, contributes an 
account of a week's climb on Gurla Mandhata^^the 
highest mountain in Western Tibet. Like nearly 
all recent books on Tibet, this volume is exceedingly 
attractive in its make-up : there is an abundance of 
good pictures and excellent maps — features that 
no doubt suggest the importance of Tibet to stay-at- 
home Britishers. 

The literature of Tibet has grown to large pro- 
portions in the past few years, and the imme- 
diate interest in the Tibetan situation is sufficientiy 
acute to demand a handbook which will serve both 
as an introduction to and a summary of the various 
expeditions and travels, and of the geographical 
and political features of that well-nigh impregnable 
land. Such a book is ^' Tibet the Mysterious," by 
Colonel Sir Thomas H. Holdich. Colonel Holdich, 
although not an explorer or traveller in Tibet, has 
made an exhaustive investigation of all the litera- 
ture relating to that country, and has summarized 
his studies in an accurate and systematic manner. 
For those who wish to plunge in medias res con- 
cerning Tibet, his book will be most acceptable. 
The. book opens with a description of the geo- 
graphical situation of Tibet. With the excellent 
map of the country before him, the reader can 
readily understand the various routes which open 
the way to the ^ roof of the world." By far the 
most interesting and valuable part of the book is the 
summary of the classics of Tibetan adventure and 
exploration. AH these expeditions — from the time 
of the earliest Mongolian invasion, the eighteenth- 
century explorations by the monks, the mission of 
the Englishman Bogle, Thomas Manning*s visit to 
Tibet and Lhasa, Moorcroft's mysterious attempt, 
Hue and Gabet's journey, and the more modem at- 
tempts of RockhiU, Prjevabki, Needham, Chandra 
Das, Wellby^ Bower, Litdedale, Bonvalot, Sven 
Hedin, Ryder, Bawling, and Younghusband — are 
chronologically described and amply examined for 
hifltorieal, geographical, political, and ethnological 
data. With Lhasa itself, however, the book has 
littie to do. '^It is intended to illustrate to some 
extent the sequence of exploration in that great 
wilderness of stony and inhospitable altitudes which 
lie far beyond Lhasa." While Colonel Holdich 
does not pose as a commercial prophet, he too, in 
agreement with Messrs. Waddell and Sherring, I 

holds forth the tantalizing bait of the great wealth 
of gold which lies so near the surface in many parts 
of Tibet We note an easily corrected error on page 
102, where the author says tiiat Bogle's Mission 
returned from Tibet in 1874, — the correct date 
being 1784. He evidentiy accepts the story that 
Moorcroft reached Lhasa and lived there for some 
time before his death in the first quarter of the last 
century ; but it should be remembered that tiie story 
is founded on circumstantial evidence. His assertion 
that '^ the Tibetan men and women never wash their 
faces " is contradicted by Colonel Waddell, who telk" 
about a Saturnalian feast where the women washed 
their faces, revealing their rosy cheeks. These minor 
errors, however, detract but littie from the othervrise 
scholarly work of the author, which will be held in 
high esteem as a general reference-book for the his- 
tory of exploration and travel in Tibet 

One need not go to the Far East, however, to 
find the spirit of mystery. The Near East — in the 
Balkans — presents a politico-religious problem as 
difficult as may be found anywhere in the world. 
Mr. John Foster Eraser, an English newspaper cor- 
respondent, is one of the most recent travellers in 
that section of Europe, and his book entitied " Pic- 
tures from the Balkans " intensifies the general opin- 
ion that some sort of interference must be brought. 
about to stop Turkish misg^vemment on the one 
hand and the internal dissension of the Balkan 
States on the other. Mr. Eraser went through the 
country, from Belgrade to Sofia, to Plevna, Tirnova, 
PhilippoliB,to Adrianople, thence southward through 
the ill-defined boundaries of Macedonia to Salonika, 
to Monastir, Ochrida, Elbasan, and Berat, and then 
northward to Uskup, and departed from the Balkans 
on the line he had entered. Montenegro was not 
visited. The keynote to the book is struck in the 
opening paragraph : 

^^ Riding in Maoedonia, I pasted the village of OrovBJL 
The inhabitants had just bnried seven Bnlganans and four 
Turkish soldiers who had killed each other tiie previous day. 
Otherwise all was qniet." 

Near the dose of the book we read : 

*^ Everybody is joUy. Murder is so commonplaoe that it 
arouses no shudder. In the night is the litUe bark of a 
pistol, a shriek, a clatter of feet. * Hello I somebody killed I ' 
That is aU.'' 

These truly picaresque descriptions are indicative 
of Mr. Eraser's style and tone. But in describing 
a land where democracy and aristocracy are in a 
death-grapple, where religion and bloodshed are 
synonymous terms, where ^' natives occasionally die 
irom disease, but generally from differences of 
opinion," and where the Powers are playing the part 
of hungry vultures waiting for the time of feasting, 
it is permissible for an author to be picturesque, 
cynical, and pessimistic, — especially if he be a 
European. When the real struggle comes in the 
Balkans, it will be precipitated, asserts Mr. Eraser, 
by the dour, sullen, stolid, unimaginative, unsenti- 
mental, but hard-working, plodding, and ambitious 
Bulgarians, who, he thinks, will prevail in the con- 
test. But when Bulgaria acquires the fruits of her 




energy and yictoiy over Turkey, then will come the 
tug of war among the European Powers ; for neither 
Austria nor Russia nor Germany, nor perhaps Italy, 
will acquiesce in the creation of ano^er Power in 
the Near East. And when this political Ragnar6k 
is fought out to the hitter end, says Mr. Fraser, 
Grermany, in the event of the defeat of Turkey, 
expects to he the Power that will subjugate the 
ri-nUs. On the other hand, if Turkish arms should 
prevail, Germany will demand as her price for aid- 
ing Turkey, first concessions, then protectorates, 
then possessions.' The only glimmer of hope for the 
Balkan States lies in the great dream of perfection 
— a Balkan Confederation with the Turks a party 
to the confederation. Mr. Eraser's pictures of the 
Balkans are in aseuro — so much so that two of the 
illustrations which reveal horrible scenes are printed 
on leaves provided with perforations, that they may 
be easily torn from the book by squeamish r^ulers. 
Mr. Eraser adds nothing particularly new to our 
knowledge of affairs in the Balkans, and for this 
reason we wish he had given us more chapters simi- 
lar to his pleasing and diverting ones entitled **' The 
Rose Grarden of Europe " (meaning thereby the rose 
plantations near Kasanlik) and "His Majesty's 
Representative," a description of a British consulate 
in the Balkans. jj. E. Coblentz. 

Bribfs ok New Books. 

Bdueatiim — Professor Home's new book on " The 
uuateienee Psychological Principles of Educa- 
oranartf ^^^yf (Macmillan) contains much 

that is of uncommon value and significance. It is 
unfortunate that the first part of the book consists 
of a discussion of the somewhat worn question, ^* Is 
there a Science of Education?" and adds nothing 
of importance to the debate, falling into the common 
error of confusing the. question of the existence or 
possibility of scientific study of education with that 
of the existence of a science of education. The 
existence of a science of education does not depend 
upon the methods of educational study, but upon the 
question whether education constitutes an independ- 
ent and intrinsically unitary body of knowledge 
such as to fomi the groundwork di a science. We 
believe this question must be answered in the nega- 
tive ; nor is ^e dignity and importance of education 
one whit lessened by such a conclusion, — indeed, 
its place is rather elevated by the belief that it is 
not a science, but a great Uf e-«trt, ministered to by 
a circle of auxiliary sciences. The very question 
with which Professor Home's discussion opens is 
damaging evidence : " Is there a science of educat- 
ing? " (page 3). If so, why not a science of box- 
ing, or any other indubitable art ? The conception 
of normative science falls into confusion in that the 
notmative is declared to be based upon the descrip- 
tive. '* The best in the descriptive," we read, *^ is 
the basis for the nonnative " (page 17). But how 

can we have any knowledge of what is best without 
first possessing the norms ? Again, we are told that 
universal validity is not one of the inalienable char- 
acteristics of science (page 9). On the contrary, 
universal validity is just the one characteristic that 
marks the truth for which science strives ; whereas, 
as Dr. Home agrees, the knowledge at which edu- 
cation aims is relative and changing. The fact that 
both science and the arts must be always content 
with approximations does not affect the fundamental 
difference in their ideals. The definition of <^ con- 
cept" in Chapter XII. wavers perceptibly. First 
we read, ^< Conception is the knowledge of general 
objects " (page 155) ; on the next page, ^ We can 
now have a concept of the John Smith we perceived 
on the street." What we have in this case is of 
course a memory vnutge^ — or, in the better and more 
recent phrase, a centrally excited perception. The 
real streng^ of Dr. Home's book is found in its 
treatment of emotional, moral, and religious educa- 
tion ; these vital subjects are handled with breadth, 
warmth, and frankness, and with an unusually full 
comprehension of their supreme importance. Par- 
ticularly refreshing is the emphasis hud upon aesthetic 
culture, in Chapter XX.; the author reproves our 
neglect, in these industrial days, of the education of 
those powers of higher appreciation which the Greeks 
so well knew how to value and to nourish. Our only 
disagreement with the author would be that he does 
not go far enough, either in the scope of the field or in 
the appraisal of its value for economic, social, and eth- 
ical development. But he has taken a commendable 
step in the right direction. The style of the book 
is dear, simple, straightforward ; we have not found 
an obscure or ambiguous sentence. But why should 
any educated man, even an American, say vruid 
when he means angry (pages 220 and 224). 

Aftermath of ^; J™?^ ^?f ^n Stearns's « Life 
the Hawthorne and Genius of Nathamel Hawthorne " 
eenunary. (Lippincott) has somewhat the air 

of a belated contribution to the Hawthorne centeur 
nial literature. Perhaps its length and its fulness 
of detail may partly explain its tardiness. The lack 
of critical comment in previous lives of Hawthorne 
is given as the raison d^Ure of this additional bio- 
graphy. Messrs. Lathrop, Julian Hawthorne, and 
Conway are, however, the only biographers men- 
tioned ; while Mr. Henry James, whose work, con- 
tributed to the '^ English Men of Letters " series, is 
of the very essence of literary criticism, and Pro- 
fessor Woodberry, whose study of Hawthorne in 
the "American Men of Letters" series is nothing 
if not scholarly and critical, are wholly overlooked. 
Mr. Stearns's book contains much interesting mat- 
ter, and shows marks of faithful and loving labor; 
its citations and references and illustrations are 
varied and sometimes illuminating ; but its style is 
rambling and diffuse — a fault not offset by any 
keenness of criticism in the chapters devoted to what 
he proclaims as the distinctive feature of his work. 
Litde less than wanton are such divagations as that 



[Jan. 16, 

on the London fog, which, we are gravely informed, 
^'is composed of soft-coal smoke, which, ascending 
from innumerable chimneys, is filtered in the upper 
skies, and then, mixed with vapor, is cast back upon 
the city by every change of wind. It is not unpleasant 
to the taste, and seems to be rather healthful than 
otherwise." He suggests that Hester Prynne may 
have been modelled after the author's younger sis- 
ter, and compares (not explicitly but by tentative 
suggestion) Hester's position with that of George 
Eliot in her relations with Lewes — which at least 
has the merit of startling novelty. '^ Fannie Kem- 
ble, as she was universally called," looks a bit strange 
in that spelling. In her the author thinks he dis- 
covers Hawthorne's ^^ antipodes." Horatio Bridge's 
offer to guarantee the publisher against loss on a 
volume of Hawthorne's short stories is called a 
'^ proposition." Why will educated writers and 
speakers persist in making this word do double 
duty, to the neglect of '^ proposal," which we cannot 
afford to lose ? The portraits and other illustrations 
in this volume constitute its not least valuable feature. 

Good work by '^^^ Librarian of Congress is to be 
the Library congratulated upon the recent mani- 
0/ Congress. f estations of publishing enterprise on 
the part of the institution which does its work under 
his efficient administration. We have- been com- 
menting, from time to time, upon the journals of the 
Continental Congress, as the volumes of that note- 
worthy undertaking have come to us from the 
Grovernment Printing Office; and we now ^ve 
much satisfaction in calling attention to another 
work of similar character and almost equal impor- 
tance. This is nothing less than the full text of the 
manuscript called the '^ Court Book," which contains 
the records of the Virginia Company of London 
from 1619 to 1624. This manuscript was pur- 
chased, in the latter part of the seventeenth century, 
by Colonel William Byrd, from the estate of the 
Duke of Southampton, to whom it had come by 
inheritance from the Earl of Southampton, whom 
we all know as Shakespeare's friend and patron. 
Colonel Byrd's descendants owned it for about a 
century, and then it came into the possession of 
Thomas Jefferson, the Library of Congress buying 
it after his death. It is a work of fundamental im- 
portance to the student of American history, and its 
present publication has the special timeliness of just 
preceding the tercentenary of the first settlement 
made by the Virgplnia Company. The editorial work 
of this publication has been done by Miss Susan 
Myra Kingsbury, under the general supervision of 
Professor Herbert L. Osgood. Miss Kingsbury pro- 
vides a historical and bibliographical introduction 
of over two hundred pages. There are two large 
quarto volumes, handsomely printed on special paper 
with broad margins. Another important publication 
from the same source is the *^ Portrait Index " upon 
which the American Library Association has been 
engaged for some ten years. A few figures will 
give an idea of the comprehensiveness of this 

work. It fills over 1600 pages, indexes 1181 titles 
and 6216 volumes, and tells die inquirer where to 
find about 120,000 portraits of about 40,000 people. 
Both of the works which we have here described are 
withdrawn from free distribution, but may be pur- 
chased at nominal prices &om the Superintendent 
of Documents. They will prove a boon to workers 
of many kinds. -- 

Sketches from ^^' ^' ^' E. RusseU's pen-portraits 
the noU'book of of a great variety of social types are 
ajoumaiut. reprinted in a handy and attractive 
volume with the title " Social Silhouettes " (Dutton), 
which well fits the unelaborate form of the sketches. 
The chapters average but seven pages in length, 
and the method of treatment, as well as the space 
devoted to each type, is nearly unif onn. A rapid 
backward glance, witJh references to and brief quo- 
tations from standard authors, especially Dickens, 
Thackeray, and Matthew Arnold, is followed by 
more immediate and personal observations and illus- 
trations — the whole executed in a brisk, chatty, 
effective style that shows the facility engendered of 
long practice. Besides being an able journalist, the 
author is something of a reformer, and confesses 
that he has pleaded '' with equal passion for all (or 
nearly all) Uie Fads." Thus we find him deploring 
the unequal lot of the servants of the Church: 
'< Such are the conditions of life in the ministry of 
a Church which enjoys a secured and acknowlec^^ 
income of nearly six millions, and of which the cluef 
pastor has £15,000 a year, the finest house in Lon- 
don, and an agreeable residence at Canterbury." In 
justifying his choice of ''The Quidnunc" rather 
than *' The Grossip " as heading to his dStii chapter, 
the author incidentally remarks : " Shakespeare, as 
far as I remember, recognizes no male gossips." 
The captious critic might reply by citing Helena's 
speech in '' All 's Well," i. 1, where Cupid is spoken of 
as gossipping ; also the Duke's speech in " Comedy 
of Errors," v. 1, « With all my heart I '11 gossip at 
this feast"; and again (a not very apt illustration 
from a doubtful play) King Henry's words to his 
courtiers in " Henry VIIL," v. 4, " My noUe gos- 
sips, ye have been too prodigal." The skilful coining 
of needed words is often pardonable, but ''hubristic" 
seems superfluous; and moreover, being evidently 
from the same G^reek word that gives us '' hybrid," 
it should, consistently, be '' hybristic." 

A sensible Oood wine needs no bush and a great 

appreciation poet no interpreter — provided you 
of Chaucer. ^^ ^^ stranger to the wine or the 

poet But as there is always a first time when the 
coming connoisseur of both wine and poetry needs 
direction, there are bushes over wine-shops and 
''interpretations and appreciations" in the book- 
shops. Of the latter, one of the most satisfactory of 
recent publications is Mr. Root's "The Poetry of 
Chaucer " (Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). This inter- 
esting study avoids both the iridescent . foam of 
clever but shallow appreciation and the dead calm 
of unanimated learning. It devotes just so much 




attendon to the demands of pare scholarship in 
matters of form, dates, sources, etc., as is necessary 
to make dear the nature of Chaucer's development 
DtBputed questions are touched upon briefly or rele- 
gated to the footnotes, but not without a succinct 
statement of the author's position. Each poem is 
taken up separately, single chapters being given to 
^ The Romaunt of the Rose," <" Troilns and Cris- 
eyde," « The House of Fame," and « The Legend 
of Grood Women," and four — nearly half the book 
— to " The Canterbury Tales." In his treatment of 
Chaucer's literary art, Mr. Root is eminently suc- 
cessful ; throughout he is ^ane and impartial. Not 
all that Chaucer did is on that account good, not 
even some of the things for which the ungodly 
praiae him. Our author has high ideals for art, and 
not even Chaucer may violate them with impunity. 
It is with peculiar affection that Mr. Root regards 
his author, and we are not surprised that he should 
take issue with the Wordsworthians for Chaucer's 
right to the third place after the matchless two, 
Shakespeare and Milton. It is because Chaucer 
grips our affections that we give him this place, so 
much more of our own human nature has he than 
the rapt and solitary Wordsworth. 

A streak of the preacher, the ser- 
/VeodLr^ monizer, runs through us all, and 

most of us dearly love to hold forth 
in an edifying strain if we can only capture an 
audience, or even a single auditor, to listen. To 
this rule Dr. Robertson NicoU, the accomplished 
editor of the London '^ Bookman," is no exception ; 
bat his congregation is nuule up of willing hearers. 
His late collection of essays, or sermonettes, or edi- 
torial homilies, whichever one chooses to call them, 
has the oddly aUuring title, <' The Key of the Blue 
Closet" (Dodd), and is composed, at least in part, 
of reprinted pieces, as readable as they are brief. 
The chapter that gives the book its title is the third, 
which opens with a reference to ^'The Mill on 
the Floss" — to Mrs. Pullet's apprehension lest her 
hnsband should ftul to find the key of the Blue 
Closet after her death. '< The Blue Closet " seems 
to mean, in Dr. Nicoll's book, the inner and secret 
eliamber of the soul, and also the less obvious side 
of things in general, although the title is only loosely 
and partially applicable to the chapters grouped 
under it Four good personal sketches — of Alex- 
ander Bain, R. H. Hutton, James Payn, and Robert 
A. Neil — based on some actual acquaintance with 
these men, and written on the occasion of their sev- 
eral deaths, are particularly to be commended. The 
late Greorge Maedonald is also noticed in a rather 
more perfunctory sketch. The essayist's high praise 
of the letters of lus intimate friend Neil, of which he 
possesses many, and which he fiiids more Lamb-like 
(so to speak) than any he has ever read, makes one 
wish they might be published, under his editorship. 
So wholesome and enjoyable a book as this little 
volume of essays should And many readers, as it 
doubtless will. 

Beffinninff of ^ /®^ 7®*" ^f^ Professor Charles 
ahutorvof Seignobos, the well-known French 
Civiiuatum. historian, published a three-volume 
History of Civilization designed for use in secondary 
schools. The work was popular from the beginning, 
and soon became widely used. Not long ago the 
Messrs. Scribner announced an English version of 
this history, the translation to be the work of Pro- 
fessor A. H. Wilde. The first volume of the series 
has appeared. It is a plain straightforward account 
of civilized life in the Orient, Greece, and Rome, 
one that is easily within the intellectual range of the 
average high school pupil. The translation seems 
to have been carefully made, and the editor's notes, 
though not numerous, are of distinct value. Never- 
theless the book is something of a disappointment 
In his effort to cover the entire field the author has 
naturally been compelled to include a great deal 
that is already f oimd in the high-school text-book. 
The advanced student will probably not find very 
mudti material that is new to him, at least not so 
much as a book designed for supplementary reading 
ought te contain. It may be that in France the 
makers of text-books content themselves with giving 
an account of political matters only ; and in such a 
case this work would be found very satisfactory. 
But our own authors are more ambitious, and insist 
on making the growth of culture a prominent part 
of their manuals. Their discussions need to be sup- 
plemented with more detailed accounts of the more 
important topics and periods, rather than with a' 

general survey. 

The short life of Thomas Hill Green, 
written by his pupil and friend the 
late R. L. Nettieship, and prefixed to 
the third volume of Green's works published twenty 
years ago, is now issued in separate form by Messrs. 
Longmans, Green, & Co. with a brief preface by 
Mrs. Green. As a thinker who reconciled philosophy 
with religion on the one hand and with practical poli- 
tics on the other, the distinguished professor of moral 
philosophy and author of '< Prolegomena to Ethics " 
and other writings is an interesting figure to readers 
of serious and speculative turn, and they will wel- 
come this convenient and attractive reprint Nettle- 
ship's memoir of Green, as an authoritative reviewer 
said at the time of its first appearance, " fairly finds 
him out" He was a man, his friend Leslie Stephen 
has observed, ^' whose homely exterior, reserved 
manner, and middle-class radi<»Eilism were combined 
with singular loftiness of character. He recalls in 
different ways Wordsworth, of whom he was to some 
degree a disciple even in philosophy, and Bright, 
whom he followed in politics. In youth he was 
impressed by Carlyle and Maurice. He developed 
the philosophical ideas congenial to him from the 
first, ' by a sympathetic study of Kant and Hegd.' " 
Readers of "Robert Flsmere" may not yet have 
forgotten '^ Mr. Gray," who is Thomas Hill Green 
as portrayed by the novelist An apparentiy excel- 
lent portrait of a different sort appears as frontis- 
piece to this inviting volume. 

and historian. 



[Jan. 16, 


Mr. B. H. BlAckwell, Ozf ord, wbdAa qb a small Toliime 
ealled " Westmiiiflter Versions,^ being tnmslatiom of 
Knglwh Terse into Latin and €ireek made by a score or 
more of sebolars, and eolleeted under the editorial snper- 
▼iiion of Mr. Herbert F. Fox. The translations are from 
many poets, including such modems as Henley and 
Swinburne, and one Tcnturesome Oxonian has eyen done 
Lowell's *' The Conrtin' " in Latin elegiacs. A second 
volume of similar character comes from Longmans, 
Green, & Co., and contains the " Translations into Latin 
and Greek Verse " made by the late H. A. J. Munro. 
These yersions were printed for priyate circulation in 
1884, but are now published for the first time. Dante 
and Goethe, beside a great number of English poets, 
are included among the subjects of these experiments. 

Messrs. £. P. Dutton & Co. are the American pub- 
lishers of the translation of Heine's works which was 
undertaken by the late Charles G. Leland, and carried 
to completion after his death by other hands. The edi- 
tion makes up a set of twelve yolumes, the first eight of 
which give us the prose writings in Leland's version. 
Of the four volumes of verse, one (the ** Book of Songs ") 
was translated by Mr. T. Brooksbank, who died before 
.the volume was published. The remaining three have 
been done by Miss Margaret Armour (Mrs. W. B. 
Macdougall), and, considering the extraordinary diffi- 
culty of the task, in an unexpectedly satisfactory man- 
ner. The best of Heine evaporates in translation, no 
doubt, but readers who possess no Grerman may be con- 
gratulated upon having offered to them so close an 
approach to the original as is found in the present 

The Macmillan Qo, publish a translation, in modem 
French prose, of '< La Chanson de Roland," edited by 
Professor J. Geddes, Jr. The apparatus, consisting of 
introduction, bibliography, notes, manuscript readings, 
and index, is very extensive, and there is also a series 
of highly interesting illustrations from various sources. 
Other French texts are Racine's ^ Les Plaideurs," edited 
by Professor C. H. C. Wright, and published by Messrs. 
D. C. Heath & Co., and a volume of <* Feuilletons 
Choisis," edited by Mr. Cloudesley Brereton, and pub- 
lished by Mr. Henry Frowde. Two German texts &om 
the Messrs. Heath are ^ Wilkommen in Deutschland," 
a reader prepared by Professor W. £. Mosher, and 
« Munchhausen s Reisen imd Abenteuer," edited by 
Professor F. G. G. Schmidt. Messrs. Henry Holt & 
Co. publish « Das Edle Blut," a tale by Herr Ernst von 
Wildenbruch, edited by Professor Ashley K. Hardy. 

The new edition of Keats's poems prepared by Mr. 
H. Buxton Forman for the Oxford Clarendon Press 
is neither an exhaustive. tMirionim edition nor a mere 
unedited text; but aims to present the complete body 
of Keats's verse illustrated by the most significant of 
existing variant readings and canceUed passages. Thus 
the reader is able to obtain a good general view of the 
processes and results of Keats's creative faculty without 
becoming submerged in fnmu/tcc. A long and inter- 
esting introduction describes the various sources and 
materials upon which the authoritative text of Keats 
now rests. Needless to say, no one is more thoroughly 
familiar with this material than Mr. Buxton Forman, 
and it is not likely that his labors in Keats's behalf will 
ever be superseded. The present volume is uniform in 
make-up with the recent Oxford editions of Shelley and 

Blake, which is to say that it is in every detail a model 
of conservative book-making. There is a photogra- 
vure frontispiece of Keats at Wentwoith Place, i^ter 
Severn's painting; a title-page vignette from a tracing 
by Keats of a Grecian urn (not ike urn, however); an 
etching on steel by William Bell Scott of Severn's 
poignant death-bed portrait of the poet; a reproduction 
of Haydon's life-mask of Keats placed in the position 
of Severn's death-bed sketch; and a facsimile loif from 
a holograph draft of « The Eve of St Mark," containing 
sixteen lines not hitherto published in any other edition. 


The Macmillan Qo, publish an advanced text-book on 
« Qualitative Analysis as a Laboratory Basis for the 
Study of (xeneral Inorganic (Chemistry," by Professor 
William Conger Morgan. 

Heywood's «The Boyall King and Loyall Subject," 
reprinted from the quarto of 1837 and edited by Miss 
Kate Watkins Tibbals, is a recent publication of the 
University of Pennsylvania. 

The *< Antigone," in a verse-translation by Mr. Robert 
Whitelaw, with introduction and notes by Mr. J. Chur- 
ton Collins, and intended for school-study as a literary 
classic, is published by Mr. Heniy Frowde. 

« Animal Micrology," by Dr. Michael F. Guyer, is a 
recent publication of the University of Chicago Press. 
It is a practical manual of microscopical technique as 
applied to the preparation and study of animal tissues. 

Two new volumes in the ** Langham Series of Art 
Monographs," imported by the Messrs. Scribner, are 
<' Hokusai: The Old Man Mad with Painting," by Mr. 
Edward F. Strange, and *< Oxford," by Mr. H. J. L. J. 

Herr Felix Weingartner's essay on « Symphony 
Writers since Beethoven," translated by Mr. Arthur 
Bles, has been made (with the help of portraits and 
thick pages) into a sizable book, which is now imported 
by Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Four commemorative addresses by President Eliot 
are coUected into a small volume and published by the 
American Unitarian Association. The subjects are 
Franklin, Washington, Channing, and Emerson, and the 
book is entitled « Four American Leaders." 

For the fourth issue of their « Lakeside Classics," 
Messrs. R. R. Donnelley & Sons have chosen William 
Penn's *< Fruits of Solitude," which comes in a tastefully- 
printed volume with a portrait in photogravure. An 
editorial note is supplied by Mr. John Vance Cheney. 

Miss Elsie M. Lang's ** Literary London," introduced 
by Mr. G. K. Chesterton, and illustrated by many pho- 
tographs, will prove useful to the tourist who is in 
[Search of the spots associated with the great English 
writers. The 'arrangement is alphabetical. Messrs. 
Charles Scribner's Sons publish the volume. 

Gifford's translation of Juvenal faces the Latin text 
on alternate pages of the latest volume to be published 
in the « Temple Greek and Latin Classics." The intro- 
duction and notes are credited to Mr. A. F. Cole. The 
freedom of this old translation is brought out by the 
leading required to enable Juvenal to keep pace with 
Giff ord, the average being three English for two Latin 




The quest of American literature for the British 
market is an interesting sign of tiie times. In estab- 
lishing a New York branch of its business, the well- 
known publishing house of Chatto & Windus, which has 
existed for oyer two hundred years in London, frankly 
announces that it has been « moved to take this step by 
the fsst-inoreasing importance of American literature, 
both grave and gay, which is now eagerly sought by 
British readers." This is a decided reversal of tiie old 
order prevaili ng in the days when it used to be scorn- 
fttUy askedi ** Tybo reads an American book? " 

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FOR USE IN HIQH SCHOOLS 1 The stody of Ivan- 
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study of Bomola; The Study of Henry Esmond; The Crea- 
tive Art of Fiction ; ready in January, The Study of Idylls of 
the King, full series ; the Study of Shakespeare' s Kin g John 
and King Richard Second. Address, H. A. DAVIDSON. 
The Study-Ouide Series, Gakbudgb, Mass. 


L. O. Bonamb, Author and Pub.. IMO Chestaiut St., Philadelphia. 
Well-gTaded series for Preparatory Schools and Oolleges. No 
time wssted tn superficial or mechanical work. J^VvneA Text: 
Numerous exercises in conversation, translation, composition. 
Part I, (ao cts.) : Primary grade; thorough drill in Pronuncia- 
tion. Part II. (90 cts.): Intermediate grade; Essentials of 
Qrammar ; 4th edition, revised, with Vocabulary ; most carefully 
graded. Part III, ($1.00) : Composition, Idioms, Syntax ; meets 
requirements for admission to college. Part IV. (86 cts.): 
handbook of Pronunciation for advanced grade; concise and 
comprehensive. Sent to ieciehert for examination, with a view 
to introdu ctien\ 


A collection of what lias been written in criticism of the works 
that constltnte the literature of the English language— intro- 
ducing the authors in duonological order and realistic treat- 
ment -~ forming a thoroughly authenticated history and the best 
illuminative pe r spect i ve of Bngllsh and American Uteratnrs. 


Eight volumes. 18.00 to 16.80 per volume. Sample pages and 
descriptive matter free by mail. 




Ml and 853 Sixth Avenne (cor. 4Sth Street) New York 
Ife tnmoh tteret 


and other 




Complete, accurate, in large type 
on good paper, dear, concise ar^ 
rangement. and the pronuneiU' 
Hon of each word. 

Btaa, 8x6%. Orar 1800 pages. 
$1.60. Postpeld. 





at trifling cost. Holds one number or a 
▼olume, — looks like a book on the shelf. 
Simple in operation. Sent postpaid for 






We now hftTV the most effident dflpftriment for the 
bandlinff of Libmnr orders. 

1. AtraDMndoaamiaoeUaneoiisttook. 
f. Onfttly IncremMd teoQities for the Importation of 
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8. Oompetttit bookmen to price lists snd collect 

An this mesiiB prompt sad complete shipments sad 

THE BAKBR ft TAYLOR CO., whois$aisBook$siuri 

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Mint SM0 Bttflbing 

Mkhigan Boulevard, between Congress and 
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Begtonlng Thursday* Jao. 17 

''TheWooingof Eve 

99 Miss Ashwell 
IS "Eve" 

OOOK paUiBhen and book joomals are 
•L-^ alike sostained by a book public The 
people who read book jonmalB are the ones 
who bay books. Daily papers and miscel- 
laneons joomals have misceUaneotis read- 
en, S9ffis of whom are bookish people. All 
the readers of a book journal are bookish 
people. Thb Dial is preminentlyabook 
journal, published solely in the interests 
of the book dass, — the literary and culti- 
vated class. 

nPHB DIAL is more generally consulted 
'' and depended upon by Libraktaws in 
«^f^"g up ORDERS FOR BOOKS than any 
other American critical journal; it ciroit> 
lates more widely among rstail book- 
sellers than any other journal of its dass ; 
it is the aeeustomed literary guide and aid 

of th^Ufan^* of PRTVATB BOOK-BUTSBSy 

covering every section of the country. 



Every BooK-lover should have his own an4 make his libniy disimcive 
I make them dainiy and orioinal in design ar reasonable pnoes. 
WtirelbriilbflntiOQ and samples & BOCKELMUEiIER.£l»»£^,^ 



By so doing yon will be aUe to obtain Uie best books 
of the season at liberal disconnts. Mr. Grant has beefa 
selling books for oyer twenty years, snd the phrase 
''Save on Books " has become a motto of his bookshop. 
Mr. Chant's stock of bodes is oarefnUy selected mod 
very oomplete. If yon cannot call send a ten-eent stamp 
for an assortment of catalognes and special slips of 
books at gready reduced prioes. 


23 West Forty-second Street, New York 


For a number of years we 
have been unusuklly success- 
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No houw in the country hat bet- 
ter fadlitiei for handling this buii- 
ne«, M our Urge icock makes 
prompt service poasiblef and our long 
experience enables us to give valua- 
ble aid and advice to librarians. 

library Department 





[Jan. 16, 1907. 


without giving all one's time to them is a task of ever-increasing 
difficulty- CThis is decidedly the magazine age. The number, 
variety, and high quality of our periodicals are nothing less than 
amazing. The master-minds of the world go to their making, — the 
greatest of living thinkers, workers, story-tellers, poets, and artists. 
One must fall hopelessly behind the times if he fails to keep in touch 
with this treasure realm of knowledge and entertainment ; yet so vast 
is its extent that few can hope to cover it first hand. By limiting 
oneself to a few periodicals taken by the year, all but a very small 
portion of the field is overlooked. €LThe only sensible plan is to 
buy each month single copies of those magazines that contain the 
things one wants most to see. This plan has been made practicable by 
What's in the Magazines, a monthly publication which renders the 
mass of current magazine literature completely accessible to the busy 
every-day reader. Each issue presents a bird's-eye view of the maga- 
zine-contents of the month, with the aid of which one may gain in 
ten minutes as good an idea of what the current periodicals contain as 
though he had personally examined a copy of each. C. It is not a mere 
list of contents; neither is it a complicated and confusing library 
index. Everything is arranged and classified, simply but exactly; 
whether one is hunting up special subjects or the work of special writ- 
ers or merely looking out for good things in general, the arrangement 
is equally convenient. CIt is a vest-pocket Baedeker to magazine- 
land, — a periodical that brings all other periodicals into a nutshell; 
and so must prove indispensable to every busy intelligent person. 

We could fill 
many pages of 
this publication 
with enthusiastic 


THE Magazines, 
Here are a few 
good specimens: 

A genuine insplmtlon. — Emily Huntington Millxk. Bnglewood, N. J. 
Indispensable to any busy man. — Ssh FnuuUf Ckronielt, 

A splendid thing, and most fielpful to anyone whose time Is limited. 

— MsLviLLB B. Stonx* New York. 

I regard my subscription as the best llteraiy Investment I ever made. 

— BuGiNx L. DiDixK. Baltimore, Md. 
A veritable boon. Why has no brilliant mind been Inspired to this plan long 
before? — Lm AugtUt Svtmng Nttos, 

Just what 1 have been needing always. — Gblxtt Bukoxsi, Boston. 

Should be of Incalculable value. — Ckieag9 Rti^rd-HerM. 

A priceless boon to a busy man. — Hznkt Tuknxk Baiukt, North Sdtnate, Man. 

THREE MONTHS ^^ order that every reader of THE DIAL may become 
■ nriEiKi ■▼■v/i-^ ■ nw g^qm^jQi^^ ^^^^i WHAT'S IN THE MAGAZINES, the next three 


monthly issues will be mailed post-free for ten cents in 
stamps or currency. Mention this advertisement. 

Address What's in the Magazines, 203 Michigan Ave-, Chicago 


ran Asn BUXLDiiro, ghioaoo 

p I • • ll 

•V . ' 



\^C<1 V . 








FRANOIS F. BROWNE j ^o. ^. VyXll^^-a.lJVJ, H JSjD. X, X»UI. if.ayear. \ 906 Miehigaa BIWL 



**An aathorltatlTe and thorovhly modem edition . . . luperb premrork ttaroivhoiit . . . the belt stawle-ToHime 
Blukkaspewe In existence." — C^icoao Record- Herald. 

Bdlted'hsr Pxof. W. A. NeUeon of Harvard, in the Cambridge Poeta Series. With portraits, aoth, $M0. Postpaid. 


**The best thlnff of its kind in the Rngllsh langnage. ... An indispensable tool to the student and a standard of 
anthorltar." — Ths Interior, Full sheep binding. IB.00 net. Postpaid. 


A handbook of diplomacy as illustrated in the foreign relations of the United States, bj the greatest American 
anthoritj. Oontahis informaUon of Interest to every American dtlsen. 

** An important work . . . very readable and entertaining." — Cftfcaao Inter Ocean. 18.00 net. Postage, 90 cents. 


**One of the most notable pobUcations of the season.'*— Lott<«v<<te Evening Pott. 
Two Tolnmes. Illnstrated. IBXO net Postage 40 cents. 


" A work of exceptional interest gracefully and sympathetleaUy written ... a fall-length portrait of one of the 
BMMt pietaresqnecl American personalities."— PA<Z<MfoipAtoPre##. Illnstrated. 9 vols. 15.00 net. Postage 81 cents. 

WALT WHITMAN b, biu. p«r, 

** In dealing with the most dlffloolt of all sabjects in onr literary critleiam. lir. Perry has done our very best piece 
€iwork."^Th4>maM WentworthHigoineon. Illnstrated. tlJSOnet. Postage, 19 cents. 


** A more interesting book of misceUaneons reading on Rome we have not met in a long time.— iVeur York Tribune. 
Dlnstrated. Boxed, |6UX> net. Postage. 81 cents. 


"Of great valne and interest . . . foil of the wisdom that comes from large knowledge of hmnan nature."- San 
Franeiteo Chronicle. Illastrated. ISUX) net. Postage, 90 cents. 


'*It inttiOigently describes Chaucer's work, and ftamishes just the material needed by the non-professional reader. 
The comprehensiveness of the work Is remarkable." — BaUimore Sim. HUSO net. Postage. 8 centa. 


" A fresh, vigorous statement, a new appreciation of great literature . . . many striking and stimulating definitions." 
—WiUimanUe Chronicle. $LJBO net. Postage, 18 cents. 

TO THE LIBRARIAN. ~ There has been prepared and printed for free distribution, a descriptive 111 
of the Tolomes exhibited in the Afodd Library at the St. Louis Exposition, selected by the American Librmy 
Assodaiion under the direction of Mr. Melvil Dewey, and pnbliahed by Houghton, Mifflin ff Co, The list 
inelndaa abont 750 Yolnmes embraoing all branches of literature, and forms a yalnable and aoonrate guide 
to the more recent and important books. 

Send a postal gvoing your name and address, and we wHl take pleasure m mailing you a copy free of t^arge. 


64 THE DTATi [Feb. 1, 




Golddl Poems by Britiih and American Authors. New reyised (ninth) edition from new plates. 
With complete Indexes. $1.50. 

Thii if one of the beit and most standard anthologies for the library — as it is comprehensive. carefoUy classified* 
and wide in its appeal. 


The Glory Seekers. The Romance of Would-be Founders of Empire in the Early Days of the Great 
Southwest. With 16 portraits, and drawings by W. J. Enright. Indexed. Square 8vo. Net $1.50. 

" Adventurers who sought to weld an empire or to found a republic have left a trail of romaace after them in the 
memoirs of their times, but no book contains so compact or so interrelated an account as Mr. Brown's." 

EDWARDS, A. HERBAGE "" ^^^ ^^'^ ^^' 

Kakemono. Japanese Sketches. With frontispiece. ' Crown 8to. Net $1.7$. 

As an epitome of the Japanese attitude toward life, ** Kakemono " will charm all who have oooe fdt the fascinatioa 
of the " Land of Sunrise.** 

** It matters not where one daps into the book's ipiiet richness, it is all Japan." — Ckicsgp Ric§rd-HeraU. 


The Gkost in Hamlet, and Other Essays in Comparative Literature. i6mo. Net $1.00. 

** Professor Bgan*s style is always clear, reasonable, polished. The first seven essays in the votume are on varions 
aspects of Shakespeare, to which are addc^i three on other literary themes. Every page bears witness to the learning 
and critical acumen of the author." — Chicagp Rtcord-HerahL 


Future life, in the Light of Ancient Wisdom and Modem Science. Sec9ndEditi§n. 

With portrait of author. lamo. Net $1.20, 

** Of unusual interest, not only for its topic, but because it is han'dled in a truly scientific way, yet in terms the 
ordinary reader can understand." — Book iVtwt. 


Romola. An Historically Illustrated Edition. Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by Dr. Guido 
Biagi, librarian of the Laurentian Library, Florence. With 160 illustrations. 2 volumes, lamo, in slip 
case. Net $3.00. Uniform *witb McMaban*s *'Sbeiiey in Italy.** 

** This edition will Inve no with unfulfilled ; no spot unrepresented which furthers the comprehension of the 
reader of a masterpiece of a master mind." — Seattle Po*t-IntelUgencer, 


Japan As It Was and Is: A Handbook of Old Japan. By Richard Hildreth. In 

two volumes. A reprint edited and revised, with notes and additions, by Ernest W. Clement, and an 
Introduction by William Elliot Grifiis. With maps and 100 illustrations. Indexed. 2 volumes, xamo, 
in slip case. Net I3 .00. Uniform *witb Clement* s * * Modem Japan, * * 

** This new edition of the old and valuable work is of the highest value. The revision has been done by a nun 
thoroughlv competent to do it well, and the reiult is worthy of the nighest commendation. And the publishers have 
put it tortn in handsome style.*' — Salt Lake Triiune, 


POotB of the Republic The Romance of the Pioneer. Promoters in the Middle West. With 
portraits and drawings by Walter J. Enright. Indexed. Net $, 

** Mr. Hnlbert hai a capital ityle, and tells the stories of these gallant men in a most interesting way. His is not 
formal history, nor yet formal biography, but a happy medium between the two." — New Orleans Pieayume. 


Edouard Remenyi: Musician, Litterateur, and Man. An Appreciation. With portraits. 

Indexed. Large 8 vo. Net $1.7$' 

** It is a thoroughly personal book, such a sketch of a great man as one likes to read, for one then gets next to the 
soul, indeed, the inspiration that has moved many audiences." — CkUago Trihuae. 


Seventeenth and Elighteenth Coituries. Edited by John Cotton Dana, Librarian of the 
Newark Public Library, and Henry W. Kent, Assistant Secretary of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
Six volumes, thin i8mo, boards. Four volumes now ready. Send for descriptive circular. Regular 
edition limited to 250 Sets. Tbg set, net I12.00. Sold only in complete sets. 

" The two volumes before us and the four that are promised, form togiether a collection that should be studied by 
all library workers." — 7il< NatUn. 

** As specimens of bookmaking these charming little books are worthy of special note." — Ckicago Evening Pott, 








Hawaiian Yesterdays. Chapters from a Boy's Life in the Islands in the Early Days. With 27 
iHustrations from photographs and 2 maps. Indexed. Large 8vo. Ngt $2,00. 

*' The author fives tome delif fatful pictures of the islaads, the people, and the mannet of living. There is a good 
deal of life and color and much interesting statement, particularly as to the life of the kings and queens who ruled like 
despots over the tiny kingdom." — Pkiladtlpkis Inquirtr. 


With Bjrron in Italy. Being a Selection of the Poems and Letters of Lord Byron which have to 
do with his Life in Italy from z 8 16 to 1823. Edited, with Introductions. With over 60 illustrations 
from photographs. Indexed. i2mo. iNT^/ f 1.40. 

** The letters are all characterised by a dash and piquancy which reveal the author as amon^ the great letter-writers 
of aU time. They contain little comment upon Itahan scenery or art. but much about the Itaban people and their cus- 
toms.^ They reveal, moreover, the poet's intense love for Italy, which is less generally known or appreciated than his 
devotion to Greece. ... It is altogether a delightful book either for reference or for gift purposes.** 

— Chicagp Daily News, 


Venice, its Individual Growth from the Earliest Beginnings to the Fall of the Republic. Translated 
from the Italian by Horatio F. Brown, British Archivist in Venice and author of ' * In and Around Venice, " 
etc. Six volumes, 8vo, with many illustrations. Indexed. Section I. Venice in the Middle Ages, two 
volumes. Sold only in fwo-volume sections. Per section, net Is.oo. 

** To one interested in Venice it is from the nature of things indispensable. . . . The two volumes are particularly 
well illustrated, not only from pictures of archcologic interest, but from a still greater number of reproductions from 
nsinttngs and contemporary ohotographs of living interest. A word should also be said of the aopcarance of the volumes. 
The paper and type are exceUently chosen and the binding is very handsome and simple.*' — CluMgp Evnumg Ptu 


The Makers of Japan. With 24 illustrations. Indexed. Large 8vo. Net $3.00. 

" Mr. Morris is well acquainted with his subject, from long residence in Japan and near-at-hand knowledge of the 
men he describes and the situation he pictures.*' — Wiluam. Blliot Gairris. 


The True Story of George Eliot: With Especial Reference to ''Adam Bede.'' 

With 86 illustrations. i2mo. Net $1,7$, 

** William Mottram, the author of this illuminating study of greatness, was a cousin of George Bliot and the 

frandiicphew of Adam and Seth Bede. . . , It may be seen that he has exceptional opportunity for placing George 
lliot in a better light than former critics and bio|raphers have had and in enaoling the readers of the present day to 
judge of her character and her actions by clearer vision.** — LcmsviUt Cwritr-J^umal, 


Panama to Patagonia. The Isthmian Canal and the West Coast Countries of South America. 
With 4 maps and 50 illustrations. Indexed. Large 8vo. Net $, 

** We have every reason to expect from him first hand information both valuable and interesting. This, indeed, 
his volume contains ; it is one of the exceptionid books of travel made up of vital facts and not of trivialities.** 

— Lss Angeles T$mes. 


The Guilds of Florence. Historical, industrial, and Political. With many illustrations. Indexed. 
Tall royal 8vo. Net $5.00. 

** When he is bestowing information, which he does both copiously and clearly, his style is concise and business-like, 
and he says well what he has to say.*' — LamIou Timet. 


Folk-Lore of Women, indexed, zamo. Net $1, so. 

** The proverbial sayings, folk-rhymes, superstitions, and traditionary lore associated with the fair sex. He has 
made exhaustive search of many sources and has cuUed his material from writers of many countries.** 

— Ckieago Record'HermId, 


The Standard Operas : Their Plots, Their Music, Their Composers. New revised 

(ninetientb) edition, from new plates. With over 75 illustrations of leading characters. Indexed, 
zjmo. I1.75. 

** It is undoubtedly the most complete and intelligent exposition of this subject that has ever been attempted. From 
an educational point of view its value cannot be overestimated.*' — 5f. LMit RepukUc. 




[Feb. 1, 


PUBLISHED BY LITTLE, BROWN, & CO- boston, mass. 

Travel and Description 

(Southern California). By Gboboe Whabton 
Jambs. With colored frontispiece, 32 fuU-pa^ 
plates, and three hundred pen and ink sketches by 
Carl EyteL 2 toIs. 8yo. ^.00 net. 

** Twentj-flve yean of observation and ezpeilenoe In the 
desert have resulted in a remarkable and valnable work,'* 
says TJie Dial of these authoritative volumes. 

By Henbt C. Shbllet. With twenty-four full- 
page plates and one hundred smaller illustrations 
from photographs. 8yo. 1^3.00 net, 

"Barely does one oome upon so charming a literary 
sketch-book as this." — The Outlook, 

LANDS. By Makt E. Waujeb. With twenty- 
four photogravure plates. 8vo. 1^3.00 net, 

" She takes the reader into the very heart of Dutch life; 
when the volune is finished one feels that he too has 
lived for a time mmang these people." 

^Providence Journal. 

Peak to the Pacific. By Lhjak Whttzng. Fully 
illustrated from photographs. 8yo. 1^2.50 nef. 

**Miss Whiting's book is likely to remain the best de- 
scription of the Southwest as a whole." 

— Bpringfleld Republican. 

Miscellaneous Books 

MoBSB. Illustrated. Small 8yo. $2.00 net. 

** A plain account of the controversies over the interpre- 
tation of the carious nuu*kinirB of Mars, and of the diver- 
gence of opinion as to their nature. The book gives fall 
references to original sources of information." 

—New York Timet. 

AMERICAN FLAGS. By Pblbg D. Habbibon. 
With eight illustrations in color. 8vo. 1^3.00 net. 

** A work which must become practically a national text- 
book on all matters relating to the country's flags." 

— Botton Herald. 

LAST VERSES. By Susan Coolidob (pseud.). 
With Introduction by her sister, Mrs. Daniel C. 
Oilman. 16mo. Cloth, $1.00 net. 

** All her uncollected verses and some never before printed 
are included. They have true poetical feeling." 

—Botton Tranacript. 

By General A. W. Gbbblt of the United States 
Army. Illustrated. 12mo. 81.50. 

"An authoritative record of the most important polar 
expeditions, by the most reliable and best informed 
writer."— St. Louit Olobe- Democrat. 


THE DRAGON PAINTER. A Japanese Romance. 
By Mabt McNbil Fbnollosa (Sidney McCall). 
Illustrated. 12mo. 81.50. 

"It bears as plainly the marks of its author's knowledge 
and comprehension of Japanese nature and sympathy 
with Japanese motives and ideals as does the work of 
Lafcadio Heam." — iVeir York Tlmee. 

SOME CHINESE GHOSTS. By Lafcadio Heabn. 
New edition. 12mo. 81.50 net. 

** One of the best books ever written by this master of the 
weird and ocoalt." — San FranciMco Chronicle. 

Whabton Jambs. Dlustrated. 12mo. 81.00. 

The Dial rlasHfts this touching autobiography of a song 
sparrow with Jack London's " White Fang," as deserving 

THE SILVER CROWN. Another Book of Fables 
for Old and Young. By Lauba E. Righabds. 
12mo. 81.25. 
" Worthy of Hawthorne." — Pittsburg OazetU-Timee, 

Books for the Young 

STARTING IN LIFE. What Each Calling Offers 
Ambitious Boys and Young Men. By NATHAmBL 
C. FowLBB, Jr. With 33 illustrations. 12mo. 
81.50 nA, 

" It will prove of excellent and needed service to many 
young men. It is on different lines from any other book 
of counsel that I know, and gives information and sogges- 
tion which few could obtain otherwise."— JiMfp Aim 3f. 
Lamedt Ex-PreHdent of tTie American Library Attoei- 
ation^UUe Superintendent of Education atBuJfalo^N. Y. 

Johnson. Profusely illustrated by Willard Bonte. 
12mo. 81.75. 

A worthy companion book to the '* Oak-Tree Faizy Book," 
which was approved by the American Library Association 
for small libraries. 

LOTTE Chaftbb Gibson. Illustrated from photo- 
graphs. 12mo. 81.50. 

" A charmingly written story of a reel trip made around 
the world by three children." — Chicago Tribune. 

LONG AGO IN GREECE. A book of Golden 
Hours with the Old Story Tellers. By Edmund 
J. Cabpbntbb Fully illustrated. 12mo. 81*50. 

*' It has the particular merit that it follows the originals 
very dceely and preserves something of the atmosphere 
as well as the subject-matter of the famous old stories 
that it presents." "i^tfu^ York Timet, 




BESIDES being a book that ^^will long remain the standard work on 
*^ the Colorado Desert" f San Francisco Chronicle), Mr, James's descrip- 
tion of ^'one of the most fascinatingly interesting places in the world" 
(New York Mail) contains exceedingly timely chapters on the overflow of 
the Colorado River into the mysterious Salton Sea. 

The stoiy of how Mr. James and a few pioneer companions, in ronghly constmcted boats, 
followed the new course of the Colorado into the Salton lake, at one time cutting their way 
through an almost impenetrable mesquite forest, at others shooting turbulent rapids and 
narrowly escaping foundering as huge sections of the undermined banks fell into the rushing 
stream, raising gigantic wayes, is fidl of thrilling interest. Those who desire to learn the 
precise facts in regard to the Salton Sea will find them carefully assembled as a result of 
the author's special investigation. — New York Tribune, 



Its River and Its Mountains, Its Canyons and Its Springs, 
Its Life and Its History, Pictured and Described 

Including an Account of a Recent Journey Made Down the Overflow of the 

Colorado River to the Mysterious Salton Sea 


Autliorof 'Mn and Around the Grand Canyon," ^'The Old Missions of California," etc. 

** George Wharton James writes with unexampled 
authority. The two volumes are of extraordinary 
interest. Mr. James had a marvellously interesting 
subject and he has treated it skilfully and B,ttnxi- 
txYelj:' -- Philadelphia Press. 

«Mr. James is able to bring knowledge of much 
that is absolutely unknown to the average American 
reader."* — The QuOook, 

" A fascinating work, with minute descriptions of 
every phase of the Sahara of California and Arizona. 
What strikes the reader is the variety of informa- 
tion." — Chioaffo Tribune. 

" The most elaborate work he has yet done." 

— New York Evening Post, 

«The illustrations are conspicuously good and 
add to the intrinsic interest of Mr. James's valuable 
volumes." — Brooklyn Times. 

THE DIAL says : 

«' Twenty-five years of observation and experience in the desert have resulted in a remark- 
aMe and valuable work. 

•• Besides the very full and iiainstaklns descriptive and historical nmtter of these volumes, 
there are given more than three hundred admirable drawings from nature. Including a delicately 
beautiful cotored frontispiece, by Mr. Carl Eytel, and numerous full-page photographic prints.*' 

With map9 index, etc. 2 vols., 8vo, in box. $5.00 net. 



[Feb. 1, 

Ready in January 


Tie rtcoy of the fight between two nnacrupulous stock 
gHmbleifl for the poBiession of a channing English 
girl, who, unknowiL to hereelf, is the heiress to the 
coptroUing interest in an Anwrican railroad. Illus- 
trated by Cyrus Cimeo. $1.50. 


If a man is standing at the ferry and is suddenly greeted by a charming girl he 
has never met and told to run f(» the boat with her, is it &ur to expect him to 
sternly undeceive the young lady, who has mistaken him for an expected chum of 
her brother? A delightfully humorous tale. Dlustrated by Will Gref^. 91.25. 


" Written with aU Mrs. Steel's brilliance of ooloring and felicity of phrase. The 
atmosphere of the Welsh valley is finely reproduced ; we have read few descriptionB 
so full of idyllic beauty a^ the first picture of Aura's home." — Spectator. $1.50. 

MY LIFE AS AN INDIAN By j. w. schultz 

Mr. Schultz as a young man went to the Kaekfoot country, near Fort Benton ; 
and there, enamored of the life, became in fact an Indian, and won the hand of 
Nat>ah'-ki, a beautiful squaw. Illustrated from photographs. $1.50. 


Rtady February 26 

Friday the 13th 

This powerfully human novel 
would have an immense ap- 
peal, no matter who wrote 
it. But the uame of its au- 
thor makes it doubly inter- 


Ready March 7 

Nearest the Pole 

The discoveries of an Amer- 
ican explorer who has dime 
more to solve the mystery 
of the North Pole than has 
any other man. Many pho- 

$5.14, postpaid. 

Ready in March 

The Traitor 

Nearly half a million copies 
have been circulated of Mr. 
Dixon's former books, and it 
is safe to say that the " beet^ 
selling boo^" of March will 
be headed by "The TraitOT." 

aAiam \^/ botma \^/ mjSSSS 






The Spirit of Democracy 


Contains chapters on « Suffrage/' << Taxation/' 
•'Party Rule," « Immigration," « Labor Unions," 
** Socialism," and other important themes. 
$1.25 net. Postage 10 cents. 


Wagner's mnsio-drama retold in English verse. 

A companion book to the same anther's highly 
snecessful paraphrases of « Parsifal " and *< Lohen- 
grin " — a pleasing narratiye blank verse. Special 
type designs. 

75 cents net. Postage 8 cents. 

Famous American Songs 


An interesting and valuable account of the origin 
of ** Home, Sweet Home," « Dixie," « Star Spangled 
Banner," and other beloved songs. 

81.50 net. Postage 15 cents. 

The Spirit of the Orient 


Dr. Knox — traveller, lecturer, writer of nete — 
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Walter Taylor Field 67 


The prioM of English noyels.— Why Mr. Wright 
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among library workers. — Dreams of an endowed 
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BickneU 73 

THE RED PLANET MARS. Herbert A. Howe . . 76 


JoMtrow 78 



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A good many readers have lately been renew- 
ing their acquaintance with Ledie Stephen's 
^* Hours in a Library," that series of sane and 
delightful essays in literary criticism, — readers 
whose attention has been dius happily recUimed 
by reason of the reappearance of the four vol- 
umes in a new edition, and the recent publication 
of the author's ** Life and Letters." His own 
opinion of the work, as expressed in a letter to a 
friend, was characteristically modest. 

« I did not send it because — it is a veiy foolish rea- 
son — I am — do not mention it to any one — rather 
ashamed of it. I don't know why, but I have a sus- 
picion that I am not a good critic, or perhaps it is merely 
a case of distorted vanity. Lowell bullied me out of a 
copy; but I regretted it, and could wish that the book 
should not have crossed the Atlantic. However, you 
will be merciful as a critic of mine. Don't say anything 
about the book when you write again, or it will seem to 
me as though I had been fishing for a compliment. This 
is written on the understanding that you will preserve 
a judicious silence in the interests of my moral health. 
Publicity, as you truly say, is a poison, and private flat- 
tery is not much better.'* 

The whole tenor of Stephen's thought makes it 
obvious that there was no affectation in these 
words of self -deprecation, but justice to a book 
depends upon the public's verdict rather than 
the author's, and it has been rendered, in this 
instance, in terms that emphaticaUy contradict 
Stephen's own estmiate. 

We are not, however, at this late day reviewing 
the *' Hours in a Library," but have merely taken 
the title as a peg upon^hich to hang a fL dis. 
cursive general remarks. The expression ^^ hours 
in a library " means many thines to many minds, 
and wlS means in an/partiSar ease Vd^ 
wholly upon personal associations and experi- 
ences. To readers of old memoirs, and even more 
to those fortunate men and women who have the 
precious memory of a quiet period of youth and 
adolescence spent in some old-fashioned house 
with generous furniture of old-fashioned books, 
it means rich treasures of recollection,fond remin- 
iscences of exploration and discovery and wonder, 
as the mind recurs to those old days with their at- 
mosphere of delightful studies. To others, again, 
whose early joy in the companionship of books 
has been preserved as something more than a 
fading memory, who have not permitted the cares 



[Feb. 1, 

of the workaday world to sever them from that 
source of primary inspiration, but still keep them- 
selves surrounded by good literature and their 
daily lives sweetened by its ministry, the thought 
of ** hours in a library " has a vital content, and 
expresses the occupation which still makes life 
best worth the living. A few are themselves pro- 
ducers of literature, and pay direct tribute to its 
beneficence, as Mr. Allen to Malory in ^* The 
Choir Invisible,'* and Mr. Quiller-Couch to 
Babelais in ^^ Sir John Constantine." But most 
of those who continue ihroiigh all their lives to 
find in literature an ever-availing solace are con- 
tent to absorb without giving out — except in the 
natural reactions of thought upon environment, 
— and the world never learns what their *^ hours 
in a library" have meant, and still mean, to them. 

But the lapse of time works portentous 
changes in most human conditions, and in none 
more so than in this relation between men and 
books. The connotations of the term *^ library " 
have become so transformed that most men now 
advanced in years find themselves compelled to 
readjust both their ideas and their habits. In the 
old days, the word meant the private collection 
of books, upon which the personality of the col- 
lector was impressed, and which was hallowed 
by all sorts of tender and intimate associations. 
Tie qualifying adjectives ** public " and " circu- 
lating " were used to indicate inferior kinds of 
libraries, that might be f oimd useful upon occa- 
sion, but that could not touch the heart. They 
represented the utilitarian as opposed to the sen- 
timental, and whenever those two appeals come 
into rivalry, we know which will win with all 
persons of gentle instincts. But to<lay the li- 
brary, in the good old sense, has become a rare 
phenomenon ; for the word would surely be mis- 
applied to these simidacra of libraries, filled with 
expensive and unread sets of ^^ standard authors," 
which occupy certain conventional quarters in 
the homes of the rich, and are obviously nothing 
more than a part of the general scheme of lux- 
urious decoration. And the public library in its 
typical form (Bibliotheca Camegiana)^ which 
is what most men think of nowadays when they 
think of libraries at all, is not a good substitute. 
It is housed in an imposing but cheerless build- 
ing ; it buys the books named in the A. L. A. 
model catalogue; it classifies them upon the 
Dewey system; and it has rules. To spend 
*^ hours " in such a place may be profitable for 
many practical purposes ; it is not likely to feed 
the contemplative spirit, or prove stimulative to 
the production of essays in Stephen's manner. 

Along with this (probably inevitable) evolu- 

tion of the library into an institution, there has 
come into existence the modem librarian, — a 
very useful person, highly accomplished as an 
administrative officer, an expert in accession- 
listing and catalogue-making, a man alert to 
^and weigh ef^ryX^ew tohis craft, an 
admirable factor in an admirable scheme of 
organization. And yet something seems to be 
lacking. He is so completely a custodian of 
books, he is necessarily so occupied with their 
accidents, that he does not have the time, even 
if he have the disposition, to become their inti- 
mate. And since this is so, he cannot become the 
wise and helpful intermediary that his old-time 
predecessor was wont to be. The seeker for 
counsel will get from him bibliographical infor- 
mation in copious draughts ; he will hardly get 
that fertilizing inspiration which flows from a 
mind saturated with humanistic culture. In this 
respect, the evolution of the iype of the modem 
librarian has been analogous to thatof the modem 
type of imiversity president ; it has been an in- 
evitable evolution, we repeat, but it leaves us 
with a sort of wistful regret for the type that has 

This subject was brought to the attention of 
the Narragansett Conference last summer in the 
address of President Hill of the American Li- 
brary Association, who used the following words : 

<* There are those who claim that the old style libra- 
rian who knew bdoks has disappeared and his place has 
been taken by the modem librarian, who acts as the 
ezeontive officer of the institution. Such critics sigh for 
the library of old, with its musty tomes and its air of 
seclusion and repose; they long for the return ef the 
librarian with his quiet, dignified, studious air, and they 
resent the change to the utmost." 

And then the speaker suggested a possible re- 
conciliation of the two ideals, probably the only 
one possible for the large municipal library of 
our times. 

« To reach the highest degree of perfection the great 
public library must have not only its executive whose 
guiding hand will steer the craft through all kinds of 
business dangers, but also scholarly, studious men and 
women who know books and how to use them. Both are 
necessary to the welfare of the large libjraiy. The wise 
administrator is the one who, while keeping his eyes upon 
the needs of the whole system, has the ability to discover 
the specialists who are needed to round out the work 
of the library, and to place each in his own particular 

This is what Mr. Putnam has done with excel- 
lent results in our national library at the cap- 
ital ; it is what several of our larger cities are 
doing to the extent of which their resources will 
permit. jr^ 

Discussing the same subject upon still broader 
groimds. President Faunce urged upon the Asao- 




dation the importance of eoeoiiraging the old 
«« fattening " use of libraries as no less important 
than their use for purposes of research. 

" The library must encourage slow, painful, thoughtful 
reading. . . . The habit of reading as a substitute for 
thinking is worth nothing, but is sheer damage to the 
Biental fibre. . . . Our students need to use books not 
only as tools, but as friends. In the old days, when the 
reading of college students was far more promiscuous 
than to-day, they were accustomed to regard books al- 
most as personal acquaintances, and there was a genuine 
exchange and reaction of writer and reader. The modem 
method of reading is far more accurate and definite than 
the older method, and is obviously effective in securing 
results. But it must be supplemented by the * browsing ' 
of former days, by the large horizons which come from 
being set free in the oompanicmship of great minds." 

The ^^ hours in a library " which are spent in 
hiinting down references and verifying citations 
are by no means wasted, but they are not the 
hours that contribute to the strengthening of the 
tap-root of the intellectual life, nor are they the 
hours which, in the retrospect, are recalled as 
hours of unadulterated delight. 



It was not so very long ago that children in the 
public libraries, like dogs in the parks, were unwel- 
come unless kept in leash by a responsible attendant. 
If one of tender years happened to stray into those 
awful precincts alone, he was gently but firmly 
shown to the door and told to run away. But all 
this is changed now, and some of our public library 
authorities are even raising the question whether the 
children are not getting more than their just share 
of attention, to the neglect of their elders. 

The '* story hour " which has come to be a recog- 
nized institution in our best libraries is doing 
as much as any other library influence to interest 
children in good reading. A certain period is set 
mde, - wmetiineB ngularly each week, Minetiines 
on special occasions or holidays, — when the chil- 
dren's librarian, or an expert story-teller from with- 
out who has both sympathy and discrimination, 
gftthers the chOdren about her and tells them the 
tales that form the basis of our best literature. 
Idstening to stories is the natural approach to 
reading from books, and is the first step toward the 
acquisition of culture. 

But it is not only in the reading-room that chil- 
dren are made to know and to love books. As 
Mahomet to the mountain, so the library goes to the 
child if tlie child will not come to it The idea of 
the peripatetic library — the "travelling library" 
as it is now generally called — is in line with mod- 
em progress. In these twentieth-century days, space 
has been annihilated by raO and steam, inertia has 

been overcome, locality has been destroyed; the 
world is on wheels. What, then, so natural as the 
travelling library? 

We are probably indebted to the Scotch for the 
germ which has developed into this important sys- 
tem of book-distribntion. Early in the last century 
(in 1810, 1 believe it was), a collection of religious 
tracts was circulated in Scotland, augmented a few 
years later by books of standard literature and 
science. These ^^ itinerant libraries," so-called, 
flourished for more than two decades, but finally 
died a natural death. Thirty years after their disap- 
pearance, Australia developed a peripatetio system, 
and somewhat later the Universities of Oxfoinl and 
Cambridge sent out university extension libraries ; 
but the travelling library in this country dates from 
1889, and owes its origin to Mr. Melvil Dewey, 
Director of the New York State Library at Albany. 

The travelling library is simply an extension of 
the state library, or in some cases (as in Wisconsin) 
of the county library, twenty-five or fifty or a hun- 
dred books being sent out at once and entrusted for 
three months or six months to the care of a respon- 
sible person who becomes a local or sub librarian. 
This local librarian loans the books — to children 
as well as to adults — under a simple code of regu- 
lations, returning the entire library when it has 
served its purpose, and receiving in exchange a new 
selection of books, thus keeping alive the interest of 
the readers and stimulating them to read. Stations 
are established in viUage shops and postoifices, often 
in farm-houses at some distance from the towns but 
conveniently located with reference to the rural 
population. In a number of states, travelling libra- 
rians are employed. The travelling librarian is 
a real literary evangelist, preaching the gospel of 
good books. He strengthens the hands of the local 
librarian, revives the flagg^g interest, establishes 
new centres of culture, and carries light into the 
dark places. What a field of usefulness is open to 
him ! Coming into personal contact with hundreds 
of people, young and old, to whom the world of 
books is a terra ineognita, he rescues many a country 
youth from intellectual starvation, fans in some the 
spark which shall kindle into genius, and in others 
not so gifted stimulates the intelligent use of the 
powers which they possess — insuring at least better 
crops and broader citizenship. 

The transportation of the libraries from place to 
place offers a problem which each state is working 
out for itself. In some localities, notably in the 
South, the railroads, recognizing the philanthropy 
in the idea which underlies this library movement, 
are shipping the libraries without charge. In other 
parts of the country, the local centre pays a nominal 
amount to cover the cost of freight Mr. Dewey 
strongly adrocates, and has already put into commis- 
sion in New York, a type of library wagon, driven 
by a trained librarian, who, after the manner of the 
religious colporteur of a former generation, goes 
from station to station carrying his books with him. 

It may be asked how large a part the children have 



[Feb. 1,, 

in the trayelling library. I answer, a very large part 
In most libraries from one-fourth to one-third of the 
books are adapted particularly to children's use, and 
children are among the most devoted readers. In 
a small village in New York State, a girl of thirteen 
recently drew from a travelling library during the 
six months of its stay thirty-two books. A boy of 
fifteen drew twenty-five books. The statistics at 
other points show an interest almost as great 

Several of our large city libraries, notably the 
Carnegie Library of Pittsburg and the New York 
City Public Library, have adapted the travelling 
system to urban conditions, and are sending out into 
the tenements trained children's librarians bearing 
good books. The books, in libraries of from twelve 
to twenty volumes, known as '< home libraries," are 
placed in the hands of certain families who agp^ee to 
take care of them for a specified time and to loan 
them to such neighbors as may wish to read. Little 
circles are thus formed — for the most part of chil- 
dren, though grown-up members of the families join 
in them too. The library visitor comes once a week 
and talks to them, telling them stories, such stories 
as are told to the library children during the '^ story 
hour." TheiAhe makes the connection between the 
story and the book, taking a volume from the case 
and reading a few interesting pages from it After a 
friendly hour, she goes away leaving the seed to 
germinate. When one set of books are read through, 
she brings a new set and takes the old ones back — 
a little soiled, perhaps, but the city can weU afford 
to burn them and buy more, for the books are mak- 
ing citizens, and these children who are learning 
to read good literature will not need as many police- 
men to look after them a few years hence, tluuiks to 
the library visitor. 

Nor does this far-reaching philanthropy stop with 
the reading of books. The library worker gains the 
confidence of parents as well as of children. She 
learns the troubles and discouragements of the lower 
strata of society, and is able to give help. She does 
much of the work usually accomplished by the 
'< friendly visitor" of the charitable organizations, 
and does it more effectively ; for the class that of 
all others is most in need of aid and sympathy is 
shy in the presence of charity and often suspicious 
of the church. 

Another important movement in library extension 
has to do with the placing of libraries in the schools, 
its aim being to bring into accord the work of the 
two great educational influences of the present age 
— the public library and the public schooL When 
one stops to consider the many points at which the 
work of the librarian and the teacher overlap, it will 
be seen that a great saving of energy and an enor- 
mous gain in efficiency must result from this union. 
The function of the library is to put the right book 
into the right hands, — not only into the hands that 
are outstretched for it, but into those that most need 
it The librarian, busied with the details of admin- 
istrative work, — purchasing, classifying, catalogu- 
ing, keeping in order, — though she may have, and 

must have, sympathy with the children who frequent 
the library, cannot come into that close relationship 
with them which is enjoyed by the teacher, who luis 
them with her six hours in every day, Sundays and 
holidays excepted, who directs their intellectual 
progress and comes to know their needs more intel- 
ligently and often more sympathetically than even 
the parent 

These considerations have led to the development 
of a system in which the public library places its 
resources at the command of the schools, the libra- 
rian giving of her practical knowledge of the books 
and the teacher of her knowledge of the child. The 
librarian visits the school and talks to the children, 
tells them how to '< find things " in books, tells the 
younger ones a few good classic stories and suggests 
where they may find others, tells the older ones how 
to use a card catalogue, how to run down a refer- 
ence, where to find good material to help them in 
their history and geography. The teacher makes 
individual application of the librarian's generalities, 
and fits a particular book to a particular want The 
librarian is the specialist: she has at her fingers' 
ends the entire literary pharmacopoeia, and is skilled 
in the uses of all sorts of material ; but the teacher 
is familiar with the child's constitution and habits — 
a sort of knowledge quite as important Consulta- 
tion of this sort is in accord witii modem practice, 
and is yielding pronounced results in schoolrooms 
where it has been tried. The books are supplied 
from the school library so far as the school library 
can meet the demand, but beyond that point the 
public library is drawn upon, and offers from its 
greater resources a wide range of reference material, 
and books on special subjects appropriate either to 
the work of the class or to the celebration of the 
annual festivals and the birthdays of great men and 
women. These books are sent to the schoolroom for 
reference or distribution, and the school is thus 
made, in effect, a branch library, — or, if you please, 
a travelling library station. 

If the public library is convenient to the school, 
— and in villages it always should be, — the refer- 
ence work is often best done in the library itself. 
This method has the double advantage of affording 
a quiet place in which the pupil may work without 
distraction, and of familiarizing him with the library 
— helping him to acquire the " library habit" If 
the alliance of school and library accomplished 
nothing beyond this, it would be well worth all the 
efforts that have been put forth in its behalf. 

The object sought by both librarian and teacher 
is the culture of the child, particularly the develop- 
ment in him of a discriminating love of books ; for 
this is the straight road to culture. The child is 
placed, by law, under the influence of the teacher 
during just those years when, if ever, the reading 
habit is formed and the trend given which deter- 
mines the child's intellectual life. It is a critical 
period, and no agency should be overlooked which 
can contribute toward the end in view. 

In such ways as these the public library is reach. 




ing out after the children. In the country farm- 
house, in the city tenement, and in the schoolroom, 
as weQ as under its own roof-tree, it is hringing to 
them the knowledge of a great new world — a world 
of opportunity, of encouragement, of delight It is 
extending their vision over distant lands and hygone 
centuries, acquainting them with the secrets of 
nature and the mysteries of science, opening their 
hearts to the sweet influences of -poetry ^ and point- 
ing out to them the paths of wisdom and of right- 
eousness. Walteb Taylor Field. 


The pbices or English novels, more particularly 
the prices at which they sell best, are discussed in a re- 
cently reported interview with that veteran publisher of 
sixty years' experience, Mr. Edward Maiston, whose 
octogenarian reminiscences were lately reviewed in our 
pages. EKs observations are pertinent at this time of a sup- 
posed demand for a reduction in book-prices — in strik- 
ing contrast with the marked advance in all the costs of 
manufacture. Many of Wilkie Collins's novels were pub- 
lished by the firm with which Mr. Marston was so long 
connected; and it is a curious fact that, whereas these 
works had an enonnous sale in their three-volume form 
at half a guinea a volume, and generally a good sale in 
the one-volume form at six shillings, at two shillings they 
fell flat. (Query: might not this have been partly due 
to their having been already widely read in periodicals?) 
In the same way, all of Mr. Blackmore's novels were 
very successful as « three-deckers," and afterward not 
nnsuocessful as six-shilling one-volume books; but they 
sold much less readily when offered for half a crown 
— with the single exception of « Loma Doone." And 
thereby hangs a tale. The issue of this ever-charming 
story chanced to fall at the time of the marriage of 
Princess Louise to the Marquis of Lome, and the im- 
pression prevailed that Loma and Lome were in some 
way connected, — a mistake that proved advantageous 
to all concerned. In the case of Black's novels the same 
pronounced disinclination to buy cheap editions mani- 
fested itself, and the half-crown reprints caused a serious 
loss to the publishers. Mr. Marston's experience seems to 
show that, leaving out of account the ** penny dreadfuls " 
and the " shilling shockers," the British public prefers 
to buy its favorite fiction at a fair price, or about six 
shillings ; and this preference is further illustrated by the 
poor sale of short novelettes unless they are made up and 
offered in six-shilling form, even though the matter con- 
tained be but a third or a quarter of that in the ordinary 
novel. • • • 

Why Mb. Wright is to give us a new life of 
Pateb is explained in the publisher's announcement of 
the forthcoming volume. The biographer wishes to 
correct a number of « staggering errors " said to have 
been committed by previous biographers. " (1) It has 
been asserted that in boyhood and youth Pater showed 
no precocious signs of a desire to write. Mr. Wright 
shows that he was perhaps the most voluminous boy- 
aothor who ever lived. (2) It has been asserted that 
in childhood Pater never wrote poetry except a few 
humorous verses. Mr. Wright has in his own posses- 
sion many hundreds of lines of serious poetry written 

by Pater in his eariy years, and can show that he wrote 
thousands of such lines. (3) It has been said without 
contradiction that Pater was popular at school. Mr. 
Wright shows on the contrary tluit nobody could have 
been more unpopular there. (4) It has been set down 
again and again in print that Pater's chief interest in 
his early life was plulosophy. It was not so. His chief 
interest during his youth and early manhood was En- 
glish literature. (5) Students of Pater will remember 
that a biographer asserts that his metaphysical studies 
did not destroy his strong religious instinct. On the 
contrary they did, and for many years Pater was quite 
severed from religion. (6) The legend found in most 
accounts of Pater — the legend that he wrote very few 
letters — is proved quite a falsification of the f actd in 
Mr. Wright's * life.' He wrote an enormous number of 
letters — as many as four hundred to a single friend, 
and most of them long letters." Well, we shall see 
what we shall see. As to the fifth item, Mr. Wright 
Would seem to have set himself a difficult task, — to 
read the mind's construction in the writings of a man, 
and to read it so accurately as to tell just when faith 
and when skepticism predominated. It is pretty well 
known that at Pater's death he was thinking seriously 
of taking orders. • • • 

** Subterranean ltterature" in Germany appears 
to have as large a sale as in our own and other coun- 
tries. The monster editions of such hair-raisers as 
** Jack the Ripper," and similar manuals for the fitting 
of vagrant youth to follow careers of crime, pass unno- 
ticed, in fact unsuspected, by the readers of Walter 
Pater, of Mr. Meredith, and of Mr. Henry James. But 
a German authority says that issues of seven hundred 
thousand copies of what we used to know here as ** dime 
novels " are not unusual. Indeed, the dime novel, now 
apparently suffering a decline in this country, is ravag- 
ing the land of the Teutons, where most of the boys are 
said to prefer an American Indian story to any other 
tale. The frontier adventures of trappers and scouts, 
the prairie perils from wolves and redskins, the mighty 
encounters with the formidable grrizzly bear — all these 
make the young heart of Germany beat with rib-rending 
throbs. This interest in stories of the Mohawk brand 
dates back as far as 1823, when Cooper's novels began 
to fire the blood of the juvenile reader. Imitators were 
not slow in following the trail blazed by the master; and 
now he is a feeble writer who cannot out-Cooper Cooper 
by several hundred thrills per volume. There are said 
to be at present in Germany some five himdred firms 
engaged in the production of Cooperesque tales, with 
three thousand travelling salesmen to place the direful 
output on the market. The illustrations vie with the 
text in sensational quality, and (alas I ) a book of about 
two hundred and fifty pages can be bought for less than 
our dime. • • • 

An irritatino practice among librart workers 
is touched upon by the Boston "Transcript" in the 
course of some recent commendatory remarks about 
that energetic and indispensable library monthly, 
"Public Libraries," which has just entered upon its 
twelfth year. The practice referred to is that of libra- 
rians and library journals in the use, or rather the non- 
use, of capital letters and quotation marks. "What 
good does it do," asks the "Transcript," "to omit 
these from book titles, until an appearance of almost 
entire illiteracy is obtained ? If it saves the time of 
the compositor it wastes that of the reader, for he has 



[Feb. 1, 

to go iNick and read the title a second time to find out 
where it begins and ends. We know that this is the 
result of a library philosophy which taught that anything 
on earth could be sacrificed in order to save a few 
seconds' time, but that does not endear it to us. . . . 
Because our ancestors used what seems now an unnec- 
essary number of capital letters, we are not justified in 
trying to abolish them altogether, any more than the 
fact that those ancestors wore lace, frills, and long wigs 
justifies us in suddenly rushing into the street without 
any clothes at all." It is sincerely to be hoped that 
" Public Libraries " may see fit to ti^e the lead in doing 
aWay with some of these confusing, distressing, and 
freakish practices which, along with certain orthograph- 
ical deformities, have crept into tolerance among library 
workers. ... 

Dbkams of an endowed theatre may still be per- 
mitted to hopeful soids, in spite of the fact that some 
recent local experiments in that direction could hardly 
be called inspiring. It may be that the idea may yet 
be worked out on a natioiml basis; and it is to this 
form of it that Mme. Ristori addresses herself in her 
article in the January « Putnam," written but a few 
weeks before her death, — an article prompted by her 
interest in and her enthusiastic recollections of Amer- 
ica, and by her reading in the theatrical journals some 
announcements of a project to establish an endowed 
national theatre in New York. She deplores the present 
state of affairs in the theatrical world, with its numerous 
*' stars " and countless companies, all scrambling for a 
livelihood, to the detriment of high art and the dis- 
comfort of artists. <' Should the example of Rome and 
Milan be generally followed," she writes, in very hope- 
ful vein, after referring to the endowed theatres in 
those two cities, '<the art of acting will steadily advance; 
we shall have fewer stars, but more really good com- 
panies. This is the solution of the difftculty that we 
have reached in Italy, and I shall be deeply interested 
in seeing how the same problem is solved in America." 

• • • 

BRmnsTikRs'B successor in the French Academy 
is yet unnamed, and the question of a choice is of 
interest to many outside of France as weU as within. 
Mistral has been spoken of, and doubtless deserves the 
honor. But there is a difficulty. Our Provence poet 
is seventy-six years old, and at that age the grooves 
ftfe commonly worn so deep that there is a rude jolt in 
getting out of them. He would have to visit Paris at 
least once if he accepted Academic honors, and Paris 
he has never loved. In fact, he has seldom left his pa- 
ternal acres since the day when, asked what he meant 
to be, he replied, «A poet." With remarkable and 
admirable persistency he has remained true to his high 
calling and has lived the life he purposed to live. A 
lonely and even pathetic figure he may appear, holding 
himself aloof from the great world and deploring the 
mad rush of his countrymen from rural quiet and peace 
to urban din and strife; but there is grandeur in his 
solitude, and sublimity in his high ideal of religion and 
beauty as inseparably connected with a peaoef id country 

K«e- ... 

An announcement from Mr. H. G. Wells which 
will interest Americans, and especially those who are 
students of the race question, is found in the following 
words attributed to him. « I have dealt," he says, in 
speaking of his writings on America, " very frankly with 
the color question, and it is quite possible that I may 

ultimately make it my subject and give a large portion 
of my life to it." Surely there is need of a prophet's 
wisdom in treating our vexed negro problem, and who 
knows what this prophetic novelist may accomplish if 
he carries out his half-formed plan ? Half the serious- 
ness he bestows on his mammoth rats and long-tailed 
comets and all the marvellous creations of the marvel- 
lous future might well be given to a few of the pressing 
problems of the living present. 

• • . 

both creditable and useful, as is shown by the Cambridge 
(Mass.) Public Library, which has expended a part of 
its surplus energy in preparing and publishing a biblio- 
graphy of Colonel Higginson. Few writers live to see 
a bibliography of their work that covers sixty-three yean 
of literary activity, as. this one does; and it is still more 
remarkable that in using this little book, as the veteran 
author has used it since its appearance, he is reported 
as unable to find a single error of importance. Four of 
Mr. Higginson's books have been translated into French, 
three into Grcrman, one into Italian, and one into modem 
Greek. Considering the difficulty, the impossibility 
rather, of turning dialect into another tongue, one notes 
with surprise a French « Vie Militaire dans un Regiment 
Noir." Seventy-eight books and articles about Mr. Hig^ 

ginson are entered in this interesting list. 

• . • 

Rural free dbuvert for lebraribs is following 
in the wake of rural free delivery of letters, and, ac- 
cording to reports, with equally happy results. A good 
illustration is furnished by the Free library of Hagers- 
town, Maryland, whose library- wagon is now in the third 
year of its beneficent work of dispensing intellectual 
pabulum to the neighboring rural regions. Besides this, 
over sixty deposit stations are maintained throughout 
the county, and supplies of books are sent out regularly 
to numerous day schools and Sunday-schools. Although 
but five years old, this enterprising library circulates 
more than eighty-five thousand volumes annually with 
only about seventeen thousand volumes wherewith to 
aclueve this result Can a better record than this be 
shown? • • • 

The fubuc ubrart as an educational force 
is evidently growing in importance. An aggressively 
managed institution of this sort is that at Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, as appears from a recent circular issued by 
it under the title, ** The Right Start," which is sent out 
to the young people of the city, with a personal letter 
from the librarian. « Have you ever thought of con- 
tinuing your education while you are at work ? " asks 
the circular; and it proceeds to make known the great 
educational opportunity open to all who choose to fre- 
quent the library, attend its free lecture courses, inspect 
its exhibitions, and read its books and periodicals. Such 
enterprise speaks well for the institution, and for the 
community in which it is located. 

• • • 

The smallest book ever printed has just been pub- 
lished at Padua by the Salmin Brothers. This miniature 
curiosity measures only ten by six millimetres (about 
three-eighths by one-quarter of an inch) — a veritable 
thumb-nail volume, or in fact much smaller than any but 
a Tom Thumb's thumb-nail. Each page has nine lines, 
and though the print is extremely small it is. perfectly 
clear and legible — to good eyes. This tiny booklet 
contains a hitherto unpublished letter from Gralileo to 
Christina of Lorena. 




Cj^ie ^tia $00b. 

Thx Hohskix>hb Mbmoibs.* 

Since the publication of Bosch's life and let- 
ters of Bismarck, no book has created the stir 
in official Germany that has been roused by the 
** Memoirs of Prince Chlodwig of Hohenlohe- 
Schillingsfuerst." Lieutenant Bilse's ^* In einer 
Ueinen Gamison " provoked indeed a tempest, 
but the teapot was small and soon emptied. 
This time, however, the matter is more serious. 
The Emperor has reproved the eldest son of the 
late Prince for permitting the indiscretion of 
publication ; he has shifted the responsibility 
upon his brother, Prince Alexander, and he in 
turn upon Professor Curtius ; while the latter 
blames the importunate publisher. Doubtless 
the printer's devil is the one ultimately to blame. 

IMnce Chlodwig von Hohenlohe-Schillings- 
fuerst was a Bavarian statesman, and during 
the important years 1867-1870 was at the head 
of the Bavarian ministry. Prior to that time he 
had filled a series of diplomatic positions that 
took him, first or last, to nearly every European 
capital. As a prince of the blood and related 
to various royal houses, connected by intimate 
&mily ties with Protestantism though himself 
a Roman Catholic, possessed of great wealth 
and broad culture, he was not only brought into 
intimate connection with all the leading men of 
his time, but in his diplomatic career he was 
informed as to the negotiations that led to many 
a check and counter-check in the political game 
of modem Europe. As a member of the Reichs- 
tag after the establishment of the Empire, then 
as Ambassador at Paris from 1874 to 1885, and 
from 1885 to 1894 as governor at Strassburg, 
he was not only in close touch with Bismarck 
up to the latter's retirement from office, but 
was intimately associated with the Emperor 
William I. and his successors. From 1894 till 
almost the end of his life he was Imperial 
Chancellor, resigning from that office in the 
Autumn of 1900. 

Upon the occasion of his eighty-second birth- 
day, in March following his retirement from 
office, the Prince requested Professor Friedrioh 
Curtius to help him write his memoirs. He did 
not, however, live even to b^in the work, and 
the task of fulfilling his wishes was left to his 
8<m, Prince Alexander, with whom Professor 


nrsBST. AatliortBed by Prince Alexander of HohenJohe-Sohil- 
Ungirfnerit* mod edited by Friedrioh Curtius. Eoffllah edition 
■aperriaed by Qeorve W. Chrystal. B.A. In two volumes, with 
phoftocrmTure portraits. New York: The MacmUlan Co. 

Curtius collaborated. We have, then, not an 
autobiography, nor in the ordinary sense a bio- 
graphy, but instead an annotated compilation 
of material upon which the Prince had expected 
to draw in refreshing his memory and in round- 
ing out the story of his life. Private letters and 
journals constitute the bulk of this materiiU, 
which has been made public, *^ so far," to quote 
Curtius, ^^ as publication seems advisable." This 
limitation appears to have been taken somewhat 
easily, for certainly very much is included that 
so tactful a diplomat as Prince von Hohenlohe 
would have hesitated to give to the public. The 
struggle, resulting from aggression, compnv 
mise, and concession, out of which the national 
unity of Gretmany was bom, is still so reoent 
that it possesses personal rather than historical 
interest. To the historian of the next century 
these memoirs will be invaluable in portraying 
the characters of William I., Bismarck, and 
other leaders and participants in it ; but to-day 
many a statement must seem to those person- 
ally interested as a slur upon the memory of 
dear friends. 

A few instances of such indiscretion may be 
of interest. Thus, in speaking of the eightieth 
birthday of William I., the Prince mentioned 
in his diaiy a dinner at Bismarck's at which 
Marie von Bismarck told him that he was the 
only man upon whom her &ither could rely, and 
that he had often thought of him when he was 
tired of vexations and wanted to resign. The 
diary continues : 

« Afterwards I spoke with Gontaut I tlimk the Im- 
perial Chanoellor attaches much too much importance 
to him. He is, after all, an insigmficant chatterbox. In 
the same way Bismarck makes too much of the claptrap 
of the Empress." 

Again, in 1880, he sketches the situation as 
follows : 

« The Chancellor is at Yarzin in a nervous state, and 
hesitates to come because he is afraid that the Kaiser 
and everyone else will give him too much to do here. 
The Kaiser is losing his memory to some extent, does 
not remember what he has signed, and becomes rude at 
times when he hears that something has happened which 
he thinks he has not been told about." 

Bismarck's feigning illness, and his continual 
threats of resigning, are repeatedly mentioned. 
Thus, in 1872 the Prince states : 

« Yesterday a rumor was spread that Bismarck was 
again unwell, and that he would have to retire to the 
country for six months. As I had seen him some few 
days previous looking fresh and healthy, I thought this 
was curious, and I expected he was simply playing 
truant. This was the case. Bismarck has difftculties 
with the £mperor. His powerful and imperious nature 
cannot stand the pressure which the old gentleman 
brings to bear upon him." 



[Feb. 1, 

But enough ; such pasaages are of frequent 
oocurr^ioe. Whatever else they amount to, 
they certainly tend to obscure "the awe and 
majesty of kkigs " by bringing them down to a 
very human level ; and so they certainly do not 
tend to further the desire of William II. to 
have his grandfather go down to posterity as 
*^ William the Great." Indeed, one most inter- 
esting thing in the book is the way in which 
Prince von Hohenlohe was constantly called 
upon to be the ^^ buffer " between Bismarck and 
William I. Sometimes his influence was sought 
by one party, sometimes by the other. Thus, 
in 1879, in die matter of the alliance with Aus- 
tria, Bismarck summoned the Prince, talked 
him over to his view, and then sent him to the 
Emperor. Bismarck was threatening to resign, 
the Emperor to abdicate ; but the Prince was 
able to settle the matter. In October, 1874, 
the Chancellor and the Emperor had some diffi- 
culty over the speech from the throne. The 
Emperor wished to ^^ water down " what Bis 
march had written in regard to foreign affairs. 
The Prince thus reports his conversation with 
the Emperor: 

«The Emperor quoted the passage from memory, 
and said he feared it was open to the construction that 
we were prepared to make war again upon France. And 
this was out of the question. He was too old to begin 
another war, and feared that Prince Bismarck was try- 
ing to drag him little by little into fresh hostilities. 
This was why he was so suspicious. I said that if the 
Prince had any such intention I must have been the first 
to know of it, but that I had not the faintest inkling of 
anything of the kind. That passage of the speech 
referred not to coalitions against us, but to the insinua- 
tions that had been got up against us. The Emperor 
stroked his beard, and said, without replying to my 
arg^ument, < I shall fall out with Prince Bismarck again 
over this matter, and it would gratify me if you would 
put it before him once more from my point of Tiew.' " 

But to turn from this phase of the memoirs 
to those features that give the book more per- 
manent interest. One of the characteristics of 
statesmanship is the ability to read the signs of 
the times. This ability Prince von Hohenlohe 
possessed. Thus, in an article on the political 
condition of Grermany in 1847 he points out that 
** It is a mistake to try to dam the Eevolution 
by liberal reforms in the individual States with- 
out reforming Germany as a whole." He sin- 
cerely desired a united Germany, but what he 
wanted was ^' a real, politically efficacious unity," 
and till the various governments would approach 
the problem in a serious and self-sacrificing 
spirit he was opposed to the so-caUed progress 
and to concessions which he felt led directly to 
revolution. At this time he took the ground of 

an ultra-Conservative and opposed the Frank- 
furt resolution calling for a Constituent National 
Assembly, for he regarded it as. practical an- 
archy. The subsequent course of events fully 
justified his position. His feeling toward the 
Churoh was much the same. In faith, he wanted 
something vital. Speaking of the fact that many 
educated men are either devoid of faith or accept 
the ordinances of the Church only as a matter 
of form, he says : 

** But will such conventional homage to the Church 
endure? Will not the effects of this knowledge without 
faith spread to those classes of society which can have 
no interest in subordinating themselves to the Church 
and her dogmas, to the discipline and mortification 
which she imposes? Will not a total collapse be the 
end, or rather has it not even now begun to spread 
among the lower classes? . . . And if this result comes 
about, we must face the bankruptcy of faith, a catas- 
trophe which must infallibly lead to the collapse of the 
whole structure of modem civilization. For all that, it 
would be childish to regret the discoveries of natural 
science. They are for a wise and useful end, because 
they have their place in the development of mankind." 

At about the same date the Prince said, in 
another discussion of the same problem, ^' I be- 
lieve that mankind will create for itself aformof 
faith adapted to it, and become religious again." 
This certainly shows a broader outlook upon re- 
ligious matters, as well as a saner forecast of half 
a century's development, than can be claimed for 
many less orthodox believers than was Hohen- 
lohe ; indeed, he never seems to have shrunk 
from any advance that meant true progress. 

His attitude as a member of the Catholic 
Church and as a German patriot is strikingly 
shown in the following paragraph regarding th^ 
expulsion of the Jesuits : 

« I can never admit that a Jesuit can do anything 
independently of his superiors. The discipline of the 
Order is much too strict for that. ... If the Jesuits 
agitate in Posen and in Alsace, they do this nnder the 
command of their superiors, empowered by their Order; 
and for this it is answerable. When the Jesuit Father 
Schrader, in his book. The Pope and Modem Ideasy 
advanced a whole system of theories dangerous to the 
State; if the CwUta CaUdica and the Korrespondem of 
Geneva — the first under the eyes of the Pope, and the 
latter with his expressed approval — both being edited 
by Jesuits, both proclaim the sovereignty of the Church 
over the State; when the local Bavarian papers, under 
the control of the Jesuit Father Weisser, d^uly preach the 
shattering of the State; when the Osserwitore Homano, 
conducted by Jesuits, reminds us that no heretic can be 
Emperor of Germany, that the Pope must dethrone him 
and the people drive him away, — then these are no 
<rash journalistic excesses,' but facts of such impor- 
tance that no one can shut his eyes to them. From the 
Catholic standpoint, it may be regrettable that we are 
not a Catholic country with a Catholic dynasty. But 
this objective complaint must not be made the spring 
of political action, and it can still less be tolerated that 



anyone in Crennany makes it the starting-point of an 
attftck upon the Empire. This the Jesuits have done 
sinee the institution of their Order, and to this they 
are eommitted, — that is, to the violent extermination 
of Protestantism. What will happen if we tolerate ten-* 
dencies for which we have to thsnk the Thirty Years' 
War, and which can lead to nothing else than a renewal 
of the Wars of Religion? I am therefore always of the 
opinion that the German people must expel the Jesuits 
in self-defence; and if you object that I, as a Catholic 
Prince, have no right to participate in this, I answer that 
I am in all things a Oerman Prmce, and as such must do 
my duty." 

One exoeedindy interestine feature of the 

memoirs is the %ht thrown uion the relations 

of BiBmarck and the present Emperor of Grer- 

many. The question has been much discussed 

and much befogged, but in a passage in the 

journal is an account of a conversation in which 

the Emperor gives his version of the affair. 

** The Emperor reUited the whole story of his differ- ' 
ence with Bismarck without interruption. He said that 
relations had become strained as early as December. 
The Emperor then desired that something should be 
done upon the question of the workmen. The Chancellor 
objected. The Emperor's view was that i£ the Govern- 
ment did not take the initiative, the Reichstag — in 
other words, the Socialists, the Centre, and the Pro- 
gressives — would take the matter in hand, and that the 
Government would be forced to follow them. The 
Chancellor desired to bring the Socialist law, including 
the provisions of expulsion, before the new Reichstag 
onoe again, to dissolve the Reichstag i£ it rejected the 
law, and to take energetic measures in the event of a 
revolt. The Emperor objected to this policy, saying 
that if his grandfather had been forced to deal with 
rebels after a long and glorious reign, no one would 
have thought the worse of him. But he was himself in 
a different position, for he had as yet achieved nothing. 
. . . He was ready enough to act, but he wished to be 
able to act with a clear conscience, and first to make an 
attempt to satisfy the legitimate grievances of the 
workmen, and at least to do eveiything that was possi- 
Ue to fulfil their justifiable demands. In a conference 
with his ministers, the Emperor therefore demanded 
that decrees should be dmited containing those pro- 
visions which the decrees afterward secured. Bismarck 
declined to hear of it. The Emperor then brought the 
matter before the Cabinet Council, and eventually se- 
cured the proposal of the decrees notwithstanding Bis- 
marck's opposition. Bismarck, however, was secretly 
working against him. . . . This friction had consider- 
ably disturbed the relations between Bismarck and the 
Emperor, and these were further strained by the ques- 
tion of the Cabinet Order of 1852. Bismarck had often 
advised the Emperor to grant the ministers access to 
himself; and this was done. But when communication 
between the Emperor and his ministers became more 
frequentf Bismarck took offence, became jealous, and 
revived the Cabinet Order of 1852 in order to break 
communications between the Emperor and the minis- 
ters. The Emperor protested, and demanded the repeal 
of the Cabinet Order; Bismarck made a show of con- 
sent, but nothing was done in the matter. The Emperor 
therefore demanded that he should either issue an order 
of repeal or hand in his resignation. This decision the 



Emperor communicated through Hahnke. The Prince 
hesitated, but gave in his resignation on March 18. . . . 
The question at issue was, as the Emperor went on to 
say, whether the HohenzoUem dynasty or the Bismarck 
dynasty should reign." 

The memoirs afford delightful glimpses of the 
Prince's private life, of his genial and imperturb- 
able good temper, of his cultured appreciation 
of poetry and art. Space forbids further cita- 
tions, even when that is the only way to give a 
just impression of the work. The translation, 
supervised by Mr. George W. Chrystal, B. A., 
is satisfactory and apparentiy adequate. The 
typography i worth/^pecild colLendation. 
The chief source of regret is that Prince von 
Hohenlohe did not live to supervise the prepa- 
ration of the work ; in that case those elements 
that have provoked censure would doubtiess 
have been omitted, and the whole work rounded 
out into a biography in the ordinary sense of 

the term. Lewis A. Rhoades. 

Thb IjIbrarian and his Chabge.* 

As long ago as the middle of the seventeenth 
century, to go no further back, the "librarie- 
keeper " was conscious of the dignity of his call- 
ing and the precious nature of his charge. A 
quaintiy interesting series of reprints, styled 
collectively, "Literature of Libraries in the 
Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," is now 
appearing, under the careful editorship of Mr. 
John Cotton Dana, public librarian at Newark, 
N. J., and Mr. Henry W. Kent, librarian of the 
Grolier Club in New York. The first four nmn- 
bers of the set of six are Cotton des Houssayes's 
Sorbonne address on " The Duties and Qualifi- 
cations of a Librarian," John Durie's two letters 
to Samuel Hartlib on " The Eef ormed Librarie- 
Keeper^' Bev. James Kirkwood*s two tracts on 
founding parochial libraries in Scotland, and 
Sir Thomas Bodley*s autobiography and first 
draft of statutes of the library founded by him 
at Oxford. 

It was in December, 1780, that the modest and 
learned scholar, the Abb^ Cotton des Houssayes 
(1727-1783), delivered his brief address, in 
Latin, on assuming a librarian's duties at the 
Sorbonne. Publication speedily followed, and 


BioHTBBMTH Cbntubibs. Edited by John Cotton Dana and 
Henry W. Kent. 1. The Duties A Qnaliflcations of a Librarian. 
By Jean-Baptisie Cotton des HouBsajes. 2. The Reformed 
Librarie>Keeper. By John Dury. 8. Two Tracts on the Found. 
tag and Maintalnlnff of Parochial Libraries in Scotland. By 
James Kirkwood. 4. The life of Sir Thomas Bodley. written 
by himself, together with the First Draught of the Statutes of 
the Publick Libraiy at Ozon. Chicago : A. C. MoGlurg St Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

traiisbitioiiBy in both Fiencb and EngUsh, have 
appeared. The yersion now printed chiims to 
be only partly new, but it commendi itself to the 
reader aB a scholarly piece of work. A selected 
passage emphasizing the librarian's high calling 
and needed qualifications will convey an idea of 
the whole. Throughout the treatise, its author 
shows himself awake to his possibilities of use- 
fulness, and at the furthest possible remove from 
Ae porition taken by that ea«>.loviiig Bodleiao 
librarian who felt that his post would not be 

so very disagreeable if only the ed visitors 

would keep away. 

*<ToiiT librariaiit gentlemen, is in some sort yonr 
official representative. To him is remitted the deposit 
of yonr glory. . . . Thus, therefore, your librarian 
should be, above all, a learned and profound theologian; 
but to this qualification, which I shall call fundamental, 
should be united vast literary acquisitions, an exact and 
precise knowledge of aU the arts and sciences, great 
fiusility of expression, and, lastly, that exquisite polite- 
ness which conciliates the affection of his visitors while 
his merit secures their esteem. A librarian truly worthy 
of the name should, if I may be permitted the expression, 
have explored in advance every region of the empire 
of letters, to enable him afterwards to serve as a finthful 
guide to all who may desire to survey it.^' 

Emerson's slighting reference to the librarian 
as a man in whom we are not to look for learning 
merely because he lives among books, would 
have certainly incensed the erudite Abb^. His 
discourse, though not exceeding two thousand 
words in length, is full of sensible ideas, and 
ideas which, however familiar now, must have 
appeared ^^ advanced " in the speaker's day. 
Tbe editors' bibliographical and prefatory mat- 
ter is all that could be desired ; and the compo- 
sition, press-work, and binding of the book are 
equally excellent. 

The Letters of John Durie (1596-1680) on 
^* The Reformed Librarie-Keeper " antedate the 
Abba's little tract by a century and a quarter. 
The writer's active and somewhat troubled life 
as a religious reformer receives due attention 
in an introductory ^' Biographical Sketch " by 
Miss Ruth Shepard Grumiss ; but the occur- 
rence of the word ^* graft," even in quotation 
marks, tends to give one a slight shock, as a 
littie out of keeping with the tone, the atmos- 
phere, the sober decorum of the littie volume as 
a whole. Durie's friendship with Samuel Eb,rt- 
lib, and his family connection, as &ither-in-law, 
with Henry Oldenburg, bring him indirectiy 
into interesting association with Milton. The 
biographical sketch informs us that ^* in 1649 
Bulstrode Whitelock was appointed keeper of 
the king's medals and library," and that John 
Durie was soon afterward named as his assistant. 

Strictiy speaking, of course, at the time of 

these appointments the medals and library could 

not be called *^ the king's "; but whether serv 

ing kmg or parliament or commonwealtii, Durie 

was assistant library-keeper for a few years 

before he resumed his restless wanderings and 

his unsuccessful labors for Protestant unity. 

No whit less than our French Abb^ did he feel 

the dignity of his calling and the great future 

opening to all library workers, as a brief extract 

will make evident. 

<<For if Lihrarie-keepers did understand themselvs 
in the nature of their work, and would make themselvs, 
as they ought to hee, useful in their places in a publick 
waie; they ought to becom Agents for the advancement 
of universal Learning: and to this effect I eould wish, 
that their places mi^t not bee made, as everie where 
they are, Mercenarie, but rather Honorarie; and that 
with the competent allowance of two hundred pounds 
a year; som emploiments should bee put np(m them 
further than a bare keying of the fiooks." 

What some of these *^ emploiments " are, he 
proceeds to specify; and it almost starties the 
reader to find how many modem ideas are 
dothed in his ,p«unt «>d >,«« phraaeology 
and spelling. He very sensibly &ivors an expan- 
sive system of book location, but his scheme of 
classification is amusingly rudimentary to a 
twentieth-century librarian. This little volume, 
like its ccMnpanion, is irreproachable in style 
and finish. Yet one queries why the editors 
chose to depart from the old spelling of Durie's 
name, printing it *^ Dury," which would have 
looked strange to its owner. 

^* An Overture for Foimding and Maintain- 
ing Bibliothecks in every Paroch throughout 
the Kingdom," published anonymously at Edin- 
burgh in 1699, is now, we are assured by its 
present editors, a tract of great rarity. Its 
authorship is traced to the Presbyterian minister, 
James Eirkwood (1650-1708), a brief sketch 
of whose life precedes the reprint of the above- 
named tract, to which is added a second, dealing 
with the same general subject, and entitied ^* A 
Copy of a Letter anent a Project for erecting a 
Library in every Presbytery, or at least Coimty, 
in the Highlands." It is by means of this second 
littie treatise that the authorship of the first is 
determined, but when or where it was originally 
published, the editors do not say ; nor do they 
venture any assertion as to whetiier our philan- 
thropist's endeavors bore fruit. Undoubtedly 
he was ahead of his age : the times were not ripe 
for public libraries. Yet the ultimate results of 
his zeal may have been considerable. Among 
other curious details of his scheme is one whereby 
the time allowed for retaining each volume was 




to depend on its size and the distance of the 

borrower's home from the library. Our first 

subfloription library, that founded by Franklin 

in Philadelphia, had a somewhat similar rule. 

The exalted motives to Kirkwood's exertions in 

this field find partial expression in the following 


« Seeing Grod hath made all men by nature desirons 
of Knowledge, nndonbtedlj the witiiifying of this desire, 
most be a oonsiderable part of our natural felicity; for 
tlie only delight of our Souls, whieh are our better part, 
in which the Body doth not partake, is the delight She 
taketh in Knowledge and Contemplation." 

Mr. Birrell's pleasant essay, ^' In the Name 

of the Bodleian," which forms the title-chapter 

to his latest collection of essays, must have 

aroused in many readers a fresh interest in Sir 

Thomas Bodley (1644-1618), founder of the 

famous Oxford University library 'that bears 

his name. The fourth member of the series 

under review contains his *^ Life," written by 

himself, and his *^ First Draught of the Statutes 

of the Public Library at Oxon." A preface by 

Miss Granniss gives further details about both 

the man and his libraiy to eke out the modest 

record he himself has given of his doings. Of 

his benefactions to the university where he both 

studied and taught, he says very little, according 

more space to lus honors and achievements as a 

diplomat, but limiting his entire autobiography 

(written in 1609) to some three thousand words. 

His **' Statutes " run to nearly twice that length, 

and from them we take a short passage to 

illustrate the benevolent writer's old-fashioned 

charm of style. 

** Above all things, that may ooneem the Preservation 
of this our publick Place of Study, or the Benefit, Use, 
and Ease of those that shall frequent it, it is deemed 
expedient, that some one be deputed to the Custody of 
it, that is noted and known for a diligent Student, and in 
all his Conversation to be Trusty, Active, and Discreet; 
a Gradoat also, and a Linguist, not encumbred with Mar^ 
riage, nor with a Benefice of Cure. For it cannot stand 
with piety, that such a Charge should admit the continual 
Society of other publick Lnployments; and Marriage is 
too fall of Domestical Impeachments, to afford him so 
maeh time from his private Affairs, as almost every 
Day's neoessity of his private Presence will require." 

JBodley's r^ard for books amounted almost 
to reverence. Remembering the sad fate of 
previous public collections of books at Oxford, 
he prescribed a penalty of instant and igno- 
minious ejection from the imiversity for so 
much as making ** any Change in any Line or 
lanes. Word or Words, Syllable or Letter, in 
any Author whatsoever," or for being even an 
involuntary witness to such wicked act without 
dsnouncing the offender within three days. This 
volume is marked by the same ezceUence of 

workmanship that characterizes the other three. 
As a whole, this series pronuses to be a delight 
to the bibliophile as well as to the Ubrariaa. 
The two numbers still to appear are : a transhi* 
tion of Justus Lipsius*s *^ De Bibliothecis Syn- 
tagma," Antwerp, 1602 ; and Gabriel Naud^'s 
^* News from France. Or, A Description of the 
Library of Cardinal Mazarini," London, 1662* 

Percy F. Bickkell. 

Thk Ujsd Plai^kt Mabs.* 

During the present year the planet Man, 
which has given astromHners so merry a chase 
during the past few years, arrives at one of the 
&vorable oppositions when its distance from 
the earth will be less than forty millions of 
miles, and details upon its surface will therefore 
be more easily seen than they usually are. 
Since public curiosity will soon be aroused, 
there is a certain timeliness in the nearly sim- 
ultaneous publication of two books upon our 
interesting neighbor. 

The first of these is an essay by Professor 
£. S. Morse, who has spent most of his long life 
in zoological studies. The study of life upon the 
earth has produced in him an intense interest in 
the question as to whether intelligent life exists 
in odier worlds. Believing that any man pos- 
sessing a fair amount of intelligence is compe- 
tent to make a critical estimate of the work of 
astronomers upon Mars, he has essayed the task 
of sitting as judge upon their labors, of sifting 
the observational evidence at hand and pro- 
noimcing judgment in no hesitant fashion. The 
reader must not expect to find in the book the 
calm attitude of the man of science who looks 
at the matter in hand from all sides, examines 
the evidence pro and con, and then states his 
conclusions with the modesty which befits one 
who is aware of the uncertainties pertaining to 
the subject. The present author takes the view- 
point, rather, of ihe special pleader, marshals 
the evidence that bolsters up the theory he is 
advancing, ridicules opinions divergent from his 
own, and leaves the reader in a state of wonder 
as to what arguments might be advanced on the 
other side of the question. Such a course, how- 
ever, when adopted by a man whose rhetorical 
ability is undoubted, at least leads to the pro- 
duction of a very readable book. 

The general trend of Professor Morse's argu- 

*Hab8 akd Its Mystbbt. By Edward 8. Mone. With 
lUnstratlons. Boston : Little, Brown, A Co. 

Mabb AiTD In Oakajjb. By Percival LoweU. mastmted in 
phoUwrmTore, etc. New York: The MaomillAn Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

ment is as follows : First, life in other worlds 
is inherently probable. Second, a network of 
lines marks Uie surface of Mars. Third, the 
lines are most easily accomited for on the sup- 
position that they mark the courses of irrigati^ 
canals. Fourth, these irrigating canals have 
been constructed by intelligent beings. This 
simple line of argument the author elaborates, 
enlivening nearly every chapter with personal 
allusions to well-known astronomers who have 
had the fortune, or the misfortune, to express 
opinions upon Mars. He has apparently 
overstepped the limits of polite language when 
he makes the following comments upon some 
astronomers and astronomical writers whom he 
mentions by name : 

« But what could we expect of the mentality of the 
senior assistant of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, 
who, with the great yault of heaven crowded with 
enigmas awaiting an answer, should waste a particle of 
gray matter in trying to ascertain precisely where Joshua 
stood when he commanded the Sim to stand still so that 
he could have a little more time for his bloody work." 

<< I appeal to any honest and unprejudiced mind if a 
more incompetent person of the class to which he belongs 
could have been found in England for the Directorship 
of such a body." 

** His attempt is as childish and ridiculous as the 
theory he conjures up." 

« This is certainly a happy thought of the reverend 
author, only it would seem in this case that a larger and 
more diversified corps of specialists, including alienists, 
is needed to attend to that class of astronomers who are 
suffering from mental strabismus. It might be advisa- 
ble to call in the services of a bacteriologist to make 
cultures of new forms of microbes which may be in- 
volved in rendering men incapable of estimating the 
value of evidence." 

Professor Morse spent a month at the Lowell 
Observatory in Arizona, where he was given 
opportunity to observe Mars on every clear night 
with the 24-inch telescope. Here he came to ap- 
preciate the difficulties connected with the study 
of the system of canals. On pages 80-81 he 
describes his initial sensations. 

** Imagine my surprise and chagrin when I first saw 
the beautiful disk of Mars through this superb telescope. 
Not a line I not a marking I The object I saw could only 
be compared in appearance to the open mouth of a cru- 
cible filled with molten g^ld. Slighter discolorations 
here and there and evanescent areas outlined for the 
tenth of a second, but not a determinate line or spot to 
be seen. Had I stopped that night, or even a week 
later, I might have joined the ranks of certain observers 
and said < Illusion,' or something worse. And right here 
it was that my experience with microscopic work helped 
me; for, remembering the hours — nay, days — I had 
worked in making out structural features in delicate 
organisms which my unprofessional friends could not see 
at all, I realized that patient observation would be re- 
quired if I was to be successful in my efforts. My despair, 
however, was overwhelming when Professor Lowell and 
his assistants, looking for a few moments at the same 

object, would draw on paper the features which had been 
plainly revealed to them, consisting of definite shaded 
regions, a number of canals and other markings, of which, 
with the utmost scrutiny, I could hardly detect a trace." 

In replying to the natural objection that 
physical conditions on Mars may be so very 
different from those on the earth that such forms 
of life as we know may not be able to exist 
therC) the author has written a very interesting 
chapter in which he shows the astonishing va- 
riety of circumstances imder which life of various 
forms exists upon the earth. Animals df mar- 
vellous delicacy live at the bottom of the ocean 
in darkness and under a pressure of many tons 
to the square inch. Some forms of plant-life 
thrive in water nearly at the freezing point, and 
others exist in that which is. almost ready to 
boil. Evep men live in temperatures ranging 
from 180^ in the shade to 70^ below zero ; they 
can work at an altitude of 19,000 feet, or under 
an atmospheric pressure of twenty-five or thirty 
pounds to the square inch, without injury. 

Anyone who is at all interested in the ques- 
tion of the existence of intelligent life in other 
worlds may well pass a pleasant evening in 
perusing the pages of this entertaining book. 

Of a very different sort is Professor Lowell's 
latest book on ^' Mars and Its Canals." Eleven 
years ago he issued a very attractive popular 
work on this subject, and during this interval 
he and his assistants have assiduously observed 
the ruddy planet at every favorable opportunity. 
These observations have stronely confirmed the 
opinions originaUy expressed by Professor 
Lowell, and have enabled him to fill in details 
in gratifying fashion. The observations have 
been made at his private observatory at Flag- 
staff, Arizona, where a 24-inch glass, of Alvan 
G. Clark's workmanship, is mounted at an ele- 
vation of eight thousand feet above the sea. In 
order to make out delicate planetary detail, it 
is absolutely necessary that the atmosphere at 
the observing station be both clear and steady. 
One who merely works witii a microscope hi 
the quiet air of a laboratory has no adequate 
conception of the difficulty of seeing minute 
details when one has to look throufifh many miles 
of an agitated atinospheric oo^, lad^ with 
dust and water vapor, and often charged with 
ice-spiculae in its upper layers. 

Apart from the question of the existence and 
function of the Martian canals, the author be- 
lieves that the following conclusions, from his own 
observations and those of others, are reasonable : 
First, that Mars has days and seasons substan- 
tially like our own. Seeond, that its enveloping 




atmosphere oontains water vapor, carbonic acid, 

and oi^gen, and is quite rare, the barometric 

pressure being probablj no greater than four 

inches. Third, that water is very scarce, as 

shown by the inf requency of clouds and the 

rapid melting of the polar caps in sununer. 

Fourth, that the temperature is colder than ours, 

but above the freezing point of water except in 

winter and the extreme polar regions. Fifth, 

that v^etation springs up when the polar snows 

melt, and dies away in due course. 

The difficulty of the observations which lie 

at the basis of all reasonable theorizing about 

the much-discussed system of canals and the 

existence of intelligent beings on the planet, 

may well be described in Professor Lowell's 

own words. 

** When a fairly acute-eyed observer sets himself to 
scan the telescopic disk of the planet in steady air, he 
will, after noting the dazzling contour of the white 
polar cap and the sharp outlines of the blue-green seas, 
of a sudden be made aware of a vision as of a thread 
stretehed somewhere from the blue-green across the 
orange areas of the disk. Gone as quickly as it came, he 
will instinctively doubt his own eyesight, and credit to 
illusion what can so unaccountably disappear. Graze 
as hard as he will, no power of his can recall it, when, 
with the same startling abruptness, the thing stands 
before his eyes again. CouTinced, after three or four 
such showings, that the vision is real, he will still be 
left wondering what and where it was. For so short 
and Qudden are its apparitions that the locating of it is 
dubiously hard. It is gone each time before he has got 
its bearings. By persistent watch, however, for the best 
instants of definition, backed by a knowledge of what 
he is to see, he will find its comings more frequent, 
more certain, and more detailed. At last some partic- 
ularly propitious moment will disclose its relation to 
well-known points and its position be assured. First, 
one such thread and then another will make its presence 
CTident; and then he wiU note that each always appears 
in place. Repetition m ntu will convince him that these 
strange visitants are as real as the main markings, and 
are as permanent as they. . . . Not everybody can see 
these delicate features at first sight, even when pointed 
out to them; and to perceive their more minute details 
takes a trained as well as an acute eye, observing under 
the best conditions." 

Our author has devoted half his book to a 
detailed description of observations of the canals 
and to theories as to their nature and origin. 
These tantalizing objects were even photo- 
graphed ; joyful was the day when this feat was 
accomplished ! 

<< The eagerness with which the first plate was scanned 
as it emerged from its last bath may be imagined, and 
the joy when on it some of the canals could certainly 
be seen I There were the old configurations of patches, 
the light areas and the dark, just as they looked through 
the telescope, and never till then otherwise seen of hu- 
man eye, and there more marvelous yet were the grosser 
of those lines that had so piqued human curiosity, the 
canals of Mars. ... By dumce on one of the plates a 

temporal event was found registered too, the first snow- 
fall of the season, the beginning of the new polar cap, 
seen visually just before the plate happened to be put 
in and reproiduced by it unmistakably. Upon the many 
images thirty-eight canals were counted in all, and one 
of them, the Nilokeras, double. Thus did the canals at 
last speak for their own reality themselves." 

We are now ready to ask for an explanation 
of the nature of these delicate markings. The 
author shows that their complex behavior may 
be accounted for by a theory which he unhesitat- 
ingly advocates. This theory is that there are 
narrow waterways extending in a complete net- 
work over the surface of Mars ; when the polar 
snows melt, the released water flows equator- 
wards through these waterways, quickening 
vegetation along their banks and causing it to 
develop from the polar regions onward. This 
vegetation flourishes for a time, dies out, and is 
again renewed seasonally. If we grant that 
vegetation somewhat similar to our own exists, 
the author asks us to admit that animal life, 
which is closely coexistent with vegetable life on 
the earth, is likewise associated with it on Mars. 
On page 358 he says : 

« Once started, life, as palteontology shows, develops 
along both the floral and f aunal lines side by side, taking 
on complexity with time. It begins so soon as secular 
cooling has condensed water vapor into its liquid state; 
chromacease and confervse coming into being high up 
toward the boiling point. Then with lowering temper- 
ature come the sea-weeds and the rhizopods, then the 
land plants and the lunged vertebrates. Hand in hand 
the flora and fauna climb to more iatricate perfecting, 
life rising as temperature lowers." 

Professor Lowell believes that the water 
would not flow along the canals from a pole 
downward across the equator unless artificially 
helped ; this help he ascribes to beings of a high 
order of intelligence, who have fashioned the 
canal system. He calls particular attention to 
the fact that the canals connect small round 
dark spots which are scattered over the planet*s 
face, going with geometrical precision straight 
from one '^ oasis " to another. These *' oases " 
he considers centres of population. The popu- 
lation he esteems '' necessarily intelligent " and 
of a ^^ non-beUicose character.*' How firm his 
conviction is may be judged from the first sen- 
tence of the last chapter, which reads as follows : 

« That Mars is inhabited by beings of some sort or 
other, we may consider as certain as it is uncertain what 
those beings may be.'' 

Whether the reader can accept the author's 
conclusions or not, he will at least be forced to 
admit, after reading ^^Mars and Its Canals," 
that the book is an exceedingly able and inter- 
esting exposition of the subject. 

Herbert A. Howe. 



[Feb. 1 


Tlie life of a scholar in nineteenth-centiuy 
England, inclined by temperament and ill-healtli 
to the quiet content to be sought &r from the 
madding crowd, leaves a literary record without 
stir of adventure or thrill of triumph, but one 
eagerly appreciated by such as are sympathetic 
with the dukrm of letters. GreorgeBirkbeckHill, 
best known for his notable edition of Boswell's 
Johnson, found in heredity and environment a 
potent shaping of his fate. Son and grandson 
of a schoolmaster, he, along with his 'brothers, 
was early initiated into preceptorial service in 
the family's large boarding-school for boys, of 
which for eighteen years he in turn served as 
partner or master^ The natural path for the 
career led through Oxford, which he entered in 
1855 at the age of twenty. There the deter- 
mining influences — a not imcommon experi- 
ence — were his companions, a notable group of 
yoimg men who presently formed themselves 
into a club which they called the ^^ Old Mor- 
tality." The names of the original members 
are, almost without exception, now in the rolls 
of the distinguished: Professor Nichol, Pro- 
fessor Dicey, Mr. Swinburne, Professor ThomaB 
Hill Green, the Right Honorable James Bryce, 
Dr. Caird (Master of Baliol), Dr. Birkbeck 
Hill, and Mr. Justice Wright. An equally 
intimate companion was William Morris. A 
contemporary, not of the club, records that 
^*they were a revolutionary set, and read 

Young Hill's Oxford letters were divided 
between his father and Miss Scott (to whom he 
vns early engaged, and who became his helpful 
life-mate), with a natural preponderance, both 
in number and intimacy, in favor of the latter. 
Here is one of them : 

** Yefterday I was in Swinbun^e's rooms. I wish yon 
knew the little fellow; he is the most enthusiastic fellow 
I ever met, and one of the cleyerest. He wanted to read 
me some poems he had written, and have my opinion. 
They are really very good, and he read them witii such 
an earnestness, so truly feeling everything he had 
written, that I for the first time in my life enjoyed 
hearing the poetry of an amateur." 

In 1857 the " Old Mortality" club became 
responsible for a magazine, to the first issue of 
which Birkbeck Hill contributed his maiden 
literary effort in the form of a story. Mr. Swin- 
burne's contributions were essays on *^ Early 
Dramatists " and ^' Modem Hellenism " (aimed 

* Lbttbbs of Gborob BntxBBCK HiUi, D.aL. Amuured by 
his danfirhter, Lucy Cramp. With portxmita in photoKraTiira. 
New York: LongmanB, Green, St Co. 

at ** our Professor of Poetry, Matthew Arnold "), 
and the poem ^* Queen Yseult"; and it was 
Swinburne who assembled the enthusiastic com- 
pany in his rooms *^to welcome in the little 
stranger." But the printer was late. 

« Though we had not the tatiBf action of having the 
paper itself, we stall managed to drink its health in yerj 
good claret, as well as the health of each contributor, 
and the absent editor [Nichol] also. So we made TCiy 
merry indeed; and though the baby was not there, stiU 
the christening was very successfid." 

The arduous labors connected with the man- 
agement of the school at Bruce Castle, Totten- 
ham, and the cares of their own large family, 
became ever more wearing. In 1877 Dr. Hill 
and his wife gave up the school and removed to 
Burgfield, near Reading. His life from now on 
was that of a man of letters with precarious 
income, rendered more so by the almost chronic 
interruptions of ill-health. While yet a school- 
master he had become a constant reviewer, and 
in 1874 had brought out a little book, *^ Dr. 
Johnson, his Friends and his Critics," a venture 
upon which, according to Mrs. Hill's careful 
accounting, he lost just £8. In 1879 his imcle 
Sir Rowlaiid Hill died, and Birkbeck Hill be- 
came the biographer of the founder of Penny 
Postage. The next year he performed a similar 
service in bringing out the Letters of Colonel 
Gordon from Central Africa. The three years 
from 1883 to 1886 were devoted wholly to the 
magnum opua^ the six-volume edition of Boswell; 
and in the last of those years, in the interests 
of the work, he removed to Oxford. An edition 
of "Rafiselas," also of "The Traveller" and 
the Letters of Hume, and a selection of John- 
son's writings under the title "The Wit and 
Wisdom of Dr. Johnson," were the contribu- 
tions of 1888 ; in 1890 appeared the " Foot- 
steps of Dr. Johnson," and in 1892 a collection 
of Dr. Johnson's Letters. Some lectures given 
by Dr. Hill in 1891 were made up into a little 
volume, "Writers and Eeaders." In 1893 Dr. 
Hill visited America ; and the experience bore 
fruit in an account of " Harvard College, by 
an Oxonian," while his contributions to " The 
Atlantic Monthly " became a sheaf of " Talks 
about Autographs." 

The charm of Dr. Hill*s personality instantly 
made itself felt in almost any company. His 
comment upon his college friend Faulkner — 
later of the famous art firm of Morris, Marshall, 
Faulkner & Co. — " It would never occur to him 
whether a man were a duke or a chimney-sweep," 
may appropriately be applied to himself. On 
the whole, he would have preferred the chiamey- 




sweep, if we may judge by the foUowing letter, 
to the same Faulkner (1879) : 

" Can yoa not giYe me » day or two hare on your way 
back to Oxford? ... I met Morris in ooming here 
yesterday, and travelled down with him. . . . Have you 
any work to do, here is your place to do it. We have 
risen a step — a very great step in the world — since we 
last saw you. The County has at last called on us, in 
the shape of the Right Honourable . I re- 
turned the call, and was plunged in the midst of a lawn- 
tennis party. I was taken past a bench of young ladies 

and seated by Mrs. . When once there, I 

dared not move. I was eonseious that I was staying too 
long, but I could not face the young ladies again. "[Diere 
were some miUtary swelU there in great yeUow mus- 
taches. I was in a flannel shirt. How I suffered ! Lord ! 
— I mean Right Hon! — what is man that thou so re- 

gardest him ! Old himself was not bad, but the 

awells and swellesses ! I will introduce you to them, 
and we will talk in our most Radical style, and damn all 
parsons and squires, and speak disrespectfully of the 
House of Lords, llie worst of me is that while I can 
roar like a lion in writing, I am as fearful and weak- 
▼oieed as a mouse before respectable people. You shall 
be Moses and the spokesman, and I will be a chorus.*' 

Dr. Hill*s candor and sincerity of thought and 
speech made it quite impossible for him to deal 
tolerantiy with presumption, dupUcity, privilege, 
or dogmatism. He was liberal in politics and re- 
ligion, as in letters. Accurate, considerate, with 
a 8clM>lar's standards and ideals, the whole- 
souledness of his interest made him as eager in 
oneoocupationas in another. The most delightful 
of companions, an adored friend of children (some 
of his channing writings to the Uttle ones have 
been gathered in ^* Letters of a Grandfather " ), 
he carried with him the subtle attraction of hav- 
ing only to be himnftlf to be at once your friend. 
Straightforward in thought, and with keen in- 
sights, his opinions were sound as well as incisive, 
while over all there played the genial humor of a 
kindly simplicity. Good talk he enjoyed, and 
practised his own preaching. 

** It ou^t to be taught as one of the chief duties of 
life that each one is bound so to train and store his mind 
that he may take his part in pleasant and general talk. 
* Thou shalt not bore thy neighbor ' might well be added 
to the Commandments." 

lliese qualities impart to his letters (which, it 
must be remembered, are for the most part the 
intimate communion of husband and wife, of a 
fiither with his children) at once a sterling interest 
and a personal charm. Always ready for foolery 
and the lighter vein, he ever gave a serious sub- 
ject serious attention. Thoughts, as men, he 
valued for their real worth. Reputation, conven- 
tion, the sanction of majorities or superficial 
consideration, influenced him littie. His com- 
ment upon a bit of fine writing in Renan is char- 
acteristic: '^ There is one passage about beautiful 

women which might have been written by at least 
ten thousand French fools, and so should not have 
been written by Renan." 

His interest in America, though brought to the 
venture of two trans-Atlantic journeys through 
the marriage of a daughter to Professor Ashley, 
sometime professor at Harvard University, was 
dominantiy in a land in which worth had an un- 
trammelled chance to assert itself. *^ There are 
four great cradles of liberty in the world — so I 
reckon them — Grreece, Holland, England and 
New England.'* He focussed his attention upon 
one of our institutions which it was well that the 
English cousin should comprehend. He willingly 
records, ^^ What progress Harvard is making ! 
She strides while our Universities crawl." Yet 
he equally brought forward the benefits of seeing 
ourselves as others see us ; and a dozen years* 
experience vindicate the sharp-sightedness of the 
Oxonian spectacles. Not the least of our short- 
comings — the reviewer may be permitted to add, 
not out of harmony with the spirit of Dr. Hill's 
strictures — is that we offer so littie incentive 
and provide so sparingly for the living of such 
scholarly lives as that so pleasantiy recorded in 
the letters of George Birkbeck Hill. 

Joseph Jastrow* 

Withstanding the Gods.* 

''* Love thou the gods and 'witfaatuid them, legt thy fame 
ahoold fail at the end, 
And thou be but their thraU and bondaman, who waafc 
bom for their very friend." 

With this quotation from Sigurd the Volsung, 
Mr. Grarrod begins his book, ^^ The Eeligion of 
all Good Men." *' I could almost think," he 
says on a later page, *^ I could almost think it 
the last word in religion." 

It is the great merit of this littie work, that 
it excites those veiy sentiments which its author 
regards as appropriate to religion. As we read, 
we not only admire the writer's eloquence and 
originality, but we come to have a sympathetic 
affection for his personality; and yet we are 
stirred up to wrestie with his arguments, in 
de&ult of that personal encounter for which we 
instinctively yearn. In the preface we are offered 
a sort of excuse for the book. 

" What I want to say needs, I think, at this time to be 
said by somebody; and it is better that I should say it 
imperf eotly than that nobody should say it at all. . . . 
And let me here say this: there is a danger that I may 
change my opinions. But there is also a danger that I 

* Thb Rbugiok op all Qood Mbn, and Other Studies in 
Christian Ethics. By H.,W. Oarrod, Fellow and Tutor of Merton 
College. Oxford. New York : Mcaure. PhUlipa A Co. 



[Feb. 1, 

may lose the courage of them. Ten yean hence I may 
have the courage only of other people's opinions. My 
enyironment [Oxford] is one where the < shades of the 
prison-house ' too early close in upon youthful enthusi- 
asm. Sooner than elsewhere, one ceases to be < on his 
way attended by the Vision splendid,* and begins to think 
and feel and speak conventionally and acAdemieally. 
Everywhere around me I hear the praise of the < middle 
course,' of compromise, of suspended judgment; and I 
see the love of truth corrupted into the sophistic pas- 
sion for believing both sides of a contradiction. I see 
the folks of my little world the victims, aU of them,.of 
one or two diseases — the disease of having no opinions 
{* the balanced mind ') or the disease of not expressing 
ihem (< moderation '). Yet we all know that the just 
balance is motionless: nor have we ever seen in history 
intellectual progress bom of an elegant laissez-faire.** 

And so, secretly aware of the cheerful — nay, 
enthusiastic — permission of the discriminating, 
and scornful of the protests of the multitude, 
this extraordinary Fellow proceeds to correct 
some of the most ancient misunderstandings of 
our Christian world. In the first section, headed 
^^ Christian, Grreek, or Goth,*' it is maintained 
that in addition to Christianity and Hellenism 
we have a third but little-recognized force, which 
is Northern or Gothic in origin. It is suggested 
that whereas historical Christianity has in the 
past come in for a great deal of criticism, it is 
now rather ethical Christianity that is being 
called into question. Both Christianity and 
Hellenism have been tried and found wanting ; 
or if not so found, it has been because they have 
been combined with another element essentially 
distinct in its nature and origin, though not 
tecognized as such. 

** The ideal of Christianity is what we may call holi- 
ness. The ideal of Hellenism may be said to be under- 
standing, or intelligence. . . . Two ideals, chivalry and 
honor, are neither Greek nor Christian: I take them to 
be the peculiar property and creation of the northern 
races. I may call them the cardinal virtues of Gothic 

And again: 

« Christianity has said, * In my flesh dwelleth no good 
thing.' . . . Against that, chivalry is a brilliant and pow- 
erful, though erratic, protest. ... It had also accounted 
those alone blessed who, in the cause of Christ, had 
made themselves < as the filth of the world and the off- 
scourings of all things unto this day.' . . . Against all 
that, so unnatural, so pusillanimous, so impossible, the 
ideal of honor is a righteous and necessary and enduring 
protest. < I am a man of peace,' says Clough's Dipsychus : 

* I am a man of peaoe, 
And the old Adam of the gentleman 
Dares seldom in my bosom stir against 
The mild plebeian Christian seated there.' 

But it is to the motions in the blood of this old Adam 
that European society, as I believe, owes, and has always 
owed, its salvation." 

To most, this will seem in some degree ex- 
travagant ; and yet, who can suppose that the 

northern civilization, so rich in the mingling 
currents of humanity, has not contributed some- 
thing to the religious life of its members? In 
the language of the naturalist, should there not 
be some endemic forms within this territory ? — 
and if so, are they not likely to be the most 
characteristic, the most precisely adapted to this 
peculiar environment ? 

In a later chapter, " Christ the Forerunner," 
Mr. Garrod sets forth a new view of Christ and 
his mission, which explains in many ways his 
attitude toward Christianity, and his circum- 
scription of it regarded as an original force. 
Christ, it is urged, taught and believed that the 
end of the world, or at least the end of ordinary 
human institutions, was close at hand. Paul 
was of the same opinion. Consequently, their 
religion, as actually held and presented, is by 
no means applicable to the life of normal men 
and women. Nor is this all. Numerous and 
apparently plausible reasons are adduced for 
believing that Christ did not so much as claim 
to be the Messiah, and that the ^^ Son of Man," 
so frequently referred to by him, was not him- 
self but another. It is impossible here to sum- 
marize the argument, but the least we can say 
of it is that it is extremely interesting ; and we 
cannot deny the fact, urged by the author, that 
whereas the Gospel is everywhere read, few there 
are who examine it critically. 

What, then, of Christianity, after all ? If it 
has been crassly misunderstood, and made to 
cover in name quite other things, if it is in itself 
unsuited for human needs, what of it ? Was the 
mission of Christ a &ulure ? Not so. 

« In the long and learned introduction prefixed to his 
edition of the Bible (dated 1813), by the Rev. John 
Brown, I read that < Perhaps about A. D. 2860 or 3000 
Satan will be again loosed from his long restraint; 
and, after corrupting the members of the Church, will 
assemble the Turks, Russians, or others of a savage 
temper, to destroy her: but the fearful vengeance of 
God shall overtake them in their attempt. Then cameth 
the end of the worlds at what distance we know not.' This 
irruption of Satan, this high-handed action of Turkey 
and Russia, this end of all things, those who read these 
lines will be able to await with equanimity in a different 
place from this. The Rev. John Brown has gone thither 
before us; but he may be allowed to speak to us a kind 
of allegory. 

" The year 2860 is ever upon us daily: daily is Satan 
unloosed, and peoples * of a savage temper ' arm themr 
selves against the truth of God: the end of all things is 
ever staring us in the face. John was right, Jesus was 
right, St. Paul was right, when each proclaimed the imme- 
diate coming of the Kingdom of God. It comes daily 
when Satan (that is. Sin and Ignorance and the Pride 
which either engenders) is cast down by the power of 
Justice and Right, Knowledge and Simplicity: when 
< men of a savage temper ' are diverted from their wrath 




by the soft answer of good-sense. It comes daily to all 
whoy without Ipsing interest in life, or the healthy sense 
of the world, yet feel that all their actions look to an end 
that is not on earth; to the man who through the day 
keeps his eyes upon the duties of the day to do them, 
who is just, kind, moderate, healthy-minded, who also 
at the close of each day goes out at his door, and, lifting 
his eyes from the earth, looks awhile at * the unnumbered 
stars of God,' though he stand there without speech or 
prayer — to such an one the Kingdom of Heaven comes 
daily. For that which sent John to the dungeon, Christ 
to the Cross, f^ul to the block, each filled with the faith 
of the instant coming of the Lord, was none else than 
this — the sense, which should be in each one of us, of 
a perfection ever about to be attained, a joy and peace 
ever about to be realized. He who has not this sense 
of the ideal may,, as truly as he that lacks < charity,' be 
counted dead before God." 

I have tried to present all this without dis- 
pute, not because there is any lack of oppor- 
tunity for controversy, but because I think the 
worth of the book very far outweighs such 
faults as it may possess — these latter being, 
indeed, such necessary accompaniments of per- 
fect straightforwardness that we could not wish 
them absent. It will do any man good to read 
such virile words, — and if t^ey harm him, he is 
not worthy to withstand the gods. 


Briefs on Kew Books. 

^<The true collector," says Mrs. N. 
^^i^*^' Hudson Moore in one of the chapters 

of her delightful <^ Collector's Man> 
ual " (F. A. Stokes Go. ), '< when onee embarked on his 
career, is seldom content to keep in one narrow path, 
but strays out in many directions, and finds pleasure 
in them all." Many a '' true collector " will agree 
with Mrs. Moore, and be grateful to her for offering 
him in one volume information about a number of 
the main branches of that complex and fascinating 
subject, the collecting of antiques. Mrs. Moore has 
alMuiy written in separate volumes, and more ex- 
haustively, of china, brass and pewter, lace, and old 
furniture ; but the true collector is generally poor, 
because of the temptations that collecting offers, and 
he will be glad, particularly if he is a beginner in need 
of general information, to be able to get so much of 
it, concisely put and lavishly illustrated, in one mod- 
erate-priced volume. About half the book is g^ven 
to various articles of furniture. An account of the 
origin of each article is given, and extracts from old 
wills, diaries, or inventories prove its existence and 
importance at early dates. Various good styles are 
illastrated, as well as a few ^' faked " or *^ restored " 
ones, to put the novice on his guard. Mrs. Moore 
aims to arouse enthusiaBm as well as to cultivate 
taste. She does not forget that the quest of a bargain 
•ad the amusing and sometimes amazing adventures 

that the quest entails make up a good part of the fun 
for the ^'true collector"; so she sprinkles her pages 
with lively anecdotes of her own and her friends' 
experiences. Her own pet fad, she confesses, is the 
collecting of ''cottage ornaments," which is the 
trade name for the quauit Staffordshire figures of 
shepherds and shepherdesses, well-known people, or 
animals, particularly sheep and dogs. This is a field 
comparatively new to the average collector, and almost 
nothing has hithertq been written about it. Old glass- 
ware, brass and copper, pewter, and a few of the 
best-known English chinas, are Mrs. Moore's other 
topics. These are all subjects which a lover of an- 
tiques, in pursuit of his own particular hobby, is sure 
to become interested in, or at least to want a little 
information abou^ Mrs. Moore writes definitely and 
concisely, and her wide acquaintance among English 
and American collectors enables her to offer her 
readers a particularly complete and helpful set of 

A curious little book, fraught with 
^aki^!^^^' interest both as a historical study 

and a human document, is the collec- 
tion of the '' Love-Letters of Henry YIII. to Anne 
Boleyn," now issued by Messrs. John W. Luce & 
Co. in a snuill leather-bound volume, with fanciful 
frontispiece and incidental decorations in black and 
white. A note by Mr. Halliwell PhiUips, reprinted 
from another edition of the letters, g^ves an account 
of the earliest appearance of the letters in print, and 
a justification for the accepted order of arrangement. 
The order in the present edition, which is explained 
in a second note of anonymous authorship, is radi- 
cally different, following that of Mr. Brewer's Cal- 
endar of State Papers. Each letter is dated as 
exactly as the evidence warrants, and there are a 
few textual notes. A perusal of the letters shows 
Henry in the character of a fairly ardent though not 
passionate lover, with a strong tendency to moralize 
and to lay emphasis upon the practical rather than 
the sentimental aspects of his. affection. There is 
nothing here to kindle Anne's cold heart, but much 
to assure her of her royal lover's devotion, and of his 
pious dependence upon divine Providence to bring 
their affairs to a happy issue. These emotions seem 
a little forced in view of the facts, and the colorless 
phrasing is due, possibly, to the fact that more than 
half of Uie letters were written in French. Besides, 
Henry lived before the dawn of the art of letter- 
writing. He evidently regards correspondence as a 
mere necessary means of communication, and does 
not dream of being personal or expansive in a letter. 
His scholarship shows only in a polished style and in 
chance bits of Latin ; while of the wit and versatility 
that made Erasmus wonder, there is no sign. So 
there is nothing in these rather conunonplace epistles 
to cause the most sensitive reader to raise a cry of 
confidence violated. And yet, as a work of a moral 
monster and a great king, the coUection is not with- 
out a unique interest for modem readers, though 
most of that interest must be read between the lines. 



[F«b. 1, 

To jonniqr through Denmark, Nor^ 
i^^^:^"" ^»y» «»d Sweden, to eroes the Bmltio 

Sea and the Golf of Finland, getting 
a (^impee of Helsingf on, to go to St Petorabnrg and 
Moscow, and then to scamper hack to London, the 
starting-point, by way of Berlin, Hamburg, Amster- 
dam, and Den Haag, all in five weeks, is to invite some 
musty comparisons with the personally conducted 
tourist who helter^kelters round Europe in a limited 
racation time. Mr. William Seymour Edwards took 
his honeymoon trip over the routo onUined, and de- 
spite the shortness of the time given to it he appears 
to have seen mi^ch more and to have assimilated it 
better than the average tourist does. His lxx4c en- 
titled ''Through Scandinavia to Moscow" (Robert 
Clarke Co.), while commonplace in many respects, 
i« saved from mediocrity by the antiior's remarks on 
the people he observed — especially in Scandinavia. 
In Norway he was struck with the sight of many 
newly-built farm-houses and their substantial and 
modem improvements, all made with the aid of 
American dollars sent home by prosperous Nor^ 
wegians living in our Northwest An interesting 
contrast between the Norwegian and the Swede is 
pointed out ^' The Norweg^ian looks out upon the 
Twentieth Century and finds his inspiration in the 
example of free America and the universal equality 
of man. The Swede looks ever backward to the 
glorious days of Gustavus Yasa, Grustavus Adolphus, 
and Charles XII., and sighs for a return of the good 
old times when the half of Europe trembled before 
Sweden's military might . . . Thus have the cousin 
peoples swung wide apart The one, free and open- 
minded ; the other, slall dazed by the faded glories 
of a long dead past, turns ever a wistful eye toward 
the military tyrannies of Czar and Kaiser, and finds 
in the inequalities of landed noble and landless yokel, 
in official military caste and enthralled peasantry, 
the realization of his Fifteenth Century ideal." "iix, 
Edwards's comments on the relations of the Slav and 
the Jews, and their much advertised conflicts, are very 
sensible, much more so, indeed, than many accounts 
which purport to treat the matter at great length with 
more eictended data. The Jew in Russia, according 
to Mr. Eklwards, ^^ prospers without and in spite of 
the fostering care of the autocracy," and hence he 
incurs the Slav's envy and jealousy. Like a loyal 
American, Mr. Edwards closes his book with thank- 
fulness that he and his bride were '* born and bred 
beneath the Stars and Stripes." 

The letter, of a " Sir Thomas Lawrence's Letter-bag" 
famotuartiat (Longmans), edited by Mr. Greorge 
and gallant. Somes Layard, and supplemented by 
some pleasant recollections of the artist by a con- 
temporary, Miss Elizabeth Croft^ is offered as a sort 
of corrective to "An Artist's Love Story" which 
Mr. Oswald 6. Knapp edited two years ago from 
certain of Lawrence's letters, and those of Mrs. 
Siddons and her daughters, that had to do with the 
painter's coquettish attentions to the two Misses 
Siddons. This earlier work has already been noticed 

in these columns. Now, out of " five immense vol- 
umes " of unpublished letters to and from the artist 
his present ecQtor and apologist has sdected a goodly 
number of very correct and proper epistles wherein 
affairs of the heart are seldom mentioned, to show 
us the man in a more favorable light That Law- 
rence was now and then vexatiously dilatory in filling 
orders for his pictures, is made plain ; but no worse 
charge can be brought against him from this pub- 
lished correspondence. Of Mr. Layard's book it 
may truly be said that the end crowns the work : the 
concluding " Recollections " of the painter's friend 
Elizabeth Croft, who survived him by twenty-six 
years, give a more intimate and attractive picture of 
him than do his own letters. Twenty-two illustra- 
tions, mostly from Lawrence's paintings, enliven the 
volume and convey a good idea of the artist's peculiar 
excellence — that of an incomparable draughtsman 
of faces and hands. These prints are all the better 
for leaving out, by necessity, the painter's defects of 
coloring, which has been censured as hard and 
glassy, though brilliant and effective. Campbell 
used to say of his work : " This is the merit of Law- 
rence's paintings — he makes one seem to have got 
into a drawing-room in the mansions of the blest, 
and to be looking at oneself in the mirrors "; and 
Opie, less kindly : " Lawrence made coxcombs of his 
sitters, and his sitters made a coxcomb of him." Of 
the " dangerous fascination " of the old flirt, Fanny 
Kemble long ago told us her experience. 

Piannino the ^h® modest volume by Loring Un- 
garden and iu dcrwood, entitled " The Grarden and 
aceeenorie; i^ Accessories" (Little, Brown & 

Co.), is not so much out of seas<m as it might ap- 
pear, for it is the often reiterated advice of expert 
gardeners to plan the garden well in advance in 
order to have it a success. If this is the case with 
the trees, shrubs, and flowers, certainly it is even 
more important where the permanent settings of the 
garden are concerned; since on those, as not only 
landscape gardeners but home-builders are beginning 
to see, the final beauty of the picture and its satis- 
fying qualities are most apt to depend. The book 
contains only about a hundred pages of text, but 
there is an illustration, and an excellent and really 
illustrative one, ica nearly every page of reading 
matter. The author, who is a landscape architect, 
writes with knowledge and love of his subject, and 
emphasizes a point too often lost sight of — the 
necessity of proportion, harmony, suitebility, if the 
result is to be beauty. The descriptions and pictures 
of the different types of garden-houses, pergolas, 
trellises, and arches, the garden gazing-globes, suft> 
dials, stone lanterns, seats, tables, bird-houses, and 
what-not, the lily-ponds, the walls, terraces, and 
fences, will be studied with interest by those who 
are planning a garden, whether large or small, for- 
mal or infbrmaL Likewise the chapter on stuteble 
materials for these accessories may be read with 
profit But the most important advice is given in 
the beg^inning, — on the wisdom of providing our 




gudent with tncli pennanent settiiigs ai shall make 
thim attraedye all the year round, and of not copy- 
ing the Btjles of o^er times and lands, but so adapt- 
ing them that American gardens shall have a charm 
aiMl an individuality of their own. 

It is not every reader that can sym- 

SISTSLXf^P***^^ with Charles Lamb in his 

avowed preference for books about 
books; and even of those that can, comparatively 
few will be familiar enough with the ancient dassios 
to turn with intelligent interest the leaves of Mr. 
Hugh £. P. Piatt's curious little volume entitled << A 
Last Ramble in the Classics " (Oxford : B. H. Black- 
well). This is not merely a book about books, but 
it is even to some extent a book about books that 
are themselves about books — bookishness raised to 
the third power, so to speak. Among all sorts of 
matters pleasantly treated, with apt quotations from 
authors classical and post-classical, we meet with 
sections devoted to '* Sport in the Poets," ^' Melo- 
dious Verse," '< False Quantities," << Some Quamt 
Mistakes," '<More P^verbial Phrases" (in addi- 
tion, that is, to similar phrases in the same author's 
** Byways in the Classics "), <^ Words and Manners," 
** Sundry Questions," etc. The following legal wit- 
tidsm, classic in flavor, is one of the many quotable 
things in the book. ''Once, when plaster came 
tnmbliag down as he was hearing a case, Mr. Justice 
Chitty ejaculated, 'Fiat justitia, mat ceiling!'" 
T/fi^pg Mr. Plains professed fondness for verify- 
ing references, and also the time necessary to verify 
his very numerous references-*- which might claim 
more hours of work than he spent in writing the 
hwjk — we must assume, as we gladly do, that his 
careful scholarship has kept him from error in his 
multitddinous citations. His zeal and industry in 
this his chosen field of labor (or reh^cation) are 
admirable, although to most readers his little book 
may well appear to bear somewhat the same relation 
to live literature of real life as it is to-day that 
cherry-stone carving does to sculpture. But it is 
not given to everyone to carve cherry-stones with 

The remarkable deeds of six remark- 

^"aS^^T" »"• ^^ told by a writer lOso ao- 

counted remarkable, furnish reading 
that should be and is remarkably interesting. " Beal 
Soldiers of Fortune " (Scribner), from the same pen 
that has already depicted the imaginary ^ Soldiers 
of Fortune," presents in brief compass the striking 
adventures of Major-(jreneral Henry Ronald Douglas 
Maelver, Baron James Harden-Hickey, Mr. Winston 
Spencer Churchill, Captain Philo Norton McGiffin, 
CSeneral William Walker, and Major Frederick Rus- 
sell Bumham " the king of scouts." Not in every 
instance does Mr. Richard Harding Davis write from 

seems so to have caught the spirit of the man he is 
describing that dulness and unreality have no place in 
his pages. The chapter on Mr. Churchill (the English 

Churchill, be it noted), soldier, war correspondent, 
lecturer, author, and politician, gains peculiar fresh^ 
ness and actuality from the writer's near acquaint- 
ance with and admiration for his bold and talented 
young hero. But the last chapter of all, that on Major 
Burnham, rivals it as an interest-awakener. The 
sketch of (general Maclver, which opens the book, 
might perhaps have gained by the addition of fuller 
details concerning his life since 1884, when he pub- 
lished his autobiography entitled " Under Fourteen 
Flags." Brought up to date, says Mr. Davis, the 
book would properly be called " Under Eighteen 
flags." What are the four additionia flags? The 
twenty-one illustrations, especially the portraits, add 
much to the attractiveness of these true stories of 
daring deeds. 

The vital part of ^ "«^ ^'^^^^ ^^ ^ToieuoT J. Mark 
p^yohUi proeetiei Baldwin's well-known volume with 
in JBvoiuHon. which, ten years ago, he began his 
exposition of a genetic psychology Lb appropriate and 
welcome. As an aid to the dissemination of interest 
in and appreciation of the vital share that psychic 
processes occupy in evolution, his books on " Mental 
Development " (MacmiUan) have done good service ; 
and it is well that the opportunity has been embraced 
to incorporate such modifications and amendments 
of the text as the increasing insight of recent knowl- 
edge makes possible. The systemiatic appearance 
which it is attempted to give to this volume, and to 
those that followed it in the author's writings, is some- 
what misleading. They form a record of the author's 
successive change of interests in the several problems 
capable of atta^ from the genetic point of view ; as 
such they are suggestive, and the treatment of some 
of the problems is distinctly valuable. It is, however, 
quite impossible for one so devoted to following the 
bent of Ins own interests, and of giving himself great 
latitude in the prominence of favorite phases of dis- 
cussion, to achieve a fair perspective of the field as 
a whole. The announcement is accordingly timely 
that the author is engaged upon a single volume that 
will have for its central object the setting forth of 
the principles of genetic psychology. It is always 
fairer to record an appreciiUion of a work for what 
it really accomplishes than to render it subject to 
criticism by settiz^ it in a dass to which it does not 

An up^to-dau ^ ^^^^ 7^^ *?^' General Greely 
handbook of issued the first edition of his " Hand- 
Poiar reieareh, ^jq^^ <,£ ^q]^ Discoveries." The 

third edition has been revised and enlarged, and 
now appears brought down to 1906 (Little, Brown 
& Co.). The book is, as its name implies, simply 
a compendium, in preparing which 70,000 pages of 
original narrative have been summarized and classi- 
fied. Polar expeditions have been carried on from 
three motives. At first commercial interests fur- 
nished their incentive, as when England and Spain 
competed in endeavors to find a short route to the 
Indies. Later, the desire to enlarge geographical 



[Feb. 1, 

knowledge gave the needed impetus. At the present 
time all expeditions are equipped with scientific 
instruments and are expected to add to the sum of 
scientific knowledge. The actual contributions to 
science which have been made by polar ei^peditions 
are by no means inconsiderable, but the irresistible 
desire for conquest and the spirit of adventure are 
powerful factors in recent exj^editions as well as in 
many a past exploit in the frozen North. The last 
thirty pages of Greneral Greely's book are deyoted 
to Antarctic research. An extensive bibliography 
and an excellent index enhance the value of this 
handbook, and serve to indicate to the reader the 
sources of practically our entire knowledge of Arctic 

Probienu and ^^' ^' ^ Forbes-Lindsay has written 
progress of the a very useful and instructive little 
Panama Canal, yolume on << Panama, the Isthmus 
and the Canal " (J. C. Winston Co.). In his preface 
the author writes : " I have endeavored to relate the 
story of the Panama Canal from the earliest explo- 
rations to the present time, with as much avoidance 
as possible of technics, and in a manner that shall 
be comprehensible to the general reader.*' Every 
feature of this vast undertaking is pictured in detail 
with simplicity and intelligibility, and without undue 
argumentative discussion. In an appendix the author 
tells the story of the '' Great Canals of the World," 
a story extracted from a monograph under this title 
issued by the Department of Commerce and Labor 
at Washington. The book will serve a useful pur- 
pose as an introduction to a study of the problems 
involved in the construction of the canal, and in sum- 
marizing the things already done there. Although 
the book is written in topical style, an index would 
enhance its usefulness. Two excellent maps help 
one to understand the discussion concerning the re- 
spective merits of the sea-level and the lock systems 
of . construction. 


Readers of Father Sheehan's admirable novels of 
Irish life and character (to say nothing of his striking 
poems) will be glad to make his acquaintance as an 
essayist. For this the opportunity is now offered by the 
publication (Longmans) of a volume of his " Early Es- 
says and Lectures," wherein he discourses instructively 
and with fine intelligence upon such men as Emerson, 
Arnold, and Aubrey De Yere, and upon such themes as 
** The Grerman Universities," " The (rerman and Graelic 
Muses," and " Irish Youth and High Ideals." 

Mr. Edmund G. Crardner's book on Ariosto, which he 
calls by the rather cheap title "The King of Court 
Poets " (Button), is a continuation of his " Dukes and 
Poets of Ferrara." It treats, in the first part, of the 
political conditions in Italy in the early decades of the 
sixteenth century; and in the second, of Ariosto's works, 
the <' Orlando Fuiioso," the minor Latin poems, and the 
comedies. The poet is at times so lost sight of in the 
complex nuuuBuvres of Italian politics that the work 

reminds one of the famous criticism of Masson's ** Mil- 
ton." Mr. Gardner, however, seeks to keep us in touch 
with his subject by illustrating, from the " Orlando "' 
and other works, the poet's attitude toward the events 
of his time. The chapters dealing with the poetry of 
Ariosto are pleasing, but on the whole rather inconclu- 
sive. The style of the book is without distinction, and 
it occasionally lapses into inelegance. 

The twentieth annual volume of <' Book Prices Cuir 
rent," covering the English auction season of 1905-6» 
comes to us from Mr. Elliot Stock of London. The sea- 
son here dealt with has not been a sensational one; but 
a number of important collections, such as those of the 
late Mr. Truman and Sir Henry Irving, were disposed 
of, and the prices realized showed a very fair average. 
Full descriptive entries of over seven thousand items 
are recorded. The excellent editorial judgment and wide 
bibliographical knowledge displayed in the preparation 
of « Book Prices Current " are too well known to call 
for comment here. For the librarian and collector it is 
an invaluable reference work; to the bookseller it is quite 

A work much needed, not by students alone, but by 
general readers as well, has been done by I^fessor 
Arthur G. Canfield in his selection from the ** Poems of 
Victor Hugo " (Holt). Although the book is published 
as an educational text, with the usuid apparatus of in- 
troduction and notes, we hope that it will find its way 
into the hands of many people who are out of school^ 
for the work of the greatest of French poets is scattered 
through so many volumes that English readers have 
scant chance of knowing it at all, unless they avail 
themselves of the sort of help Mr. Canfield offers them. 
The various volumes of the poems are taken in their 
chronological order, and from each of them a brief but 
judicious selection is made. 

From the Librairie Sansaisha, Tokyo, we have a 
« Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Gr^graphie du Japon," a 
substantial volume of a thousand pages with three hun- 
dred cuts, the work of M. E. Papinot. The words 
« history " and << geography " are hardly adequate to 
describe the 'contents of this work, which is also a bio- 
graphical dictionary and a compact encyclopiedia of 
most Japanese matters. It contains articles, for ex- 
ample, upon such subjects as Bushido and Harakiri, 
to name two of those most familiar to Western rea^^ 
ders. An appendix of eleven « Cartes Gr^graphiques," 
which are excellent specimens of cartography, comes 
with the work as a separate pamphlet, not having been 
completed in time for their insertion in the bound 

" Original Narratives of Early American History " is 
the title of a new collection of reprints, fathered by the 
American Historical Association, and published by 
Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons. The first volume has 
for its subject " The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot," 
the editing of the Norse texts being the work of Pro- 
fessor Julius E. Olson, and that of the Columbus and 
Cabot texts being done by Professor Edward G. Bourne. 
The yolume could not have fallen into more competent 
hands than these. The second volume gives us << Early 
English and French Voyages," largely taken from 
Hakluyt, and covering the period from Cartier's first 
journey up the St. Lawrence to the ill-fated Popham 
Colony. In between, we have the voyages of Hawkins 
and (xilbert, and the early voyages to Virginia. Dr. 
Henry S. Burrage is the editor of this volume. 





A tnoBlatioii, by Mr. Charles Henry Meltzer, of 
Hanptmaim's pliiy ** Hazmele ** is announeed for early 
publication by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. 

A volume on Francois Rabelais by Mr. Arthur Tilley, 
Fellow and Lecturer of King's College, Cambridge, will 
be published this month by Messrs. Lippincott Co. in 
their <' French Men of Letters " series. 

** The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius," in Mr. John 
Jaokson's translation, with an introduction by Mr. Charles 
Begg, is now added to the ** Oxford Library of Trans- 
lations," published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

The February publications of Messrs. DulBeld & 
Company include a new novel by Charles Egbert Crad- 
dock entitled «The Windfall," and a volume on «The 
Spirit of Labor " by Mr. Hutchins Hapgood. 

The interesting articles on Jay Cooke and the nan- 
eing of the Civil War, now appearing in the ** Century 
Magazine," will be included in the forthcoming Life of 
Cooke by Dr. Ellis P. Oberholtzer, announced by 
Messrs. George W. Jacobs & Co. 

<< The Horizon," « a journal of the color line," is a 
little monthly publication written and printed by negroes, 
the first number of which has recently appealed. Pro- 
fessor W. E. B. Du Bois is associated with the enter- 
prise, which has its offices in Washington, D. C. 

The series of common-sense health articles in the 
« World's Work," by Dr. Luther H. Gulick, which have 
attracted a great deal of attention, will be embodied 
with many otiiers in a book, entitled, ** The Active Life," 
which Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. will bring out in 

Messrs. Henry Holt & Co. have concluded arrange- 
ments to publish this year a new novel by William 
de Morgan, whose ** Joseph Vance " has received such 
semarkable praise from leading critics both here and 
abroad. The new book (about which no particulars have 
as yet been given out) will bear the rather striking title 
** Atice for Short." 

The Harpers have arranged for publication during 
1907 new books by President Roosevelt, William Dean 
Howells, Sir Gilbert Ptoker, Mark Twain, Norman 
Duncan, Mary £. Wilkins Freeman, Robert Hiohens, 
Margaret Potter, Henry James, May Sinclair, Theodore 
Watts-Dunton, Thomas A. Janider, Frederick Trevor 
Hill, Gertrude Atherton, Florence Morse Kingsley, and 
numerous others. 

The second volume of the '< Cambridge English 
Classics " edition of Matthew Prior, to be published by 
the Messrs. Putnam this spring, wiU increase the known 
works of this writer by nearly a fifth. The hitherto im- 
printed prose << Dialogues," seen and praised by Pope 
but not hitherto allowed to be printed, will, by the kind 
permission of the Marquis of Bath, be included in th^ 
new volume, which, in addition to this, will contain a 
* large number of hitherto imprinted poems by Prior. 

«Sez and Society: Studies in the Social Psychology 
of Sex," by Professor William I. Thomas, will be 
published at once by the University of Chicago Press. 
Some of the chapters comprising this work excited 
wide-spread discusuon upon their first publication in 
the ** American Journal of Sociology." Another book 
to be issued immediately by the same press is Mr. 
J. Dorsey Forrest's "Development of Western Civ- 
ilization," a study in ethical, economic, and political 

Two biographical works of unusual interest an- 
nounced for early publication by the Macmillan Co. 
are <<The Life and Letters of Edwin Lawrence Godkin," 
by Mr. Rollo Ogden, editor of the «New York Evening 
Post "; and a volume on Emerson, by Professor George 
E. Woodberry, in the '* English Men of Letters " series. 

Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. will celebrate the 
centenary of Longfellow's birth on February 27 by 
publishing a volume entitled " Henry Wadsworth Long- 
fellow: A Sketch of His Life," by Professor Charles 
Eliot Norton. The autobiographical matter included in 
the poet's notes written for the later editions of his 
poems, his correspondence, and his journals, will be laid 
under contribution for this book. 

The March announcements of Messrs. T. Y. Crowell 
& Co. include the following: ** The Ministry of David 
Baldwin," a novel dealing with the conflict between old 
school theologians and modem critics, by Mr. Henry T. 
Colestock; « Orthodox Socialism," by Professor James 
Edward Le Rossignol, *'of the University of Denver; 
" Christ's Secret of Happiness," by Dr. Lyman Abbott; 
«The Greatest Fact in Modem History," by Hon. 
Whitelaw Reid; » The ReUgious Value of the Old Tes- 
tament," by Professor Ambrose White Vernon, of Dart- 
mouth College. 

The following WeU-known authors will contribute 
new books to the swing list of Messrs. Houghton, 
Mifflin & Co.: Kate Douglas Wiggin, author of « Re- 
becca of Sunnybibok Farm "; Norah Davis, author of 
« The Northerner"; Ellen Olney Kirk, author of " Our 
Lady Vanity "; Mrs. M. E. M. Davis, author of « The 
Little CheinEdier"; Andy Adams, author of '<The Log 
of a Cowboy "; Edward Waldo Emerson, editor of the 
<< Centenary" edition of Ralph Waldo Emerson's works; 
and Thomas Wentworth Higginson, author of ** Part of 
a Man's Life." 

A uniform handy-volume edition of the great writers 
of fiction, issued at a low price, has long been a desid- 
eratum. Such a series is now announced by Messrs. 
A. C. McClurg & Co., who will publish early next fall 
the first ten volumes of a doUar^ft-volume series of re- 
prints from Dickens, Thackeray, Scott, George Eliot, 
and others, printed from new plates and issued under 
the general name of " The Prairie Classics." The vol- 
umes are to be the handy size of 4} x 7^ inches; the 
type used is the excellent '< Scotch face " made by the 
Miller & Richard foundry at Edinburgh; and the paper 
is the famous English ** Bible " paper. Each volume 
will have a frontispiece in colors from the bi^h of Mr. 
Greorge Alfred Williams. These first ten titles will be 
followed during 1908 by another group, and the plan 
contemplates eventually completing each group. 

XiisT OF New Books. 

[Ths following littf eontmning 63 ttc/si, indwiet book$ 
received by Tbb Diai. ftnoe iis laat ttnie.] 

The Lilb. lietters and Work of Frederic Leiffhton. By 
Mrs. Russell Barrhurton. In 2 vols.. Ulus. In photoffiavnre, 
oolor, etc, large 8vo, gilt tops, uncut. Macmillan Go. 
tl0.60 net. 

Queen Marmot, Wife of Henry of Navarre. By H. Noel 
Williams. With photogravure portraits. 4to, gilt top, onont, 
pp. 409. Charles Bcribner's Sons. $IJO net. 

Blrket Foster, B.W.8. By H. M. Condall, I.8.O. Illus. in 
oolor. etc., large Svo, gilt top, pp. 216. Macmillan Co. |B. net. 



[Feb. 1, 

SiiflrUsh OoloniM in AiiMriim. B7 J. A. Doyle. UJl. V6L 

lY.. The Middle Ookmiee: Vol. V., The Oolonies under the 

House of Hanorer. Bech 8vo. Heniy Holt A C6. Per toL. 

Tbe History of BngU md. fr om the Aooeedon of Henzr VII. 

to the Death of Heniy Vni.(14S&-lM7). By H. A« L. Pfeher. 

li Jk. With map, laige 8fo, pp. £18. Loncmaas, Gieen A Oo. 

TliA Appeal to Anna. By Jamee Kendall Hoemer. LL.D. 

With maps, 8yo. ffllt top. pp. S54. "American Nation." 

Harper A Brothers. |2. net. 

The Oreat D«ys of Vara allle a : Stodiee from Ooort Life in 
the Later Years of Louis XIV. By G. F. Bradby. With por- 
traits in photogravure, etc.. 8vo. pp. 884. Charles Scribner's 
Sons. I1.75 net. 


TliA Oanaomhip of tha Olmzoih of Some and its Inihienoe 
upon the Production and the Distribution of Literature. By 
Georce Haven Putnam, Litt.D. Vol. I., laise 8vo. silt top. 
pp.875. O. P. Putnam's Sons. tS.50net. 

A Uterary History of tha KnyHah People. By J. J. 
Jnaserand. Vol. II.. Part L. From.the ff nnainssnoe to the dril 
War. With photoeravure frontispieoe, large 8yo, gUt top, 
uncnt. pp. 661. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $iJEO net. 

Lftentture of lilbraziaa in tha Savantaanth and Bitrht- 
aanth Oanturlaa. Edited by John Cotton Dana and Henry 
W. Kent. New vols.: Sir Thomas Bodley's Life of Himself, 
and Two Tracts on the Founding and M^fa*A<ti<«g of 
Parochial Libraries in Scotland. Each 18mo, uncut. A. C. 
McClurg A Co. Sold only in seta of 6 vols, at 9iSt, net. 

Shalbuma Baaaya, Fourth Series. By Paul Elmer Jioie. 
12mo. pp. 288. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1.38 net. 

Tha Voloa of tba IfaohiTiaa : An Introduction to the Twen- 
tieth Century. By Gerald Stanley Lee. 12mo, pp. 190. 
Northampton. Biass.: Mount Tom Press. $1.26. 

Tlia Praiaa of Hypoorlay: An Essay in Casuistry. ByG.T. 
Knight. D.D. New edition, with a Preface by D. L. Maolaby : 
18mo. pp. 86. Open Court Pablishing 06. 

Sonroaa and Analoffuaa of "Tha Flowar and tha Leaf*; 
A Dissertation. By George L. Marsh. Large 8yo. pp. 47. 
Uniyersity of Chicago Press. Paper. 


ThaOollaotadWorkaof Hanzfklbaan* Copyright edition; 

revised and edited by William Archer. Vol. m.. Brand. 

12mo, pp. 262. Charles Scribner's Sons. $1. 
Madaa, Trojan Woman, and Blaotra of Euripides. Trans. 

into English Bhyminir Verse, with Notes, by Gilbert Murray. 

M.A. 12mo, gilt top. Oxford Uniyerslty Press. 
Harodotna, Histories— Books I. to III. Trans, by G. Wood- 

roulTe Hairis, B Jk. 12mo. pp. 226. '* New daosiGal Library." 

Oobbatt'a Bngrliah Qrammar. With Introduction by H. L. 

Stepben. New edition ;12mo. gilt top. pp. 282. London: Henry 


Holiday, and Other Poems; with a Note on Poetry. By John 
Davidson. 18nio, gUt top. uncut, pp. 186. E. P. Dutton A Co. 
$1. net. 

Baatar-Song: : Lyrics and Ballads of the Joy of Spring-time. 
By Clinton SooUard. 12mo. uncut, pp. 64. Clinton, N. T.: 
George William Browning. $1.25. 

Tlia Heart of a Woman. By Almon Henaley. 12mo, gilt top, 
pp. 174. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

By tha Ught of tha BonL By Maiy E. Wilkins Freeman. 

nins.. 12mo. pp. 486. Ebtrper A Brothers. $1.60. 
Tha Hyatary. By Stewart Edward White and Samuel Hop- 
kins Adams. Illus.; 12mo, pp. 286. McCtuie. IHiillipe A Co. 

The Patriot (Piccolo Mondo Antloo). By Antonio Fogaxzato ; 

trans, from the Italian by M. Prichard-Agnettl. 12mo, 

pp.616. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $1JK). 
Tha Prlvataara. By H. B. Marriott Watson. Illus.. 12mo. 

pp. 896. Doubleday, Page A Co. $1.60. 
Tha Saoond Oanaration. By David Graham Phillips. Illus., 

12mo. pp. 828. D. Appleton A Co. $1 JX). 

Tha Soraraiffn Bamady. By Flora Annie Steel. 12mo. 

pp. 848. Doubleday. Page A Co. $1.60. 
Battina. By Eleanor Hoyt Brainerd. Illus. in color, etc.. 

12mo, pp. 212. Doubleday. Page A Co. $1.25. 

By Percy James Brenner. 
WameACo. $1.60. 
By Opie Bead, illns., 12mo, 


Tha Groelbla of 

Dins., Iftno. pp. 888. 
Tha Myatary of 

gUt top, pp. 881. Chicago: 


On tha Oxaat Amazloan Flataan : Wanderings among Can- 
yons and Buttes, in the Land of the CUff-Dwdler, and the 
Indian of To-day. By T. Mitchell Prudden. Dlus.. Vbno, 
gQt top. pp. 248. G. P. Putmam's Sons. $2. net. 

Hnntinff Bi^ Oama with Gun and Kodak: A Beoord of 
Personal Experiences in the United States, Canada, and 
Meadoo. By William S. Thomas. IIlos.,8FO.gilttop,pp. 210. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons. $2. net. 


Ohrlatianity in tha Modam World. By D. & Cairns, M JL. 
12mo. pp. 814. Jennings A Graham. $1 JSO net. 

Sarmona of a Bnddhiat Ahbot : Addresses on Beligious 
Babiects. By Bt. Bev. Soyen Shaku. including the Sutra 
of Forty-two Chapters; trans, from the Japanese MS. by 
Daiaets Teitaro SoxukL With portrait, Iftno. gilt top, 
pp. 214. Open Court Publishing Co. 

Tha Dangrara of Mnnlotpal Ownaiahip. By Robert P. 

Porter. Large 8¥0, pp. 886. Century Co. $1.80 net. 
Tha Working of tha Bailroada. By Logan G. McPheiaon. 

12mo. pp. 278. Henry Holt A Co. $1JI0 net. 
Tha If akin g- of tha Criminal. By Charles E. B. Russell and 

L.M. Bigby. 12nio, pp. 862. Macmillan Co. $1.26 net, 
Mnnlotpal Control of Pablio UtHitiaB. By Oscar Lewis 

Pond,LL3. Large8¥0. uncut, pp. 116. MacmillanCo. Paper. 

DaooratiTa Plant and Vlowar Stadiaa : F6r the Use of 
Artists. Designers, Students, and Others; Containing 40 
Coloured Plates Printed in Facsimile of the Original Draw- 
ings, Accompanied by a Description and Sketdi of each Plant 
and fiO Studies of Growth and Detail. By J. Fooid. nius. 
in color, etc, 4to, gilt top. Charles Scribner's Sons. $16 net. 

A Hiatory of Tapaatry, from the Earliest Times until the 
Present Day. By W. G. Thomson. Illnstrated in color, etc., 
4to. gilt top, V9' 008. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Tha Worka of Jamaa HoValll Whiatlar : A Study. By 
EUsabeth Luther Gary. With a Tentative List of the Artist's 
Works, nius. in photogravure, etc.. largeSvo, gilt top, uncut, 
pp. 808. Mofliat. Yard A Co. $4. net. 

BvropaanBnamaia. By Henry H.Conynghame,C.B. 
color, etc. large 8vo. gilt top. uncut, pp. 188. ** Connoisseor's 
Library." G. P. Putnam's Sons. $6.75 net. 

EtdhinffB of WUliam Strangr, A.B.A. With Introduction 
by Frank Newbolt. Dlus. in photogravure, etc, 4to. gilt top. 
"The Great Etchers." Charles Scribner's Sons. $8J!0net. 

Dalaoroiz. With Introduction by Henri Frantz. Dlus. in pho- 
togravure, etc, large 8vo. " Newnce' Art Library." Frederick 
Wame A Co. $1.26 net. 

Tha New Art of an Anoiant People : The Work of Ephraim 
Moae Lllien. By M. S. Levnssove. Ulus., 12mo, uncut, pp. 68. 
New York: B. W. Huebech. 75 cts. net. 

An Anthdogry of C(arman liltaratiira. By Calvin Thomas, 

LL.D. 12mo,pp.l86. D.aHeathAOo. $1.26. 
Amarloan Hiatory and Qoivemaant: A TcKt-Book on 

the History and Civil Government of the United States. By 

James A. Woodbum. Ph.D., and Thomas F. Moran, Fh.D. 

Ulus.. 8vo, pp. 476. Longmans, Green A Co. $1. 


Oarald tha Bhariff: A Story of the Sea in the Days of WUliam 

Rufns. By Charles W. Whistler. Dlus.. 12mo. pp. 284. 

Frederick Wame A Co. $1.60. 
Kidnapped by Plrataa. By S. Walkey. Dlus., l2mo, pp. 280. 

Frederick Wame A Co. $1.26. 
B. Caldaoott'a Picture Booka. Two vols., each containing 

three stories, illus. in color, etc. 2tmo. Frederick Wame A 

Co. Per vol., 60 cts. 


Morale in Evolution : A Study in Comparative Ethics. By 
L. T. Hobhouse. In 2 vols., 8vo. Henry Holt A Co. $5. net. 

Bomanoa of tha Italian YUlaa (Northern Italy). By EUsa- 
beth W. Champney. Illus. in color, photogravure, etc., 8vo, 
gUt top. uncut, pp. 448. G. P. Putnam's Sons. $8. net. 




OostuBM : FMudfiil. Htatorloal, and TbMttrioaL Oompiled 

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Studies in the Social Psychology of Sex 

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Box 145, Faculty Exchance Chicaco, Illinois 



[Feb. 16, 1907, 

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THE DIAL, Fine ArU Building, Chicago. 


No. 496. FEBRUARY 16, 1907. Vd. XLIL 





The commerdalizatioii of literature. — The decay 
of academic courage. — An endowed jonmal of lit- 
erary criticism. — A year of magaxine jK>etry. — 
The sneeze in literature. — Fiction-reading as a 
** rest cure.'* — Low-priced novels and the circulat- 
ing libraries. — The annual report of the Library 
of Congress. — The inaccuracies of an historical 


The London limes and the Publishers. A Sci- 
entific Editor. 

PARSON AND KNIGHT. WiUiam Morton Payne . 102 


EMPIRE. J. W. Gamer 105 

THOREAU IN HIS JOURNAI^. F. B. Satihom . 107 


Eunice FoUan^e 110 

^[Mogo's Socialism. — Jaar^'s Studies in Socialism. 
— Praetioal Programme for Workingroen. — FUnt's 


A. G. Caf\field Ill 


A summary of contemporary English history. — 
Lord Rosebery's interpretation of Lord Churdiill. 

— The fate of a theatre monoptdy in England. — 
Eni^ish literatitre to Chaucer. — A feaat of scraps. 

— The most majestic of all poetry. — The authors 
and literature of Hungary. — Belated admirers of 
Ibsen. — Some brillisat and eccentric court ladies. 
— Workers for public good in America. 


NOTES 117 



The claflsification of human beings as bro- 
mides and sulphites, a product of the whimsical 
invention of Mr. Gelett Burgess, is explained 
in considerable detail in his suggestive litde 
book, ^^ Are You a Bromide ? " For those not 
yet acquainted with this contribution to anthro- 
pology (or psychology), a few words of explana- 
tion may be offered. Bromides, who are the 
majority of mankind, *^ all think and talk alike," 
their ^^ minds keep regular office hours,'* and 
they ^^ may be depended upon to be trite, banal, 
and arbitnuy." They are known by their use 
of such ^^ bromidioms" as these : ^^ I don't know 
much about Art, but I know what I like." ^^ I 
want to see my own country before I go abroad." 
«^ It isn't so much the heat (or the cold) as the 
humidity in the air." Sulphites, on the other 
hand, ^^ are agreed upon most of the basic facts 
of life, and this common understanding makes 
it possible for them to eliminate the obvious 
from their conversation." A sulphite is a per- 
son who does his own thinking; he is a person 
who has surprises up his sleeve. He \a ex- 
plosive. One can never foresee what he will 
do, except that it will be a direct and spontan- 
eous manifestation of his own personality." 
Hamlet, Becky Sharp, and Mr. G. Bernard 
Shaw are typiod sulphites ; examples of equally 
typical bromides n»y be found in Polooiu*, 
Amelia Sedley, and Miss Marie Corelli. 

Since reading the author's instructive expo- 
sition of this new method of classification, our 
thought has been taking a chemical cast, and 
we have found acertain satisfaction in dwelling 
upon other symbolisms of the same general na* 
ture, having in view books rather than persons, 
— a distinction without much difference, how- 
ever, since (to use a common bromidiom) a 
man's writing is sure to be the reflection of his 
personality. There is the old fancy of the four 
elements, for example, now superseded by the 
fourscore of which we have exact knowledge, 
with occasional additions to the list. Is not a 
parallel offered by the structural simplicity of 
the older literature as compared with the com- 
plexity of the modem product? May we not 
suggest that the old books — the primitive sagas 
and epics and myths — are compounded of four 



[Feb. 16, 

elements ? It does not seem to be forcing the 
analogy overmuch to discover the element of 
earth in the himger-motive, that of air in the 
love-motive, that of fire in the fighting-motive, 
and that of waten in the nature-motive. These 
fundamental motives, as embodied in literature, 
have been richly illustrated in Mr. Charles 
Leonard Moore's recent contributions to our 
pages. On the other hand, modern books are 
inadequately described in such simple terms. 
They exhibit the fundamental elements, but 
also many others, and the variety of their com- 
pounds would be bewildering were we not sup- 
plied with a critical chemistry for their proper 
ordering. Take the element of love alone : it is 
a comparatively simple matter in Homer and 
the Niebelungenlied and the balladry of the 
middle ages, but in the modem novel its forms 
are innumerable. Here is tfie opportunity for 
our suggested chemical method of criticism, 
which triumphantly responds to the exigency. 
For in the new chemistry of the carbon-com- 
pounds we have an exact parallel to the new 
amorism of our ingenious modem novelists and 

Once started upon this flight of chemical 
analogy, fancy finds abundant material for exer- 
cise. Collaborative books, for example, usually 
illustrate the fundamental fact of chemical com- 
bination, the fact that the elements in such a 
union lose their distinctive properties, the pro- 
duct being like neither of its constituents. 
Again, many a writer exhibits the phenomenon 
of allotropism, having under different conditions 
modes of expression so diverse as hardly to 
suggest the same personality. Isomerism is fre- 
quently exemplified in literature. We may find 
two books compounded apparently of the same 
elements in the same proportions ; yet one of 
them may be an inspired creation of genius, and 
the other but the dullest of fabrications. The 
old theory of phlogiston affords another parallel 
of highly suggestive character. According to 
that ingenious doctrine, combustion (which 
modem chemistry knows to be oxidation) meant 
the loss of phlogiston — an element having 
negative gravity — whereby the resultant sub- 
stance was made heavier than the unconsumed 
original. How many a writer, by a similar loss, 
has grown ponderous and inert I Wordsworth 
was evidently dephlogisticated when he wrote 
the ^^ Ecclesiastical Sonnets," and most sequels 
to works of genius show that the volatile 
element has escaped. 

The synthesis of organic compounds, which 
so definitely separates the new chemistry from 

the old, has its literary analogies. The work of 
literature, which was once supposed to be a 
work of creation, springing from the personality 
of its maker, now tends more and more to be- 
come the product formulated by rule and shaped 
from materials collected for the purpose. The 
old injunction of poet to poet, ^^Look in thy 
heart, and write," has given place to the modem 
counsel (not of perfection), ^^ Look in thy scrap- 
book, and piece together." Thus are produced 
the counlless imitations of old patterns that 
now clamor for our attention, imi^tions having 
a nicety of adjustment calculated to deceive all 
but the elect few. No ^^ vital principle" is 
longer needed for the production of song or 
ballad ; the literary laboratory has become inde- 
pendent of that old-fashioned agency, reproduc- 
ing all the old typical forms in fiask or alembic, 
and supplementing them with countless varia- 
tions of its own devising. 

Just as scientific chemistry has taken the 
place of romantic alchemy, so has the craftsman 
method of literary production taken the place 
of the old free play of creative imagination. 
And the cherished impossibilities which were 
the ideals of the alchemist — if we may be per- 
mitted a still greater confusion of metaphor 
than has hitherto been indulged in — are now 
realized in literature. Is not the modem maga- 
zine the exact analogue of that universal solvent 
which the alchemist sought in vain, and is not 
the modem novel the very type of his philoso- 
pher's stone that should transmute the baser 
forms of matter into gold ? If his ideal of the 
elixir of life still eludes our modem poets, there 
are at least many of them who are fully con- 
vinced of having made that discovery also ; and 
this cheerful delusion is a very fair substitute 
for the reality. 

As a conclusion to this series of &nciful diva- 
gations, we wish to bring forward, by way of 
supplement to the Bourgeois philosophy of 
bromides and sulphites, a classification of our 
own. Ours is a classification of writings rather 
than of persons, — which does not, however, 
set it essentially apart from the other, for it is 
by expression tibat the bromide and the sulphite 
are respectively indicated. There is known to 
chemists a classification of substances into crys- 
talloids and colloids, and the method of strain- 
ing through a membrane Whereby they may be 
distinguished and separated is called dialysis^ 
which fact seems to justify us in claiming a cer- 
tain proprietorship in the critical analogue of 
this physical process. Only the briefest of 
characterizations is here possible. Crystalloid 




writing has a distinctive form which it usually 
assumes if free to make the proper molecular 
adjustments, and which it always tends to as- 
sume. It has angles and &cets, is subject to 
laws of internal strain, and offers marked re- 
sistance to external forces. Colloid writing, 
on the other hand, is essentially amorphous and 
gluey ; its molecules seem to recognize no laws 
of symmetry, and are ready to shape themselves 
in accordance with whatever pressure, internal 
or external, may be exerted upon them. To 
name a few contrasted pairs of writers is the 
best way to illustrate our meaning. Tennyson 
and Browning, Tourgu^eff and Tolstoy, 
Brunetiere and Lemaitre, Schopenhauer and 
Schelling, may be suggested as such pairs. 
Hundreds of others mil occur to the leader 
upon a little reflection. Since the function of 
this journal, as we take it, is dialytical in the 
sense here indicated, we have allowed ourselves 
the above exposition (^^ Marry, how? Tropi- 
cally") of an original principle of applied 
chemistry as related to literary criticism. 


The commercialization of litebatube is 
again forcibly treated by Mr. Henry Holt, the vet- 
eran publisher, whose paper in the current '^ Put- 
nam's" is a sort of supplement to his earlier 
utterance on the subject which was published in the 
^Atlantic" of November, 1905, exciting much 
comment and discussion. His latest word is in the 
nature of a reiteration, with courteoos replies to 
hostile critics. Many slurs upon publishers are 
rightly resented by him as a self-respecting member 
of the gpiild, while he also undertakes to plead the 
cause of self-respecting authors and to show that 
the literary agent is a personage that can commonly 
be dispensed with. The distinction between matter 
that can place itself and matter that needs placing 
goes to the bottom of the whole question : matter of 
the first kind needs no agent ; that of the second no 
agent has any use for. But Mr. Holt admits that 
the agent can sometimes be of service in selling 
serial and dramatic rights, and the rights to publish 
in foreign countries or in the colonies. With these 
exceptions any business between author and pub- 
lisher that the author prefers not to attend to in 
person can better be placed in an honest lawyer's 
hands than in a literary agent's. The " some of the 
time" that all the people can be fooled by the lit- 
erary agent has passed, says Mr. Holt; and the 
** some of the people " that can be fooled all the 
time are too few to furnish the agent lucrative 
emjdoyment. Answering the objection that Mr. 
Holt's pnblisher*is an ideal creation, non-existent in 
the flesh, he says : '' I have suggested no ideal that 

I have not known in actual practice, and although 
the publishing business in America is in a lower 
estate than it has been before since I knew it, I 
have had, and have, the privilege of knowing sev- 
eral men in it who live up to the best that I have 
claimed, and find their account in it despite the com- 
petition of methods that they scorn." If all pub- 
lishers and all authors lived up to Mr. Holt's high 
ideals of conunercial honor, what a happy life the 

literary life would be ! 

• • • 

The decay of academic goubage is the subject 
of some plain words by a college professor, in a 
recent number of the " Educational Reriew." The 
sting of the text lies not in the implication that the 
professor is losing his valor, but that the conditions 
of control in the higher education are so autocratic 
and intolerant that it requires an uncommon amount 
of courage to stand up and point out the dangers 
and injustice of the stains qw>. The editor of the 
<^ Reriew " rejects these conclusions, and declares 
that '^It must be an unquestioned fact to any but 
the totally and wilfully blind that the academic 
career was never so dignified, so respected, so hon- 
ored, so courageous, so independent, so free, as at 
the very moment of writing these words. Any 
statement to the contrary is absolutely unjustified, 
unwarranted by the facts, contrary to the facts." 
Notwithstanding the sweeping and vehement char- 
acter of this rejoinder, we can hardly regard the 
discussion as thereby closed. There are various 
ways of conducting the complex affairs of state, and 
in any fair consideration of the dignity and comfort 
of the college professor's position this useful if 
modest functionary has a right to say how the thing 
looks to him. The enormous progress of our uni- 
versities and colleges appeals to the popular admi- 
ration of succesd, and there is little danger of a lack 
of appreciation of the man with his hand on the 
throttle — the man who makes things go. But there 
are some burning questions (particularly as to the 
woeful poverty of teachers' and professors' incomes) 
that must soon occupy, in a very practical temper, 
a prominent place in the discussions of academic 
wdfare. • • . 


has appeared, and in a quarter where we should 
perhaps least look for it — the Republic of Mexico. 
It is the Rsfoista CriHcay and makes the interesting 
announcement that the government of Vera Cruz 
has extended to it a generous financial support It 
is thus probably the first periodical of its kind in our 
hemisphere to receive State aid. It is also the official 
organ 6f the Assoeiaeian Literaria IntemaeiofuU 
Americano, a society which has for its purpose the 
fostering of literature in all the Spanish American 
countries. The headquarters of this Association are 
at Havana. In Havana, too, there is just launched 
a new magazine, "America," in whose pages the 
poets and romance writers of the league will try to 
gain a public. There seems to be a genuine awak- 



[Feb. 16, 

eidng of literaiy interest and literary talent in the 
great Soathlands. There is a Btining of many 
wings and a choms of Toices. Bat indeed, to one 
who knows anything of these beautiful regions, who 
remembers their picturesque history, it is a matter 
of wonder that they haye not sooner challenged 
and caught the world's attention by great works. 
These peoples inherit the Latin art instinct, and in 
the Spanish language have one of the most beautiful 
and harmonious instruments of expression mankind 
has yet invented. And their special qualities of 
bravery, courtesy, and hospitality, which rise to 
romantic heights, are a guarantee that there will be 
no f ailijffe of literary material or. makers. It is time 
that our North American indifference to the intel- 
lectual life of our nearest neighbors should cease. 

^ Tis ignoranoe which makes a bftrren in»te 
Of all beyond ourselves." 

Perhaps the real Athens or Florence or Weimar 
of our Occidental world may some day find itself 
located on the borders of the Gulf of Mexico, in an 
•island of the Carribean Sea, or under the shadow of 
the Andes. • • • 

A YEAR OF MAGAZINE POETBY is the Subject of 

an interesting study contributed by Mr. William 
Stanley Braithwaite to the Boston '< Transcript" 
Six leading American monthlies, the same half 
dozen that furnished material for a similar article 
last year, have again been overhauled, their poems 
counted and graded and classified, and some gen- 
eral deductions drawn. The writer declares that 
^' students and lovers of poetry know conclusively 
there is written to-day ii^ELnit^y better verse than 
nine-tenths of what gets printed in magazines. And 
tiiey know that these pieces are being constantly 
rejected by editors." This exclusion of good poetiy 
is supposed to be due to an editorial regard for what 
the public presumably demands, and also to space 
requirements in the make-up of a magazine page 
according to traditional rules. In matters of more 
detail, let us quote : '^ The space devoted to verse by 
these periodicals against that of prose in 1906 varies 
littie from that of 1905. The average is about 9700 
pages of prose to 220 of verse. The poems in the 
six magazines numbered 340, the total being appor^ 
tioned as follows : Lippincott's 88 pieces, Harper's 
78, Century 61, Scribner's 51, Atlantic Monthly 
35, McClure's 27. Lippincott's, publishing the 
largest number, presented the lowest order of ability 
or merit ; 8 out of the 88 come within the standard 
of acceptance by intrinsic merit, though only 3 pos- 
sess any distinction to appeal impressively through 
some single quality. Harper's is second by num- 
bers, printing 78, 11 attaining the merit diibs from 
which 4 elevate themselves through essentially 
poetic achievement. The Century stands third with 
61, 10 of which above the merit average include 8 
of decided poetic distinction. Scribner's follows in 
fourth place with 51, 7 of which are worthy of 
classification, with 4 distinctively excellent. The 
Atlantic Monthly contained 35, 9 having merit, of 

which 5 possess distinction/' These poems of ^ 
tinotion" are then named, their anUiorship grren, 
and the magazines in which they appeared desig- 
nated. Of course the element of personal bias is 
not to be overlooked in all this ; but Mr. Braitli^ 
waite has already done good work for the cause of 
poetry — witness his recent excellent compilation of 
^'Elizabethan Verse" — and his authoriiy as a 
critic is not contemptible. 

• • • • 

The SNEEZE in litebatube, and more especially 
in folk-lore, might be made the subject of a curi- 
ously interesting and probably voluminous treatise. 
To begin with, the Arabs tell us that the universe 
itself is the happy result of a sneeze by Allah, which 
at once delivers us from a tangle of philosophical 
and metaphysical argument and disputation. A 
Norwegian scholar has lately made some researches 
in the customs and superstitions that have to do 
with sneezing, and a few of his discoveries are worth 
noting. In China, where etiquette roles s u preme, 
whenever the premonitions of a sneeze make them- 
selves manifest all present fold their hands in prayer 
and bow to the earth until the explosion is over; 
then they all voice their pious hope that the bones 
of the sneezer's illustrious ancestors have not been 
disturbed by the earth-spirit. Contrariwise, the 
Japanese consider it not good form to ti^Ee any 
notice of a sneeze unless its author chance to belong 
to the Fox Clan, in which case sacrifices are offered 
to the Fox God. This is not unlike our own polite 
practice of repressing or muffling the sneeze if 
possible, and of taking littie notice of it if it escapes 
control. Some European nations, as the Germans, 
have a formula to avert the ill omen of a sneeze, 
or to make sure that it be of happy omen to the 
sneezer. ^^ Prosit J " greets the ears of the astour 
ished Anglo-Saxon upon his first sneeze in Teutonic 
territory. Some peoples use a phrase equi v alent 
to "God help you!" or "God bless you!"— the 
latter form dating from Saint Gregory's time. It 
was while he was pope that an epidemic (probably 
the influenza, or, as we should say now, the gri^pfpe) 
broke out in Italy and set all tiie people to sneez- 
ing. This attack was called " the death-sneeze," 
and Pope Gregory issued an edict that all who sur^ 
vived this paroxysm of sneezing should exclaim, 
" God bless my soul ! " All of this, and much else 
more marvellous, may be read in the book of the 
sneezer out of Norway. 

• • • 

FicnoN-BBADiNG AS A " BEST CURB " is not likely 
soon to go out of vogue. Indeed it may be said to 
have a great future before it. The hurried and 
worried, the nervous and distracted, the business 
and professional men who see much of tile seamy 
side of life, all demand, and will continue to de- 
mand, in the leisure hour of dressing-gown and slip- 
pers, a bright and brisk and optimistic picture of 
things as they should be but are not, in the form 
of fiction. In addition to these classes of novel- 




readers is the large number of ladies (and gentlemen 
too) of elegant leisure who make a serious business 
of novel-reading, visiting the circulating library per- 
haps every day but Sunday to exchange the next- 
to-the-last for the very latest new novel. A bright 
young lady, entering a London library and asking 
for the very latest new novel, was requested to be 
more specific, as eight new novels had come in that 
morning. " Oh," she replied, '^ then I '11 have the 
one that came in last." Ste. Beuve used to deplore 
the increasing vogue of the novel, as a form of lit- 
erature destined to swallow up all other varieties ; 
and already it has encroached on the domain of 
history, of sociology, of psychology, of religion, of 
finance (witness Mr. Lawson's forthcoming "Friday 
the Thirteenth"), and even of natural science. 
Those who watch the signs of the times in the lit- 
erary world predict an increasing demand for books 
in the coming years ; and of these books the greater 
number must, while human nature continues to be 
hunuun nature, be books that amuse rather than 
instruct. The outlook for the novel is therefore a 
bright one. In the increasing complexity and inten- 
sity and strenuosity of modem life, the novel's chief 
mission may well prove to be that of a " rest cure " 

— a name first applied to it by Mrs. Cecil Thurston. 

• • • 


BBASXBS seem to represent conflicting interests in 
England. Word comes from London that one large 
publishing house is now issuing works of fiction at 
half-arcrown instead of six shillings — -a reduction 
of over half its former price and the price still 
asked by other publishers. With this reduction, the 
standard of manufacture being kept up, it is evident 
that only large editions will pay; hence novels 
unlikely to command a good sale would be barred 
from publication. This low price could be afforded 
only if the novel-reading public should cease to de- 
pend so largely on the circulating library, and buy 
books direct A general reduction of price among 
publishers of fiction would thus become a serious 

matter to the circulating libraries. 

• • • 


GBB88 is not the least interesting reading imaginable. 
As was recently remarked of this library by a Lon- 
don literary journal, its size and importance do not 
seem to be generally realized, at least outside the 
United States. According to Librarian Putnam's 
latest figures, the library now has 1,379,244 books, 
89,869 maps and charts, 437,510 pieces of music, 
214,276 prints, besides a large number of manu- 
scripts that are not yet counted and catalogued. 
Among the many interesting additions of the year are 
Pirof essor J. P. MacLean's collection of Shaker litera- 
ture, believed to be the largest in existence ; a mass of 
Van Buren papers, comprising about 1700 letters and 
politiflal documents ; and some five hundred letters 
and other documents dating from 1777 to 1810, from 
the papers of Senator James Brown of Louisiana. 
The daily average attendance of readers was 2243. 

The inaccubagies of an histobical novelist 
— namely, Mr. Winston Churchill — are resented 
by a newspaper of Mr. Churchill's adopted state. 
He is reported from Washing^n as sending back 
word to New Hampshire that he is still alive, and 
as telling the reporter in the same breath that '^ ever 
since New Hampshire has been a state it has been 
owned by the railroad. " To this a Concord (N. H. ) 
newspaper indignantly replies: ''Mr. Churchill of 
late never loses his character as an historical novel- 
ist, and his interviews, like his novels, are curiously 
and unnecessarily inexact. New Hampshire has 
been a state since 1784. Its first railroad was 
chartered about 1840. Yet Mr. Churchill says 
the railroad has owned us ' ever since we have been 
a state.' " This is inexact enough, surely ; but some 
allowance is doubtless to be made to a young man 
so recently defeated by the railroad in his heroic 
effort to purify the politics of his state and to get 
himself elected its chief magistrate. 


(To the Editor of Thb Dial.) 

Having followed the « Times Book War " with keen 
interest, I naturally read your recent article << O Tem- 
pora ! O Mores ! " with much appreciation. Two state- 
ments in it, however, do not accord with the facts so far 
as I have been able to gather them. 

(1) << The book publishers made the modest request 
that * The Times ' should not resort to under-cutting dur- 
ing a period of six months from the date of a book's first 
appearance. This was flatly refused. ..." On this I have 
to remark, (a) that the request referred only to net books ; 
(b) that it was not a modest request confined to under- 
cutting the sale of new books, but an ultimatum that no 
net book, however damaged by wear or otherwise second- 
hand, should be retailed at one farthing less than its full 
price within six months of its publication; (o) that Neither 
the modest request nor the dictatorial rule were flatly 
refused, for " The Times " claims that it has not sold 
and does not sell new net books on any other terms than 
those laid down by the publishers. In this matter I have, 
every reason to believe that " The Times " is speaking the 
truth; and the Publishers' Association has failed to prove 
the contrary. 

(2) « ( The Times ' retorted by declaring a boycott." 
This is very nearly the opposite of the truth. So far 
from "The Times" boycotting the publishers, it has 
made every effort to obtain their books, and has pur- 
chased them at full retail prices rather than disappoint 
its subscribers. It has, indeed, appealed to its subscribers 
not to force it to purchase these books at such a loss; 
but I repeat, it has not boycotted the book publishers, 
either in trade, or in its reviews, or in its correspondence 

Forgive this intrusion by a stranger; but your senti- 
ments are so admirable tiliat I thought you might be 
glad to have your facts correct as well. 

A SciENTinc Editor. 
Wimhledony England^ Feb, f , 1907, 



[Feb. 16, 

C^t il^tfo §00ks. 

Parson and Knight.* 

A book published in 1861, called ''The 
Alps," was ascribed on the title-page to '' the 
Rev. Leslie Stephen." The volume on Hobbes, 
contributed to the '' English Men of Letters " 
series in 1904, was declared to be the work of 
'' Sii* Leslie Stephen." Few of us recall the 
earlier designation, aad the later one never be- 
came widely familiar, because it was the visible 
sign of an honor conferred near the close of the 
author's life. But the name '' Leslie Stephen," 
unadorned by any mark of artificial distinction, 
has meant a great deal to readers of many kinds, 
from mountaineers to philosophers, for the past 
thirty or forty years ; and when the famous 
Alpinist, literary critic, biographer, historian, 
aad agnostic died, not quite three years ago, 
there must have been many thousands, in both 
England and America, who felt that his death 
was a serious loss to humanity. Even the most 
favorable conditions of native aptitude and cul- 
tural environment do not often produce so rare 
a combination of scholarly equipment, keenness 
of logical perception and philosophical analysis, 
grace of persuasive style, sincerity of purpose, 
and sanity of mind. His life was an example 
of so many of the virtues that it affords an 
unusually wortt.y object f or o^ contemplation, 
and the biography now published should be the 
most welcome of books to all whose interests 
are engaged in the highest ideals of thought and 

The task of portraying this rich and many- 
sided life has fallen into the best of hands. The 
late Frederic William Maitland, who completed 
the work last October, and whose own death we 
have since been called upon to deplore, was one 
of Stephen's most intimate friends during the 
last quarter-century of his life. He was one of 
that goodly company of " Sunday tramps " who 
for fifteen years explored under Stephen^s lead- 
ership the highways and byways of England ; he 
became Stephen's kinsman by marriage ; and he 
was designated in Stephen's dying message to his 
children as the one who should prepare whatever 
" short article " or " appreciation " or " notice " 
might be called for. Almost the last words 
pencilled by Stephen upon his death-bed were 
these : " Any sort of ' life ' of me is impossible, 
if only for the want of materials. Nor shoidd 
I like you to help anybody to say anything ex- 

* Thb Life akd Lbttbbs op Lbsub Stbphbn. By Frederic 
William Maitland. niustrated. New York : G. P. Patnam's Sons. 

cept Maitland. He might write a short article 
or so." That the '^ short article " has become 
a stout volume, telline in much detail the story 
of Stephen'8 life, and pK^erving a large amount 
of his revealing and altogether delightful corre- 
spondence, will hardly be held chargeable as 
a fault to the biographer, although in under- 
taking so large a task he exceeded Stephen's 
modest instructions. He says : 

'* I feel that in writing bo much as I propoae to write, 
I shall go beyond, though certainly I shidl not trans- 
gress, the letter of his expressed wish; and it seems 
well for me to say why this is done. That < short 
article or so ' about somebody else he could have writ- 
ten to perfection; but I cannot write it even imperfectly. 
The powers, natural and acquired, which enabled him 
to sum up a long life in a few pages, to analyze a char- 
acter in a few sentences, are not at my disposal, nor did 
I observe Stephen as some expert in psychology, or as 
some heaven-bom novelist might have observed him. 
... I do not think that the public will be entitled 
to complain if it gets some first-hand evidence instead 
of my epitome of it, and if Stephen himself saw the 
* short article or so ' swelling to the size of a book, he 
would shake his head, it is true, but he would acquit 
me of anything worse than clumsiness and verbosity." 

One of the most interesting chapters in this 
book is that which is devoted to Stephen's first 
visit to the United States. It was undertaken 
chiefly for the purpose of studying the Civil 
War at close range, and collecting controversial 
ammunition for use at home. Stephen had a 
deep-seated (and even hereditary) hatred of 
slavery and all its works, and he was one of 
the small group of Englishmen, the group which 
included Mill and Bright, who understood the 
American situation clearly, and who knew that, 
whatever questions of theoretical politics might 
be raised to obscure the issue by Southern 
sympathizers, the practical question at stake 
was that of the ^^ peculiar institution." In the 
summer of 1863, having stoutly championed the 
Northern cause during the first two years of the 
conflict, Stephen started for America that he 
might make observations on the spot. He knew 
little of American public men and writers, and 
^^ had not any notion that he was going to make 
acquaintance with American men of letters, 
stiU less that some of them were to be his most 
intimate friends." If it were not for his later 
correspondence with the friends whom he made 
during this visit, the volume now under review 
would have a greatly diminished interest, and 
not for Americans alone. The score of letters 
addressed to Lowell, and the fourscore to Mr. 
Charles Eliot Norton, make up a highly impor- 
tant part of Mr. Maitland's work. 

Stephen reached this country just after Lee's 
retreat from Pennsylvania and Grant's capture 




of Yicksburg. He landed at Halifax, and at 
once proceeded to Boston. His first letter home 
speaks of meeting ^^ Holmes, a rather well-known 
literary gent," and receiving cards from Field 
andLowell. A week later he finds himself much 
at home with his new friends, and describes 
them as ^^ really very pleasant, well educated 
men, like the best class of Cambridge men." 
Lowell ^^ really is one of the pleasantest men I 
ever met." Holmes is ^^ very kind and wonder- 
fully talkative, but with a good deal of sense 
and reaUy impressing me as an extremdy clever 
man." The note struck by this repeated use of 
the word ^^ really " is a sufficient index of that 
^* condescension in foreigners" about which 
Lowell wrote with such lambent satire ; and we 
make no doubt that it was many times imcon- 
sciously sounded by Stephen during these early 
New England days. It is amusing to come upon 
the ending to the letter from which we have just 

** I koow you will think 1 have spoken too favourably 
of my friends over here. I am, of course, in th% best 
and most English part of the country. Perhaps 1 shall 
find things worse as I go on." 

This apprehension became sadly justified when 

Chicago was reached a few weeks later. He says 

of the denizens of that frontier community that 

^^ their manners are those of bagmen and their 

customs are spitting." A few other fragments 

relating to this visit may be quoted. Newport 

was responsible for a splenetic outburst : 

« It IB hatefully flat and apparently devoid even of 
good bathing. However, I could not stay in it long, for 
I felt that disgust arising which always comes to me at 
Interlaken or any of those vile haunts of all that is most 
contemptible in humanity, called watering-places." 

A few days in Washington brought him into 
contact with Seward and Lincoln. Of the latter 
we read: 

** In appearance he ib much better than I expected. 
He is more like a gentleman to look at than I should 
have given him credit for from his pictures. He has a 
particularly pleasant smile, a jolly laugh, and altogether 
looks like a benevolent and hearty old gentleman." 

Seward did not make so good an impression. 

*< He is a little, rather insignificant-looking man, with 
a tendency to tell rather long-winded and rather point- 
less stories, and to make tib.06e would-be profoundly 
philosophical observations about the manifest destiny 
and characteristics of the American people, of which 
Americans have got a string ready for use on all occa- 
sidis, and all of which I now know by heart. He . . . 
lather provoked me, as I was telling him something of 
the friends of the North in England and mentioning 
Mill, by calling him < Monkton Mill ' — a depth of de- 
libeimte ignorance to which I should have hoped no 
decent human being on the other side of the Atlantic 
would have descended." 

Stephen found it hard work explaining to 

Americans the state of English ^* barbarian " 

opinion upon the subject of the war. 

" 1 really don't know how to translate into civil lan- 
guage what I have heard a thousand times over in 
England: that both sides are such a set of snobs and 
blackguards that we only wish they could both be 
licked, or that their armies are the scum of the earth 
and the war got up by contractors, or that the race is 
altogether degenerate and demoralized, and it is pleasant 
to see such a set of bullies have a fall. I really can't 
tell them all these little compliments, which I have heard 
in private conversation word for word, and which are a 
free translation of < Times ' and ' Saturday Review,' even 
if I introduce them with the apology (though it is a 
really genuine apology) that we know nothing at aU 
about them." 

Stephen made a trip to Philadelphia and was. 

oppressed by the hospitalities of his lawyer-host. 

" Whenever we meet any one he knows in the streets, 
he clutches hold of him and introduces < the Rev. Mr. 
Stephen, the nephew of the celebrated lawyer,' or < the 
son of the celebrated historian,' according to the sup- 
posed proclivities of the victim, and begs him to take 
me to his extensive coalyard or to his lunatic asylum or 
his world-famous book-store, or his church, or in fact to 
anything that is his." 

An invasion of Girard College was escaped by 

pleading benefit of clergy. 

« The f oimder, gaining my eternal g^titude thereby, 
but being, I fear, a shoddng old scapegrace, declared 
in his wOl that no clergyman was ever to set foot in 
this building, and you have to give your honour that you 
are not in any sense a priest before entering it. I joy- 
fully declined, and avoided presentation to the orphans." 

After making a brief visit to the seat of war in 
Virginia, Stephen returned to England, and 
poured hot shot into the ^^ Times " by publish- 
ing a pamphlet on the American War. 

The story of Stephen's separation from the 
church in which he had taken orders was related 
in the deeply interesting reminiscences which he 
wrote several years ago, and the present biog- 
raphy supplements in various ways the personal 
confession made upon that occasion. The process 
does not seem to have been a particularly distress- 
ing one. He sloughed off the theologieal int^u- 
ment of his early life as naturally as acrustacean 
casts off its outworn shell, and if there were any 
'^ growing pains '' attendant upon the change, he 
kept them to himself. ^^ In truth, I did not feel 
that the solid ground was giving way beneath 
my feet, but rather that I was being relieved of 
a cumbrous burden. I was not discovering that 
my creed was false, but that I had never really 
believed it." The separation did not take place 
with any startling dnunatic accompaniment, but 
was a gradual process covering a period of several 
years. It was nearly completed at the time of 
the first visit to America. He wrote to his mother 



[Feb. 16, 

that sub^ription to the Episcopal Church in 

America '^ must be pleasingly lax." 

« A bishop asked a candidate for ordination the other 
day whether he believed the thirty-nine Articles. Can- 
didate said he didn't. Bishop asked whether he agreed 
with the principal articles. Candidate replied that he 
would rather not commit himself. Candidate was passed, 
the bishop saying that he had no authority to inquire 
into anything but his willingness to use the Liturgy. I 
wish bishops had as much sense in England." 

When Stephen ceased to be a parson and be- 
came a philosopher he had perhaps, all told, 
preached some twenty-five sermons. An amus- 
ing incident of the parliamentary campaign for 
the election of his friend Fawcett seems to show 
that while still a clergyman he was a human 
•being. It was the day of the election. 

«The language became loud; the 'chairman of the 
room,' one X, not a tall man, scattered his big D's 
about freely. Stephen entered, he had lost himself, and 
his language was snch that it sobered X, who crept up 
to him, took his left arm in both hands, and said: * Oh, 
Mr. Stephen, don't take on so; the Greneral Election will 
come in a year, when we shall want a second candidate 
to run with Fawcett, and we have made up our minds 
that you are the man we should like.' Stephen tore his 
left arm so roughly away that he' nearly threw X on 
the ground, while he shouted fsomething about X's soul, 
and then] <'Don't you know that 1 'm a parson ? ' " 

It was in 1866 that Stephen became engaged 
to Miss Thackeray, and we may quote a few 
characteristic remarks from the letter in which 
he announces the event to Mr. (now Justice) 
Oliver Wendell Holmes. 

** As for Miss Thackeray, I believe that it would be 
proper that I should give you some description of her, 
or, at least, quote poetry about her. 1 11 see you damned 
first. ... 

«Do you know what it feels like to be engaged? 
The experience of three days or so of the state enables 
me to say that it is psychologically interesting: (1) 
Because it is incredibly pleasant — I did not thii& four 
days ago that I could contain so much happiness. (2) 
Because it makes an absolute breach of continuity in 
time. About December 3, in this year, the current of 
my life was parted by a chasm of inappreciable breadth. 
I should say at a guess that about ten years came in 
between two consecutive seconds, or rather, though we 
metaphysicians say that time should be represented by 
a line, this part of time seems to be fairly represented 
thus. [A diagram.] InteUigisne dcmme f (3) Ever since 
this dislo<iation, time has been going like a clock with 
the pendulum off, at the devil's own pace. How many 
weeks or months go to a day is beyond my arithmetic. 
I won't bother you with any more of my feelings, but 
I know that you are an admirer of H. Spencer, and 
might like a little psychological analysis." 

In a later letter to Mr. Holmes, written just 

after marriage in the following sunmier, we find 

these philosophical reflections : 

" To say the truth, I believe myself to have been very 
much in want of a wife, and to have been not a little 
spoiled by my donnish existence at Cambridge. It 

always tends to shrivel up a cove's faculties to live as a 
bachelor in a bachelor society with very little external 
communication. One gets rusty and stupid and morose, 
and even a comparatively family and social existence in 
London had not tmdonned me. I was wanting much to 
take root, and am truly thankful I have done so to my 
heart's content. In short, I am very happy indeed, and 
don't mind saying so." 

A visit to America in 1868 yields many notes 

upon places and personalities, among them this 

about a call from Mr. Emerson : 

« He is considered to be a great prophet in Yankee- 
land, though I don't much worship him. However, he 
has the merit of being a sing^ularly mild, simple kind of 
old fellow, who does not presume in the least upon the 
reverence of his worshippers. . . . He was so kind and 
benevolent, and talked so much like a virtuous old saint, 
that we could not help liking him." 

In connection with this note, we may qnote what 

Stephen wrote a few years later about Carlyle. 

He was speaking of his brother, J. F. Stephen, 

and said: 

" Oddly enough, he has been, in my opinion, a good deal 
corrupted by old Carlyle. I never before had so much 
respect for the extraordinary vigour of that person, till 
I saw how much influence he could exercise over a man 
who is little enough disposed to sit at anybody's feet. I 
see the prophet pretty often myself, and though I am not 
so independent a character as J. F. S., I am almost equally 
repelled and attracted by him. Personally, indeed, I 
am simply attracted, for he is a really noble old cove 
and by far the best specimen of the literary gent we 
can at present produce. He has grown milder too with 
age. But politically and philosophically he talks a good 
deal of arrant and rather pestilent nonsense — that is, 
of what I call nonsense. He is indeed a genuine poet 
and a great humorist, which makes even his nonsense 
attractive in its way; but nonsense it is and will renuun, 
and, though it is as well to have a man of genius to give 
one the corrective of the ordinary twaddle, it is a pity 
that he is not comprehensive enough to see the other side 
as well.' 

Stephen's letters are so rich in so many kinds 
of intellectual and human interest (even more 
human than intellectual) that one is sure of 
<^ pickings" at whatever page the biography 
may chance to be opened. A few bits, taken at 
random, may give sLe further idea of it« qual- 
ity, and fill up our remaining space. 

<< As a matter of fact, Switzerland in the winter is just 
as accessible as England, and much pleasanter in some 
ways, owing to the comparative scarcity of Englishmen." 

" I must now turn to certain wretehed MSS. and put 
their authors out of misery. It is not right, I fear, to 
toss up, as it would save me a great deal of trouble, and 
come to much the same thing in the end." 

« I like some particular boys; but the genus boy seems 
to me one of nature's mistakes. Girls improve as they 
grow up; but the boy generally deteriorates, and, in our 
infernal system, has to be sent away to school and made 
into more or less of a brute." 

** I said nothing to you of politics; because, in truth, 
that department of the world seems to me to be given 
over for the present to the devil, in whom I entertain a 




kind of proyinonal belief » so long as tilings go on in this 
perverse fashion." 

** The female student is at present an innocent ani- 
mal, who wants to improve her mind and takes orna- 
mental lectures seriously, not understanding with her 
brother students that the object of study is to get a 
good plaoe in an examination, and that lectures are a 
Tanity and a distraction." 

'< Of other books, I have got on my table William 
James's new essays. They look bright, like all his 
writings He is the one really lively philosopher; but 
I am afraid that he is trying Uie old dodge of twisting 
< faith ' out of moonshine." 

« Tou spoke of the < X ' critic who took Foe and Walt 
Whitman for the representatives of your literature. 
That seems to me — pardon the remark — that you 
have not kept yourself posted up in the youthful British 
critic. Some time ago he took up the pair in question 
because they were both rather naughty and eccentric, 
and it seemed original to put them above their betters. 
Poe was, I think, as Lowell said, < 3 parts of him genius 
and 1 part sheer fudge ' (perhaps < 3 ' is too high a pro- 
portion) — at any rate, a man of genius, though he 
mined it veiy soon. W. W. always seems to me Em- 
erson diluted with Tupper — twaddle with gleams of 
something better. But I quite agree with you that the 
critic was silly, or rather a young gentleman misled by 
a temporary < fad ' — I have written so much criticism 
alas I that I have acquired a disgust for the whole 
body of it — including my own." 

With these miscellaneous bits we send our 
readers to the storehouse from which they caine 
— to the wonderfully discreet and sjrmpathetic 
record of a lovable character and a noble life. 
*'*' Many are alive and will say with me/* remarks 
the biographer in closing, ^^ that to have known 
Leslie Stephen is ^ part of our life's unalterable 
good.' " And many others, now coming to know 
the man for the first time in the revelations of 
these pages, wiU give the sentiment a heartfelt 

®^^" William Morton Payne. 

Th£ Dual Structure of the German 


While there is no lack of learned works on 
the constitutional law of the German Empire 
by German writers — such as the commentaries 
of Laband, Zom, Meyer, and Schulze — we 
have hitherto had no systematic treatise pub- 
lished in the English language. Dr. Burt Estes 
Howard, an American scholar who, we are told, 
has been a close student of German history and 
politics for many years, has done much to sup- 
ply this want in his excellent book on ^' The 
Grerman Empire," which will probably rank 
among the standard briefer treatises of the Ger- 
mans. It is based entirely on German sources, 

• Tm Gbbm AN Bmpikk. By Bnrt Estes Howard. New York: 
M MmillAn Co. 

mostly original, and affords abundant evidence 
of wide and painstaking research. The only 
criticism worth mentioning relates to the .title 
of his book, which is misleading, since the work 
relates almost entirely to a single aspect of the 
German Empire, its constitution. 

The Grerman Empire is the only nation in 
the world to^y in which a federal system of 
government is combined with the monarchical 
principle. In this respect, and also in the con- 
stitutional inequality of the constituent members 
of which it is formed, it differs widely from the 
federal republics of the western hemisphere. 
But in other notable particulars it possesses 
striking similarities. The difficult problem of 
adjusting the relations between die central 
power and the individual units has there been 
solved in a manner very different from that oi 
any other state having a dual system of govern- 
ment under a common sovereignty. Some of its 
contributions to the solution of tiie problems of 
this sort of government are wholly original, and, 
we believe, in thorough accord with sound prin- 
ciples of political science. The lessons which 
they teach therefore merit the careful study of 
citizens of the great federal republic of North 
America, who must needs find solutions for some 
of the imsettled problems of our dual political 

The topics of Dr. Howard's treatise are prin- 
cipally these : The founding of the Empire ; its 
relation to the states composing it ; the Imp^ 
rial Legislature (Bundesrath and Reichstag) ; 
the Emperor ; the Chancellor ; Citizenship in 
the Empire; the Judicial system; the gov- 
ernment of the JReichsland (Alsace Lorraine); 
the Imperial Fiscal system ; and the Army and 
Navy. The treatment of each of these subjects 
is lucid, accurate, and discriminating. It is 
especially in the exposition of legal and con- 
stitutional relations that Dr. Howard is at his 
best. He has a preeminently juristic bent of 
mind, as well as a ^ulty for clear and concise 

In the brief compass of this review, no at- 
tempt will be made to do more than state the 
position which the author takes on several im- 
portant matters of German constitutional law. 
Concerning the legal structure of the Empire, 
he maintains that its constituent elements are 
not citizens or subjects, but states ; and that 
sovereignty resides not in the Emperor, nor in 
the people, but in the totality of the states, i. 6., 
in tlie Bundesrath. This is the view also of 
the abler Grerman commentators. The Kaiser 
is not monarch of the Empire, but monarch in 



[Feb. 16, 

the Empire ; not JKmser von DeutscAland^ but 
Deutscher Kaiser. He is not an authority of 
residuary powers with the customary monarch- 
ical prerogatives, but as Ejuser he possesses only 
derivatiYe powers. He has some of the elements 
of both a monarch and a President ; yet he is 
neither of these. His position is unique, and it 
is impossible to classify him with other rulers. 
But, owing to the importance of the military 
power in Germany, his position as Kaiser, in- 
dependently of his royal office, is one of enor- 
mous power. The office of Imperial Chancellor, 
created by Bismarck for hunself , is equally 
unique, and something of a puzzle to political 
students. Dr. Howard insists that tiie only 
way to avoid misapprehension as to the real 
nature of the office is to distinguish between its 
dual nature — i. e., between the Chancellor's 
position as a Prussian member of the Bundes- 
rath on the one hand, and his position as the 
Emperor's only responsible minister and the 
highest imperial official on the other. Whether 
his responsibility is legal or political, as Dr. 
Howard points out, is purely an academic ques- 
tion, since there is no means of enforcing it. 
The Socialists are demanding that he should be 
made responsible to the Imperial Parliament ; 
but as yet he acknowledges responsibility to no 
one except the Emperor. 

The diiscussion of German citizenship is full 
and illuminating. Like all states having the 
federal system of government, Germany has had 
to deal with the difficult problem of a dual 
citizenship — one local, the other national. Most 
commentators recognize the existence of a 
citizenship of the Empire, and also a state 
citizenship. Dr. Howard is among the num- 
ber, although he maintains that the two forms 
of citizenship are not coordinate and independ- 
ent, occupying distinct spheres, but that the re- 
lation is one of subordination and dependence. 
Contrary to the American rule, state citizen- 
ship in Germany ia primary and imperial citi- 
zenship secondary ; that is, the latter is derived 
from the former, and is lost when that is lost. 
Nevertheless, it is characteristic of the German 
conception of the importance of uniformity 
among the states, that the conditions govern- 
ing the acquisition of state citizenship (and, in 
consequence, of imperial citizenship) should be 
regulated by Imperial law. This insures a 
common citizenship for all the states of the 
Empire, and does away with local diversities 
and inequalities. 

The German theory of centralization in leg- 
islation is also well shown in the organization of 

the judicial and legal system, which constitutes 
the subject of an important chapter in Mr. 
Howard's book. By successive statutes enacted 
since the founding of the Empire, a common 
judicial system for all the stat^ has been pro- 
vided (ex^pt for non^sontentiom jnrbdiction); 
and so have codes of law and procedure. Thus 
there is uniformity of law, of judicial organiza- 
tion, and judicial procedure, throughout the 
Empire; although, with the exception of the 
Imperial Court at Leipsic, all courts are re- 
garded as state courts, the judges being ap- 
pointed and paid by the local governments. 
But here again the states are under certain 
restrictions, for they are required to provide 
the judges with adequate salaries, and the min- 
imum qualifications for eligibility to judicial 
stations are prescribed by imperial law. Dr. 
Howard does not discuss the various special 
courts (besondere gerichte) which are not regu- 
lated by Imperial law, nor the administrative 
courts, nor the bar, nor the state-attomeyshipr 
A real defect in his discussion of the judicial 
system is the omision of all reference to the 
question of the power of the courts to declare 
statutes unconstitutional. The question is not 
entirely academic, particularly when there is a 
case of conflict between the state law and the 
imperial constitution or an imperial statute. 

In his discussion of the military side of the 
Empire, the author points out the interesting 
fact that there is no imperial army, but only 
a collective unity made up of contingents of the 
several states. This woidd be considered a fatal 
weakness in the military organization of the 
Empire, were it not for the fact that the con- 
tingent of each state is recruited, organized, 
equipped, and drilled, in accordance with rules 
and regulations prescribed by the Empire. 
Likewise, the liability to military service, as well 
as the whole matter of discipline, rests upon 
Imperial law, and the supreme command of all 
contingents is vested in the Emperor. Another 
weak spot in the military organization of the 
Empire ia the special privileges enjoyed by a 
number of the states. The smaller of these 
have ceded their special privileges to Prussia, 
so that really there are but four contingents — 
namely, those of Prussia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, 
and Saxony. The navy, unlike the army, ia in 
the strictest sense an Imperial affair. When 
the Empire was formed, Prussia alone had a 
navy ; she brought it with her into the union ; 
and it has remained under the control of the 
King of Prussia^ who is at the same time the 
German Emperor. J. W. Gabkeb. 





Seldom does it happen that the journals of 
a private citizen, a quiet man of letters, are 
published in a dozen volumes, especially in the 
United States. The Adams fanuly, with their 
turn for both politics and Hterature, and their 
unwearied industry with the pen, have given us 
volume after volume of the diaries of the two 
Presidents of that family ; and doubtless much 
is coming of the same sort from the copious 
papers of Charles Francis Adams, first of that 
name. But among literary Americans diary 
publication has been comparatively small. A 
century after his death, the so-called ^^ Literary 
Diary " of President Stiles of Yale has been 
edited at New Haven, and quite recently has 
appeared the first (perhaps the only) volume 
of Dr. S. G. Howe, covering his active youthful 
years in the Greek Eevolution. But Emerson's 
journals have as yet come forth oxdy in frag- 
ments, though they are extensive ; and the fif^ 
or sixty volumes of Alcott's Diaries remain on 
the shelves at Concord, undisturbed. Theodore 
Parker's copious Journals of a quarter-century 
have been much drawn upon by his biographers, 
and are to go finally to the Boston Public 
Library, after which publication in full may fol- 
low, — but not, probably, until half a century 
after Parker's death at Florence, in May, 1860. 

Most of the diaries just mentioned are records 
of foreign travel, at least in part. John Quincy 
Adams had ranged over Europe from the Orient 
to Moscow; Emerson twice or thrice visited 
Europe, and even (in 1872) went as far eastward 
as to the Sphinx of Egypt, though he made few 
notes of that final journey, taken as he was ap- 
proaching the age of seventy, and disinclined to 
write even a journal. Parker had noted, in his 
Journal of 1848-44, his interviews with famous 
scholars, and the lectures he heard in Paris and 
in Grermany ; in Florence, where he is buried, 
he met the Brownings, and in Switzerland and 
Italy and the West Indies, in 1859-60, he had 
foreign incidents and manners to relate. Even 
Alcott had one brief visit to England to record, 
as well as those many volumes which he filled 
with what his satirical neighbor, EUery Chan- 
ning, called his '* Encydopedie de Moi-meme^ 
Cinquante Volumes.'^ But Thoreau's only for- 
eign travel was for ten days, from Concord to 
Canada, and its incidents were left out of his 
Journal of 1850, to appear in a work by itself, 

*Ths WBrmrcNi of Hbnbt David Thobbau. Walden Edl- 
tkm. Bdited by Brmdford Tomar. In twenty volnmeB. lUus- 
trmtod. Volumes Vni.-XX.. The Joiim«l8. Boston : Houffhton, 

^' A Yankee in Canada," of which a quarter 
part was left unprinted. His longest journey, 
that from Concord to Redwood on the Minne- 
sota river, only found record in notes that never 
got written into his Journal of 1861, and in a 
few letters. 

What, then, is the great interest of Thoreau's 
Journals, to warrant their publication in four- 
teen well printed, illustrated, and indexed vol- 
umes, containing in the aggregate 6700 pages, 
exclusive of 70 pages of~Mr.Gleason*s admirable 
photogravures, six pages of his map and key, 
and 110 double-columned pages of index. Li 
all, the volumes fall little short of 7000 pages, 
or eight times as much as White's ^^ Selbome " 
and Izaak Walton's ^^ Compleat Angler," the two 
authors with whom Thoreau is perhaps most 
often compared. What is it that warrants so 
full a publication of writings which in the au- 
thor's own time were so generally overlooked or 
contemned ? Two qualities especially, — their 
wonderful variety of topic and treatment, and 
the charm of their style when at its best. Back 
of both lies Thoreau's chief quality — his power 
of exact and minute observation ; and still fur- 
ther back and deeply original with him, the 
power of profound thought and comprehensive 
imagination applied to the most commonplace 
objects and events. Hardly any writer can be 
named, ancient or modem, who devoted such 
high powers so studiously to such a cyclopaedia 
of themes. Seneca, Pliny, and Aristode, among 
the ancients, Montaigne and Goethe of the mod- 
ems, come readily to mind, and each has some 
gifts and accompUshments that Thoreau had 
not. But, on the other hand, so had he gifts 
and industries which they had not. Perhaps 
he comes nearest to Montaigne, for, like that 
learned and irregular Grascon, he made the world 
of fact and deed revolve about himself, instead 
of sharing its revolutions and following its &sh- 
ions, like the most of us. Of course there are 
marked divergences one from the other. Wbere 
Montaigne is nonchalant and obscene, Thoreau 
fastidious and full of exalted sentiment. 


Though their loyalty in friendship is much the 
same, Thoreau has a loftier and more unprac- 
tical ideal of his friend ; while in secular mat- 
ters he was far more widely practical than the 
landlord and magistrate in his chateau or his 
province. Emerson once, in Cincinnati, advised 
a young friend to "know Mr. C, — there is 
nothinghe may not say." Of Thoreau it may 
be declared there was nothing he might not do, 
with his hands or with his head. He was a good 
boatman and boat-builder ; a mechanic and phi- 



[Feb. 16, 

loeopher ; a stoic, a cynic, a pencil-maker, and a 
poet ; good at mathematieB, it merchandizing, at 
abstractions, paradoxes, and land-mmreying. To 
none of his many avocations did he surrender 
himself, but stood back of and above them all 
in a pmul leiimre derived from the rimplid^ of 
his tastes and the smgolanty of his ambitions. 
Those foolish critics who call him indolent never 
knew him, nor any of his kmd among men. His 
activity, whether physical or intellectoal, was 
miceasing. Emerson, his neighbor and friend, 
had intervals of mental inefficiency, when the 
pen refused its task, and even his startling Ac- 
uity of perception seemed to slumber or be far 
away. But Thoreau was always, as the Yankee 
phrL is, "up and coming." £ meet intimate 
friend and best biographer, Ellery Channing, 
describing his personid traits, says: *^His 
clenched hand betokened purpose. In walking 
he made a short cut if he could, and when sit- 
ting in the shade or by the wall-side he seemed 
merely the clearer to look forward into the next 
piece of activity. Even in the boat he had a 
wary, transitory air, his eyes on the outlook,— 
perhaps there might be ducks or the Blanding 
turtle, or an otter or sparrow." 

Thoreau's Journals intimate this tireless 
activity and vigilance ; and yet how many things 
and events, that he might have been expected 
to mention, are passed by in silence ! Thus, in 
the autumn of 1854, when he was making the 
acquaintance of his English admirer, Thomas 
Cholmondeley, who lived with him in the same 
house for weeks, and in December went back to 
Shropshire to enlist volunteers for the Crimean 
war, the Journal contains no allusion to his new 
friend ; and when he came over again in 1859, 
and went with Thoreau to New Bedford to call 
on his friend Ricketson, there is a very slight 
allusion to Cholmondeley in the Journal. In 
the same way, when John Brown of Kansas was 
introduced to Thoreau in 1857, dined with him, 
and made a vivid impression, so that his con- 
versation was recalled in the Journal two and 
a half years afterward, there is no mention of 
Brown in the entries of 1867. Nor is Whit- 
man much mentioned in the Journal of 1856, 
when Thoreau first met him and described him 
in a letter to Blake. His letters are often sub- 
stitutes for the Journal entries, and sometimes 
are copied from the Journal, as was Emerson's 
habit occasionally. 

Thoreau's use of his Journals, which he be- 
gan to keep regularly about 1838, was original, 
like everything about him. He used them to 
make magazine articles and books from ; and 

then he destroyed them^ reserving such pages 
or fragments as he had not nsed^ and preserving 
these scraps all his life, often using them yean 
afterward in essays. In the latter case he did 
not destroy them, so that those who have bought 
his MSS. of late years may often find the scraps 
and pages among them which long since came 
out in some of his posthumous bo<^. In the 
same way it has happened that the publishers 
of the^e Lnrteen v<C 1«* origiJS pages of 
the Journal, enou^ perhaps to make a small 
volume ; they have been sold, and most of them 
are in the possession of Mr. W. K. Bixby of 
St. Louis, who has allowed the Bibliophile 
Society of Boston to print them in their two 
volumes called ^^ The first and Last Journeys 
of Thoreau." Other Journal pages remain un- 
printed. but may come out hereafter in connec- 
tion with reprints of ** Walden " or " A Yankee 
in Canada." There are also many verses that 
have not been brought into any collection, some 
of them in the Journals, and others in loose 
leaves, or written on the back of lecture sheets 
or pages from some destroyed journal. 

But it is time to quote from these rich and 
unusual transcripts of the meditations and ob- 
servations of a man of genius. September 19, 
1854, he writes : 

M Thinkiiig this afternoon of the prospect of my writ- 
ing lectures and going abroad to read them the next 
winter, I realized how incomparably great the advan- 
tages of obscurity and poverty which I have enjoyed so 
long (and may perhaps still enjoy). I thought with 
what more tlum princely, with what poetic leisure I had 
spent my years hitherto, without care or engagement^ 
fancy-free. I have given myself up to Nature: I have 
lived so many springs and sunmiers, autunms and win- 
ters as if I had nothing to do but live them, and imbibe 
whatever nutriment they had for me. 1 have spent a 
couple of years, for instance, with the flowers chiefly^ 
having none other so binding engagement as to observe 
when they opened; I could afford to spend the whole 
Fall observing the changing tints of the foliage. Ah I 
how I have thriven on solitude and poverty ! I cannot 
overstate this advantage. I do not see how 1 could 
have enjoyed it, if the public had been- expecting as 
much of me as there is danger now that they will. If 
I go abroad lecturing, how shall I ever recover the lost 
winter ? It has been my vacation, my season of growth 
and expansion, — a prolonged youth." 

This was said in consequence of the good recep- 
tion given to " Walden," then just published, 
and bringing him invitations to lecture here 
and there, even as far away as Nantucket and 
Philadelphia. But he was not a "taking" 
speaker ; his lectures were best heard by a small 
company in a parlor; the miscellaneous audi- 
ence of a public hall went away unimpressed. 
He was presently left as uninvited as before, 




except in Concord, Worcester, and Plymouth, 
where he had admiring friends. 

In contrast with the above passage, take this 
concerning one of his rather disreputable friends, 
6. M., who had skill in boating, fishing, and 
hunting, but neglected the domestic duties. 
There were several such in his list of ac- 

** He follows huntiiig, pxaise be to him I as regularly 
in our tame fields as the farmers follow farming. Per- 
sistent Grenius I how I respect it aiid thank him for it I 
I trust the Lord will provide us with another G. M. 
when he is gone. How good in him to follow his own 
bent, and not continue at tlie Sabbath-school all his 
days I What a wealth he thus becomes in the neighbor- 
hood ! Few know how to take the census. I thank my 
stars for M. I think of him with gratitude when I am 
going to sleep, grateful that he exists, — that M. who is 
such a trial to his mother. Yet he is agreeable to me 
as a tinge of russet on the hillside. I would fain give 
thanks morning and evening for my blessings. Awk- 
ward, gawky, loose-hung, dragging his legs after him, 
— he is my contemporary and neighbor. He is one 
tribe, I am another, and we are not at war." 

Thoreau had, however, more intimate friends 
than these, whose class Channing hit off in his 
** Near Home " — grateful he says, — 

^ The while our fisher dreams, or greasy gunner 
Lank, with ebon looks, shies o'er the fences, 
And oraoks down the birds, — game-law forgot ; 
And still, upon the outskirts of the town, 
A tawny tribe denudes the cranberry-bed." 

Thoreau's best and longest friends were Chan- 
ning and Emerson, — tibe latter the earlier, but 
not finally the more intimate, and at one time 
(in 1857) regarded with pathetic aversion, as 
having broken the abiding tie of friendship by 
his lofty manners. The passage referring to 
this was surprising when Mr. Blake printed it, 
some ten years ago; and here it is again in 
parts, alluding unmistakably to Emerson. The 
date is February, 1857. 

« And now another friendship is ended. I do not 
know what has made my friend doubt me, — but I 
know that in loye there is no mistake, and that every 
estrangement is well founded. What a grand signifi- 
cance the word ' never ' acquires 1 I am perfectly sad 
at parting from you. I could better have the earth 
taken away from under my feet than the thought of 
you from my mind. ... A man cannot be said to suc- 
ceed in this life who does not satisfy one friend. ... I 
say in my thought to my neighbor who was once my 
friend, < It is of no use to speak the truth to you; jou 
will not hear it. What, then, shall I say to you ? ' . . . 
Yon cheat me, you keep me at a distance with your 
manners. I know of no other dishonesty, no other devil. 
Why this doubleness, these compliments ? They are the 
WMst of lies. A lie is not worse between traders than a 
compliment between friends. Lying, on lower levels, is 
but a trivial oifense compared with civility and compli- 
ments on the level of Friendship. . . . Friends I they 
are united for good and for evil. They can delight each 
other as none other can. They can distress each other as 

none other can. ... I have not yet known a friendship 
to cease, I think. I fear I have experienced its decaying. 
Morning, noon, and night, I suffer a physical pain, an 
aching of the breast, which unfits me for my tasks. It is 
perhaps most intense at evening. That aching of the 
breast, — the grandest pain that man endures, which 
no other can assuage. ... If I should make the least 
concession, my friend would spurn me. I am obeying 
his law as well as my own. ... At the instant that I 
seem to be saying farewell to my friend, I find myself 
unexpectedly near to him; and it is our very nearness 
and deamess to each other that gives depth and signifi- 
cance to thai * forever.' Thus I am a helpless prisoner, 
and these chains I have no skill to break. While I think 
I have broken one link, I have been forging another." 

Naturally, between men so noble, this misunder- 
standing; which had been g»>wing for months, 
soon gave way, and the old relations were re- 
sumed. It may have been in that very call made 
by Emerson on Thoreau, the afternoon of March 
18, 1857, when he found John Brown of Kansas 
talking with Thoreau (to whom I had introduced 
him), that the ice was broken; for we do not 
find any more of these sad entries in the Journal. 
The occasion for the coldness was, I suppose, 
the occasional roughness of Thoreau's manner, 
which was usually polite, if odd, met by a cer- 
tain formality and suavity in Emerson's manners 
that betrayed a long inheritance of etiquette 
from generations of clergymen. 

Many will read these books for the informa- 
tion they furnish on a thousand points of natural 
history; many for their singular beauty and 
brevity of description, wherever the common- 
place was shown to have the elements of wonder 
and beauty ; many, but fewer, for their phi- 
losophic or poetic significance; most of all, 
perhaps, for their racy humor, by which New 
England life and the rustic or mercantile Amer- 
ican character is so sympathetically portrayed. 
But they also have the interest of an autobiog- 
raphy, and will be read for more light upon one 
of the most piquant and romantic careers among 
American scholars and reformers. For the full 
understanding of this part of the copious work, 
many more notes and explanations are needed 
than the editors had room to afford even had 
they the needful knowledge. The five and forty 
years since Thoreau's death have removed most 
of his coevals in literature and life ; and, while 
they have brought the Concord school of au- 
thors (among whom may be included, for certain 
traits, Jones Very, Walt Whitman, and John 
Burroughs) more into the foreground of our Ut- 
erature, they have deprived the present generar 
tion of the best means of judging them, whether 
as authors or men. Hence superficial and ridic- 
ulous estimates of the men and their work. The 



[Feb. 16, 

publication of these Journals will do much to 
repair this defect, which shows itself most fre- 
quently in manuals of American literature. 

Much might be said of the good fortune of 
the publishers in securing for the sympathetic 
and pictorial illustration of the twenty volumes 
in this edition of Thoreau 's writings the services 
of H. W. Gleason in photographing the scenes 
and natural incidents of his surroundings in Con- 
cord, at Monadnoc, Cape Cod, and in Canada. 
For years before this edition was decided on 
Mr. Gleason had been loyally visiting and iden- 
tifying, with the aid of his excellent camera, the 
places and conditions mentioned, and had accu- 
mulated more than two hundred fine photo- 
graphs. From these a hundred were selected 
to be engraved for this edition. 

F. B. Sanborn. 

Socialistic Principles and Problems.* 

Notwithstanding the amount of attention 
given to modem socialistic movements, there is 
a lack of definite knowledge and understanding 
of the subject on the part of the general public. 
It is with a hope of remedying this condition 
that Mr. John Spargo has written his ^^ Sum- 
mary and Interpretation of Socialistic Princi- 
ples," giving the essentials of this phase of 
modem life as it has evolved historically and 
economically. The key-note of the book is the 
so-called ^^ materialistic conception of history.*' 
Mr. Spargo states that ^' Socialism, in the modem 
scientific sense, is a theory of social evolution." 
Having pointed out the distinction between the 
"Utopian Socialism" of Owen, Saint-Simon, 
and Fourier, and the " Scientific Socialism " of 
Marx and Engels as set forth in the " Commu- 
nist Manifesto," he concludes his work by giving 
a chapter on the Outlines of the Socialist State, 
and adds in an appendix the National Platform 
of the Socialist Party in America. Mr. Spargo, 
though tolerant of a certain amount of super- 
vision of private production and exchange, and 
at the same time less speculative as to the pre- 
cise form the state of the future will take than 
were the authors of the " Manifesto," neverthe- 
less is essentially a " Marxist," and regards as 

*8ooiAU8M. A Sammary and Interpretation of Socialistic 
Principles. B7 John Spanro. New York : The Macmilan Ck>. 

Studies in Socialism. B7 Jean Jaur^s. Translated, with 
Introduction, by Mildred Mintom. Authorized English version. 
New York: O. P. Putnam's Sons. 

A Pkaotzcal PaooaAKMB for Wobkinoicbn. New York: 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

Socialism. By Robert Flint. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippin- 

axiomatic the *^ class-struggle theoiy." He 
shows liimaftlf conversant with current economic 
thought, and in quoting various theories he 
carefully credits them to their originators. In 
spite of the brevity of his work — the result of 
conciseness rather than of superficiality — Mr. 
Sp«go gives a satisfactory gSeral viTw of his 
subject, and his book is to be recommended 
especially as a foundation for a more detailed 
knowledge to be afterwards acquired. 

Of quite a different character from Mr. 
Spargo's work, yet dealing with the same gen- 
eral subject, are M. Jean Jaur^s's ^^ Studies in 
Socialism.'* Most of the papers making up the 
volume appeared originally in a Socialist daily 
paper in Paris, fiom which they have been tarns- 
lated into English by Miss Mildred Mintum, 
who has supplied an introduction explaining 
the significance and prospects of Socialism in 
France as well as M. Jaur^s's position there. 
Extremely eloquent and earnest in upholding 
the Socialist movement, M. Jaur^s is neither 
a ** Marxist " nor a " Revolutionist," but be- 
longs rather to the school of '* Reformists," or 
" Opportunists." A follower in many respects 
of Liebknecht, he denounces the scheme of rev- 
olution upheld in the ^'Manifesto" as both 
unnecessary and ineffectual, and holds that it 
is by ^'the methodical and legal organization 
of its own forces under the law of the democracy 
and universal suffrage" that the proletariat 
will gain supreme power. ^^ The transformation 
of all social relations cannot be the result of a 
manoeuvre." The principle upon which he most 
insists is the universality of the Socialist con- 
ception, urging that under present conditions 
^^ it can succeed only by the general and almost 
unanimous desire of the community." A de- 
cided growth of the proletariat ^'in numbers, 
in solidarity, and in self-<»nsciousness," he be- 
lieves to be inevitable. Optimistic yet sane, 
of strong convictions yet conservative, M. Jaur& 
has not laid himself open to the familiar accu- 
sation that Socialists beg the question, for he has 
gone to its very roots. The beauty of his dic- 
tion has been well preserved by his translator. 

It requires more than an ordinary amount of 
memtal adjustment to descend from the intel- 
lectual regions whence M. Jaur^s carries his 
readers to " A Practical Programme for Work- 
ingmen," published anonymously. The author 
has divided his work into three parts, only one 
of which, " The Book of Facts," concerns those 
readers who are not searching for trite aphor- 
isms. After discussing the influence of envi- 
ronment upon man, and pointing out the evils 




of private property and competition on the 
one hand and the present impracticability of 
^^ orthodox " Socialism on the odier, he makes an 
amazing suggestion, viz., that the ^^unwealthy" 
classes organize in order to secure a candidate 
for the next Presidential election, possibly ab- 
sorbing the Democratic party I The ^* practical 
programme " itself is then discussed, and a na- 
tionalization and municipalization of industries 
is considered expedient in opening the road to 
cooperation. Of the book as a whole it may 
be said that a superabundance of rhetoric has 
somewhat usurped the place of scientific reason- 
ing, and it can hardly be regarded as a serious 
contribution to sociology. 

It is to this spectacular array of the unwealthy 
against the wealthy, more quietly referred to by 
Mr. Spargo as the ^^ class-struggle theory" and 
subtly suggested by M. Jaur^s in his faith in 
the power of the proletariat, that Mr. Kobert 
Flint so strenuously objects in his book on 
*'*' Socialism." The SociaUst leaders, he believes, 
by exaggerating the evils of present conditions 
and beguiling their followers by futile hopes, 
have done more harm than good to the work- 
ingman. Written from a non-Socialistic view- 
point, his book is evidently intended as an 
antidote to what he believes to be noxious the- 
ories running riot ; for he states that he proposes 
to discuss Socialism in a way that will be intelli- 
gible to workingmen. It is a keen, scholarly, 
comprehensive work, and presents arguments 
whi^ no Socialist can aSard to pass by unchal- 
lenged. It contains, however, one rather serious 
fault as a present-dfly document : more than half 
of it was written fifteen years ago, when the 
conservative Socialists were less important in 
their class than they now are. Mr. Flint says : 
^^It [Socialism] is not a system merely of 
amendment, improvement, reform, — it dis- 
tinctly pronounces every system of that sort to 
be inadequate, and seeks to produce an entire 
renovation of society." This statement is hardly 
applicable to all Socialists to^ay, as their pro- 
gramme in England, for instance, bears witness. 
As a criticism of the ideals of Elarl Marx and 
his followers, Mr. Flint's work is successful in 
showing their fallacies and in pointing out the 
inomnpatability of Socialism with Democracy. 
In Socialism, 1)^ concedes, there is a large amount 
of good, but ^^ it does not contain any truth or 
any good principle which is exclusively its own." 
In individualism, he sees many faults, but fewer 
from an economic as well as ethical standpoint 
than in any other system yet evolved. It is to 
be noted that the author's attitude toward 

Socialism in its relation to religion — a subject 
to which he attaches very great importance — 
shows the strong influence upon him of the 
Established Church of England. Mr. Flint's 
own arguments are carefully supplemented by 
those of Socialistic and of other non-Socialistic 
writers, making his work comprehensive and 
comparatively free from prejudice. It is a 
valuable asset, not only to sociologists, but to 
all readers who are interested in social problems 
and who are open-minded and intelligent. 

Eunice Follansbee. 

The Greatest of French Dramatists.* 

To judge by the absence of books about 
MoU^re in English, the English-speaking world 
has been strangely indi£Ferent to ihe person and 
life of the greatest of French dramatists, the 
one whose name is most often linked with that 
of Shakespeare. Until very recently, Mr. 
Andrew Lang's article in the *^ Encydopsedia 
Britannica " was the most substantial biography 
of Moli^re accessible to English readers. Ac- 
counts of the man were few and woefully inad- 
equate. In English books and periodicals there 
was very little to bear witness to the eager and 
fruitful search for all kinds of personal knowl- 
edge about the great author, manager, and 
actor, which, from 1867 to 1890, brought to- 
gether the materials for the two voluminous 
collections moli^esques and kept the monthly 
magazine le molieriste going for ten years. But 
the last few years have seen encouraging signs 
of a wider and livelier interest in the great 
Frenchman. The frequency with which Molifere 
is. drawn upon to furnish the repertory of our 
amateur Thespians of the French clubs in our 
universities may be such a sign in one direction, 
and the interesting production of ^^ The Misan- 
thrope" by Mr. Richard Mansfield last year 
may be one in a different quarter. Less im- 
peachable evidences, however, are seen in the 
books on Moli^re that have appeared. Mr. 
Leon Vincent, after affording us a little glimpse 
of the satirist of the affectations and over- 
refinements of the precieuses in his Hotel de 
Kambouillet, returned to the theme to offer us, 
in 1902, a full-length portrait of Moli^re in a 
slight but well-informed and readable biography. 
Mr. Henry M. Trollope, whose occasional papers 
in the periodical press had long testified to his 
admiration for the creator of Tartuff e and Har- 

* MoLXBBB. A Bioffraphy, By H. C. Chatfleld-Taylor. nios- 
trated. NewTork: Duffleld&Co. 



[Feb. 16, 

pagon, and proved bow closely he followed the 
course of Moli^r^ study and criticism in France, 
gave to the public, in 1905, a life of Moli^re 
that for the first time in English put with ful- 
ness (perhaps with too great fulness) within the 
reach of readers the large mass of detailed fact, 
of gossip and legend, of more or less plausible 
conjecture, and of controversy over moot points, 
that the patient and industrious study of the 
poet's life in France has accumulated. Last 
year we had the Moli^re of Mr. Marzials in the 
Miniature Series of Great Writers; and last, 
and in many ways best, we have the Moliere of 
Mr. Chatfield-Taylor. 

In calling his book " a biography," Mr. 
Chatfield-Taylor has put the emphasis upon the 
man rather than upon the works, and he haiiB 
kept it there pretty consistently throughout. 
This does not mean that he has tried to separate 
the man from his works, or has at all forgotten 
or obscured the fact that the main business of 
Moliere's life was the creation of plays. Per- 
haps he has even failed to make the separation as 
clear as in fact it was, and has been too ready 
to see the man and the circumstances of his 


life reflected in the works, and to make the 
works confessions of their author's dearest hopes 
and bitterest disappointments. He has treated 
the plays as biographical documents that inter- 
pret and portray the man. Whatever dangers 
this may have in the case of a dramatic author, 
— and especially one like Moliere, whose great 
gift and habit of observation our biographer 
rightly dwells upon, and whose art is so largely 
objective, — it has the advantage of keeping us 
in the region of biography rather than of lit- 
erary criticism. It is the man that we keep all 
the time in view. 

This story of Moliere the man, in his mani- 
fold relations as player, manager, author, court- 
ier, lover, husband, friend, of this career so 
crowded with activity, so fuU of worthy accom- 
plishment, so absorbed in the pursuit and cap- 
ture of the comic and so touched with profound 
and tragic pathos, Mr. Chatfield-Taylor has 
told on the whole very well, — more adequately 
than Mr. Vincent and Mr. Marzials, more 
clearly and engagingly than Mr. Trollope. 
There was no need of the words of Professor 
Crane, in the Introduction that he contributes 
to the book, to assure us that the author has 
long been a devoted student of Moliere. He 
shows himself familiar with the large mass of 
special Moliere literature (at least that in 
French ; the neglect of the Germans is of less 
consequence here than it generally is), and his 

account is thoroughly well informed. The na- 
ture of his task, — which was to trace a clear 
and lif e-Kke portrait of the man for the larger 
public of readers, and not to make a complete 
collection of material for the special student, — 
forbade him to burden his pages with a con- 
siderable apparatus of documentary evidence or 
to «nter into the minute details of the questions 
in dispute, as Mr. Trollope has done ; yet nothing 
essential has been overlooked, and the student 
will find in the book the main evidence on all 
controverted matters, and the views and argu- 
ments of the opposing advocates. 

The conclusions that Mr. Chatfield-Taylor 
has reached in these debated questions will 
mainly commend themselves as sound. They 
are generally the ones most favorable to our 
good opinion of Moliere's character. We can 
only approve the biographer's wish to believe the 
best of his hero, and we agree that in Moli^re*s 
case this wish is for the most part justified. 
There has been altogether too much of a ten- 
dency among his compatriots to admit a sub- 
stantial basis of truth for the malicious gossip 
and downright slander of unfriendly tongues. 
It is quite improbable that the critic of society 
who reveals such moral earnestness in the plays 
should have so flagrantly outraged the sense of 
common decency as some of his biographers 
charge him with doing. We may safely agree 
that '^ his philosophy was certainly too pure, 
his ideals too exalted , for him to have been the 
vile man his enemies and unwitting friends 
portray." We wonder, however, whether this 
consideration has not been pressed too far in 
the discussion of the great crux of Moliere 
biography, — the question of the parentage of 
Armande B^jajrt, Moliere's wife. It is rajiher 
•overstating the case to say, as the author does 
in summing up : ^' If Armande was not Marie 
Herv^'s daughter, then Moliere, his wife, and 
all her family, must be classed together as 
forgers ; and he, the greatest literary genius in 
France, the friend of the King, be accused either 
of the most abject of crimes, or of an utter dis- 
regard of common decency." But just what 
is '' common decency"? Is it defined in identi- 
cal terms in America and in France — and in 
Bohemia? In decidingwhether Armande Be jart 
was the daughter or sister of Madeleine, it is 
possible to suspect that the Anglo-Saxon is 
not so likely as the Frenchman to divine the 
truth that lies behind the tangle of conceal- 
ment and falsehood which that fascinating young 
woman seemed from her birth destined to pro- 
voke. Demonstration is here impossible. One 




i3 left to a balanoing of probabilities, and into 
this many subjective elements are likely to enter. 
We wish to believe that which is most favorable 
to Moli^re's moral elevation and delicacy of 
feeling. Here is where the French critics have 
the advantage of us ; and the fact that the mi^ 
jority of them incline to the opinion opposite 
to that upheld by Mr. Chatfiedd-Taylor must 
make us think that they would not concur in 
his statement of the alternative. Hbs not M. 
Maurice Donnay recently, in r Autre danger^ 
condoned after a fashion the offense against 
delicacy offeeling that is here in question? And 
wiU ddicacy of feeling protect Alceste against 
the witchery of C^lim^ne, when all his philo- 
sophy and good common sense are powerless to 
do so? But however we may judge in this 
matter, it is comforting to have to do with a 
biographer who is so loth to believe evil, who 
renders such substantial justice to Madeleine 
B^jart, and who finds good things to say even 
of the incorrigible coquette Armande. 

In one respect our author's commendable 
effort for clearness has had an unfortunate con- 
sequence. We question whether, in presenting 
the plays in groups rather than in the order of 
their production, he has not confused a little the 
outlines of his stoiy and given a somewhat wrong 
idea of the relation of the various groups to one 
another. In spite of the accompanying dates, 
it is hard to avoid the impression that the various 
groups mean different periods in Moliere's drar 
matic career. This impression is distinctly given 
when the ^^ histrionic plays " are referred to the 
last years of his life, ^^ the period when Moli^re, 
worldly wise, experienced as a manager, and less 
sealous as a crusader, was content to write plays 
to fiU the coffers of his theater.'* But the truth 
18 tiiat in the years here included, 1668 to 1778, 
we have the same kind of plays as he had been 
producing ever since his tsdent had appeared in 
its maturity, with VEcole des maris. There was 
the comedy with accompaniment of music and 
dancing which he was bound to provide as pur- 
veyor of amusements to his royal patron ; there 
was the play that appealed primarily to the comic 
sense and die source of laughter ; there was the 
aerious comedy of satire, whether of local or uni- 
versal weakn«Mes ; and there was the play that 
united in various proportions the characteristics 
of aU three. One cannot see that the plays of these 
five years show a very marked difference from 
those of the previous seven. An experienced di- 
rector he had been since his return to Paris ; his 
millitant zeal, against the doctors at least, showed 
no abatement in his very last comedy. His va- 

rious types of comedy were first and last dictated 
by his circumstances and his ideals, which re- 
mained constant. Moli^re was director of a com- 
pany, and as such was bound to provide for its 
financial maintenance, which meant attracting 
the great public to his theatre. He was, like 
everyone else, a servant of the King's pleasures, 
and was bound to furnish the kind of entertain- 
ment that his master called for. But he was also 
primarily and always a dramatist, holding firmly 
to ideals of dramatic art of great intellectual and 
moral elevation, and pursuing their realization. 
He was never, last nor first, content to write plays 
merely to fill the coffers of his theatre. The fact . 
that he found it possible so often to pursue 
the realization of tiiese ideals to the successful 
end without endangering the material prosperity 
of his theatre has a corollary that the bio- 
grapher of Moli^re might weU point out. It 
testifies in no uncertain way to the quality of 
the great public on whose support the theatre 
depended. When we reflect what large de- 
mands ^^ The Misanthrope" puts upon the intel- 
ligence of the listener, how completely absent 
are all the spectacular features that count for 
so much widi us, as well as eveiything that 
savors of the horse-play of low comedy, how 
single and unsupported is its intellectual appeal, 
we must wonder how many American cities 
would furnish it as long a run as it had on its 
first appearance. Grreat as was Moli^re's gen- 
ius, his achievement was made possible by the 
high intellectual interests of the society around 

But one may challenge Mr. Chatfield-Taylor 's 
presentation of his materials in these and other 
points, and still assert that his book is the best 
that we have so far in £nglish for the general 
reader who wishes to know the life and work of 
the master of comedy. May the number of 
such increase. 

The book is mechanically satisfying, — only 
we should be glad to exdumge the ten original 
illustrations for as many reproductions of por- 
traits of Moli^re, or of old drawings of his 
theatre and of dramatic representations of the 

*™®- A. G. Canfield. 

Professob Calvin Thomas has edited ** An Anthol- 
ogy of German Literature '' for Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 
The title is misleading (unless we are to take the present 
volume as a first instalment) for the period covered ex- 
tends only down to the sixteenth century. The ^elections 
given are not originals, but modem German translations, 
which enables the beginner in German to learn some- 
thing of the quality of the epics, and of such poets as 
Walthes, Wolfram, and Hartmann von Aue. 



[Feb. 16, 

Brtbfs on Kew Books. 

A »umma,'v of ^he fifth and concluding volume of 
contemporary Mr. Herbert Paul's "History of 
unaiuh hutorv. Modem England " (Macmillan) cov- 
ers the period from 1885 to 1895, and treate pri- 
marily of Ireland, the two Home Rule Bills, the fall 
of Parnell, and of Church affairs. When the first 
volume appeared there was an inclination to believe, 
from his treatment of free-trade questions, that the 
author had in mind a polemical history that should 
have an influence on the present-day agitation for a 
return to some sort of a protective system in En- 
gland. But this idea was a mistaken one ; and it is 
now evident that Mr. Paul, though inevitably some- 
what biased by his career as a Liberal politician and 
by his present position as a Liberal journalist, has 
merely sought to present a readable chronological 
history of the last fifty years in England. In this 
it may be said that he has succeeded, if one be not 
too critical of what a "history" demands. Mr. 
Paul's work is, in brief, a readable journalistic en- 
terprise, sufficiently accurate in details, but lacking 
in study, in erudition, and in thought, and largely 
deficient in all save avowed political information. 
His sources are simply a few important biographies 
like that of Gladstone by Mr. Morley,' and the de- 
bates in Parliament. In the present volume there 
is a note of haste as of one pushing eagerly for- 
ward toward the end of a task that has grown irk- 
some; but even here there is attraction for the 
reader, arising from the author's gift in terse and 
striking, if not convincing, characterization. Esti- 
mated as history in its best form, Mr. Paul's work 
has no great value ; but regarded as a rapid sum- 
mary of political events and questions, written in a 
readable style and convenienUy arranged for refers 
ence, it certainly merits commendation. And in 
one particular the author has added to American 
understanding of English contemporary history, — 
for in this volume, as in the preceding ones, he 
emphasizes and makes clear the great political 
significance of the Church of England, the ques- 
tions that concern it, and its continued importance 
as a political storm centre. 

Lord RoBebei'v^B Among the many interpretations of 
interpreuiHon of Lord Randolph Churchill that have 
Lord ChurehiiL appeared since the publication of the 
notable biography of him by his son, Mr. Winston 
Churchill, • that now presented by Lord Rosebery 
(Harper) is especially valuable for its candid tone 
and its critical judgment. Lord Rosebery was a po- 
litical opponent and yet a close personal friend of Lord 
Cliurchill, and shortly after the latter's death he was 
asked by Churchill's mother to write some estimate 
of her son's career. Until now he has refused to do 
this ; but with the appearance of the former biography 
Lord Rdsebery feels more free to give voice to his 
own impressions. His book is in reality an essay, to 
be read easily in an hour or so. The historical back- 
ground is very briefly sketched, — so briefly, in fact. 

that to one who has not read the more formal biog- 
raphy much will be unintelligible ; so that the main 
interest lies in a comparison of the characteristics and 
abilities here stated with those emphasized by the 
former biographer. Lord Rosebery brings out, what 
is not clearly indicated in the earlier work, the love- 
ableness of Lord Churchill when among his friends ; 
the nimbleness of mind and quickness of wit that 
made him an enjoyable companion ; and also the dog- 
matic self-assertion and self-confidence in political 
matters that ultimately wrecked his career. There 
is entire agreement between the two authors, that 
Churchill was one of the cleverest political tacticians 
and one of the best political fighters that England 
has produced in the last half -century. But of his real 
statesmanship Lord Rosebery b not so sure, — by in- 
ference atleast leaving the impression that Churchill's 
statesmanship had not yet developed, and that by un- 
fortunately forcing a quarrel with his chief he lost 
forever the chance to make manifest his higher qual- 
ities. In effect, the present author affirms diat states- 
manlike qualities of a high order probably existed in 
Ix>rd Churchill, but had not time to ripen ; and here, 
as elsewhere in the essay, the seemingly adverse judg- 
ment is expressed with affection, almost with regret. 
Students of modern English history, especially those 
who have read Mr. Winston Churchill's biography 
of his father, will certainly find pleasure and profit 
in a perusal of this discriminating essay. 

The fate of a When, in 1843, a Theatre Regula- 
thecure monopoly tion Bill was passed by Parliament, 
in England. ^.j^^ £jjjj ^^^^ ^^ taken toward put- 
ting an end to an intolerable condition in theatrical 
affairs that had existed ever since Charles II. in 
1660 grranted to D'Avenant and Ejlligrew patents 
conveying exclusive rights to theatrical representar 
tions. Dr. Watson Nicholson in his " Struggle for 
a Free Stage in London" (Houghton) gives an 
excellent detailed account of the conflict between 
the patentees, the successors of D'Avenant and 
Killigrew, and their opponents, a conflict waged 
with varying success for nearly two hundred years. 
Up to 1720 the sovereigns felt free to interfere as 
they chose with the old patents, and to grant new 
ones. The prerogative of the Crown was unchecked, 
and the Lord Chamberlain had matters wholly in 
his own hands. Exclusive privileges in theatrical 
affairs ceased to be, and the power of the sovereign 
sank into abeyance from lack of exercise. As a 
consequence, unlicensed theatres sprang up, and, 
until they proceeded to attack the government and 
offend public morals, were let alone. Their scurri- 
lous performances, however, led to the Licensing 
Act of 1737, which recognized only the patent 
houses and destroyed all competition. During the 
next half century the monopoly was absolute, more 
so than at any previous period of its history. By 
the dose of the eighteenth century, however, certain 
minor theatres arose under Parliamentary authority 
to give musical performances and the like, but not 
to present the legitimate national drama. By 1832 




these theatres had become so important, the patent 
theatres having meanwhile sunk to the level of the 
minors, that it was only a question of proper legis- 
lation to wipe away all distinctions. This came in 
the Theatre Regulation Bill above referred to. The 
history is by no means an uninteresting one, and is 
not without its parallels to-day. 

to Chaucer, 

Professor William H. Schofield's 
'^English Literature from the Nor- 
man Conquest to Chaucer" (Mao- 
millan) purports to fill a gap in a series projected 
several years ago, which covered the later periods 
of our literary history with three volumes, the work 
of Messrs. Gosse and Saintsbury. The series as 
planned was to make four volumes, and the history 
of pre-Elizabethan times was to be done by Mr. 
Stopf ord Brooke. But when Mr. Brooke set to work 
he adopted a much more comprehensive scale than 
his predecessors, and when his volume appeared it 
was found to oome down only to the Norman Con- 
quest. The gap thus left has remained for a* long 
time, and Mr. Schofield has now undertaken to dose 
it up. Since the volume he now publishes (although 
a large one) fills only a part of the vacant space, 
leaving the age of Chaucer still unaccounted for, it 
is evident that he has gone into even greater detail 
tha<i his predecessor, and that the entire six-volume 
history, when completed by the addition of the 
Chaucer volume, will constitute an extremely ill- 
balanced work. This is to say nothing in dispraise 
of any single section of it, and of the section now 
published we can speak only words of commenda- 
tion. It offers an exceptionally thorough treatment 
of its period, done in die light of a scholarly tradi- 
tion that runs from Gaston Paris to Child, and from 
Child to Professors Kittredge and Norton. Essen- 
tial features of Mr. Schofield's method are the 
inclusion of all works written in mediieval England 
in whatever language, the grouping of works of 
allied character, and the large use made of the com- 
parative method. The volume has a bibliographical 
appendix of great value. 

$ Mr. Fitzgerald Molloy's '* Sir Joshua 

f/{^L and his Circle " ( Dodd, Mead & Co.) 

IS m no sense a serious writing upon 
the first President of the Royal Academy of Arts. 
It is rather a collection of anecdote and gossip about 
him, his friends, sitters, and acquaintances ; and is 
thus an entertaining centre-table book, as it could 
not help being when it serves up so many interesting 
things about the leading characters that made the 
golden age of England's drama, literature, and art 
Thus are paraded before us Grainsborough, Hogarth, 
Allan Ramsay the son of the Gentle Shepherd, West 
the Pennsylvania Quaker for whose career Gralt's 
faulty pages have been laid under tribute and his 
errors and mistakes blindly followed, Northcote, 
Fnseli, and Bomney, among the painters ; Grarrick 
and Siddons, the Emperor and Empress of the stage ; 
Sam Johnson and Goldsmith, Richardson with his 

" Pamela " and " Clarissa," Fielding with his " Tom 
Jones" and ^^ Joseph Andrews," Sterne with his 
<< Tristram Shandy," and Smollett with his "Roderick 
Random," in the realm of letters ; while Lady Sarah 
Lennox and Lady Bolincfbroke and their cQvorees, 
msj Moser anZ-Angll" Kaaftn«m (the two 
women members of the Royal Academy), Fanny 
Burney (better known as Madame D'Arblay), and 
Emma Lady Hamilton and her "mutable connec- 
tions," give spice to the worldly side of life as here 
portrayed. It is true that we learn nothing about 
these people that we have not known before, and it 
* may be true also that there is nothing new to be 
learned about them. Mr. Molloy has re-told the old 
stories fairly well, and produced the sort of book 
that very many people like to read. The lack of 
an index is a serious disadvantage. 

TJie mo8t "^^ ™^^ majestic of all the ancient 

majeetie of oriental poeti^ is that left us by the 

all poetry, Hebrews; and the choicest of it is 

that found in the Psalms. These lyric productions 
have held their place undisputedly at Uie head of 
all religious poelTy. Their universal character and 
their popularity among all religious bodies of Bib- 
lical believers have led scores of scholars to produce 
commentaries and other treatises for their better 
understanding. The latest and most complete treat- 
ment is " The International Critical Commentary on 
the Psalms " ( Scribners), by Professor Charles A. 
Briggs of Union Theological Seminary. This work 
is encyclopedic in character. It goes thoroughly 
into a discussion of the text, the higher criticism, 
the canonicity, and the interpretation of the Psalms. 
The Introduction, covering 110 pages, is the fullest 
treatment we have seen on all the questions that 
concern a critical study of the Psalter. Particularly 
noticeable is Professor Briggs's theory of Hebrew 
poetry. For a score of years he has advocated a 
regular metrical form that has continually gained 
favor with Hebrew scholars all over the world. This 
theory is applied with great care in this commentary. 
Professor Briggs follows up the minutise of every 
word and point in such a manner as to convince the 
reader that his work is exhaustive. Another thing 
that strikes the mind of the reader forcibly is the 
absolute certainty with which he assigns the com- 
position of the Psalms to different periods of history. 
In the commentary proper the author's strength is 
shown, in the main, in his treatment of the theo- 
logical questions that arise in the individual Psalms. 
On this point, rather than on the date or linguistic 
phases, this commentary is of especial value to scho- 
lars, for of course it is a book preeminently for them. 

The authore ^' Frederick Riedl of Budapest has 
and literature written "A History of Hungarian 
of Hunoarv. Literature " for the series of books 
called " Literatures of the World," published by the 
Messrs. Appleton, and now numbering upwards of 
a dozen volumes. The writing of the book was 
commissioned by the Hungarian Academy for the 



[Feb. 16, 

express purpose of filling a gap in the series, and 
representing the national literature of the Magyar 
by a thoroughly authoritatiye treatise. '* The book 
is unique in its kind in that it has been written 
entirely for the English public, and has never ap- 
peared in Hungarian ; indeed, no such work exists 
in Hungary, and it will be as new to the Hungarian 
public as it is to the English." The translation of 
the prose text is the work of Mr. and Mrs. C. A. 
Ginever (the latter a daughter of the Hungarian 
poet GjOry), and the interspersed poetical illustra- 
tions are mainly the work of Mr. G. Hagberg 
Wright, upon whose initiative the book was under-' 
taken. Upon examination, it proves to be an ex- 
tremely readable volume, exMbiting scholarship 
without pedantry, and resisting the temptation to 
dwell at too great length upon the formative period 
of the literature. After eighty pages, or thereabouts, 
we get down to the nineteenth century, which g^ves 
ample space for an adequate account of the really 
significant modem poets, dramatists, and novelists. 
We extract one amusing bit about the poet Csokonai. 
After his death (1805), the inscription " I. too have 
been in Arcadia " was suggested for his tombstone. 
^'The poet's fellow-townsmen, the worthy matter- 
of-fact burgesses of Debreczen, did not know what 
it meant They looked up the name Arcadia in 
Barth^emy's ' Le Jeune Anacharsis,' and there dis- 
covered the following statement : ^ In Arcadia there 
were excellent fields for the rearing of domestic ani- 
mals, especially asses.' They felt hurt, and the 
ensuing controversy would have furnished a suitable 
theme for Csokonai's muse." 

of Ibsen, 

Now that Ibsen is dead, and has con- 
sequently " arrived," it is curious to 
note the rush of the critics, profes- 
sional and amateur, to the discussion of his work. 
The former kind of critic, after ignoring the dram- 
atist during all the years of his struggle and his 
slowly-ripening triumph, now seems to be sapng: 
i^This man was really of considerable importance, 
and it is my professional duty to the public to 
appraise him." The recent essays of Professor 
Dowden and Mr. Arthur Symons are cases in point. 
They have " gotten up " their subject too hurriedly 
to Imve anything particularly weighty to say about 
it, but their manner is impressive, and we may credit 
them with the discharge of an obligation imposed 
by the sense o{ their own importance as mediators 
between poet and public. To the amateur critic, 
Ibsen offers, not so much the chance of performing 
a public duty as the chance of attracting attention 
by exploiting a subject of special timeliness. He 
affords a fine corpse in which to flesh their bright 
new surgical instruments. Mr. Haldane MacFall, 
who has just published a book on Ibsen (San 
Francisco: Morgan Shepai-d), is a typical example 
of this sort of critic. His method is very simple. 
He takes the plays and the letters of the dramatist, 
and has at hand a few standard books (Jaeger, 
Brandos, Grosse, Archer, Boyesen) ; with these ma- 

terials he concocts a running narrative, composed 
of the plots of the plays and the incidents of the 
biography. His individual contribution is a jerky 
emotional commentary, which makes a brave pre- 
tense of being impressive, but exhibits no particular 
insight or sense of perspective. The one really 
original thing Mr. MacFall does is to give Ibsen's 
great contemporary (whom he mentions repeatedly) 
the weird name of " Byornsteme Byornsen." This 
amazing exhibition of bad taste (for we cannot char- 
itably ascribe it to ignorance) needs no comment 

Some bniiiant ^^^^ readable sketches of five bril- 
and eccentric liant and eccentric ladies, cleverly 
couHiadies, translated from the French of M. 
ArvMe Barine, are published in a handsome volume 
entitled << Princesses and Ck>urt Ladies " (Putnam). 
The title is inclusive enough to make room for Marie 
Mancini, Christina of Sweden, the Duchess of 
Maine, the Margravine of Bayreuth, and an Arab 
princess who left her father's harem and gave up 
her title to become plain Frau Route, wife of a 
German merchant, — and always regretted it M. 
Barine is already known to English readers through 
two volumes about another princess, la Grande 
Mademoiselle. He writes in a popular style that 
does not obtrude its background of scholarship, but 
nevertheless depends upon it to avoid any suspicion 
of cheapness or superficiality. He presents mooted 
issues, but does not dbcuss them, aiming to cast 
verified facts into picturesque and dramatic form 
rather than to propound new theories. He has the 
Gallic eye for type, with evidently a keen interest 
in the particular one that he chooses to delineate. 
All his fine ladies have much in common : a brilliant 
but unbalanced mind, a violent temper, superb ego- 
tism, an irresponsible child-like zest for pleasure, 
and a freakish love of romance, which, coupled with 
their other qualities, often leads to wild extrava- 
gances and strange adventures. 

Workert for -^ optimistic view of American pub- 
pubiicoood lie morality is taken by Mr. Philip 

in America. Loring Allen in his book entitled 
"America's Awakening" (Revell). "Tl^at there 
has been an awakening of the American people 
during the opening years of the twentieth century 
is now an accepted fact," says Mr. Allen; and he 
might have added that it was certainly time for one. 
This awakening, he thinks, "has manifested itself 
in two main forms, the warfare against political 
bosses and the warfare against specially privileged 
corporations. And yet the story of the great move- 
ment for political and business honesty cannot be 
told in the mere list of rascals jailed and new officials 
elected. Above and beyond these concrete achieve- 
ments, there has been a bracing of the moral sense 
of the country that is none the less real because it 
cannot be accurately measured." The book is an 
attempt to measure the extent and reality of this 
moral bracing, through personal studies of the lives 
and political careers of the men who most aided it, 




— RoQMvalt, LaFollette, Folk, Jerome^ Weaver, 
Johnson, not forgetting the almost nnmherless lesser 
men whose names are not on the puhlic records, hut 
irho hare heen aetiydy serving in the ^ humdrum 
work for good." 


Ibsen's « Peer Gynt" is now added to the uniform 
edition of his plays published by the Messrs. Scribner. 
The translation is Mr. Aroher*s, oonsiderably revised, 
and is provided with an extensive historical and critical 
introduction. Another feature of much interest is an 
appendix which gives us translations of the Peer Gynt 
legends as they appear in Asbjdmsen's <* Eventyr." 

From the Elm Tree Press, Woodstock, Vermont, 
we have a beautifttUy-printed copy of FitzGrerald's 
(here unfortunately printed Fitzgerald) version of the 
*« Agamemnon** of JSsohylus* The edition is limited, 
and has two portrait illustrations, besides a sketch-map 
of the path of the travelling fire. There are a few 
notes. Good taste characterizes every feature of the 
make-up of this dignified volmne, for which we are 
given to understand that Messrs. C. L. Dana and J. C. 
Dana are responsible. 

Dr. Alfred M. Tosser, who for three years filled the 
tesearch fellowship of the ArcluBological Institute of 
America, has made a report of his work, which is now 
pnhliahed by the Macmlllan Co. His subject is «A 
Comparative Study of the Mayas and the Lacandones." 
A publication of allied interest is Mr. Warren K. 
Moorehead's *< Narrative of Explorations in New Mex- 
ico, Arizona, Indiana, etc.," published at Andover by 
the Phillips Academy- Department of Arolueology. 

« The Mythology of Greece and Rome," by Professor 
Arthur Fairbanks, is published by the Messrs. Appleton 
in their series of « Twentieth Century Text-Books." 
The special pnrpose of the work is «to illustrate the 
wida-reaching influence of Greek myths first on the 
Latin poets, and, mainly through the Latin poets, on 
later writers." This gives it a general character similar 
to that of Gayley's «< Classic Mytilis," but the illustrative 
material used in the two works is widely different. 

Professor Charles Eliot Norton's Centenary Memoir 
of Longfellow appears in a cheaper edition (price fif- 
teen eents) which will be welcome to many at this time 
of a revival of interest in the poet. The limited large- 
paper edition, with its two photogravure' portraits, its 
uncut leaves, and its English cloth covers, will appeal 
to those to whom a work of literature is not always 
more than its raiment. But readers of every class 
most value the book, in whatever shape, both for its 
subject and its authorship. 

Hood and Goldsmith are the latest to take their 
plaoe in the goodly company of << Oxford Poets," pub- 
lished by Mr. Henry fVowde. In his preface to the 
Hood volume, Mr. Walter Jerrold states that he has 
been aUe to include several hitherto uncollected pieces. 
The arrangement of the poems is in the main chrono- 
logieal,'^— a decided improvement over the usual arbi- 
tiaiy division into « serious" and ** humorous" sections. 
The Goldsmith volume is a reviAon and extension of 
Mr. Austin Dobson's Clarendon Press edition of 1887. 
The whole of Goldsmith's poetry is now included, and 
ooandeiaUe new editorial material is introduced. A 
portrait in jriiotogravure appears in each volume. 


Mr. A. C. Benson's charming book "The Thread of 
Gold," is now published by Messrs. E. P. Dutton ft Co. 
in a new and highly attractive edition. 

Balzac's « Pierrette, " edited by Miss Theodora de 
S^lineourt, is an addition to the « Oxford Higher 
French Series, " published by Mr. Henry Frowde. 

An edition of Irving's « Sketch Book," embodying 
several unique and serviceable features, has been pre- 
pared by H. A. Davidson, and will be issued at onoe by 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co. 

<« Lincolnics " is the title of a new « Ariel Booklet " 
published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. It is a 
compilation of the familiar sayings of Abraham Lin- 
coln, edited by Mr. Henry L. Williams. 

A volume on Ibsen by Mr. Edmund Gosse and one 
on Groethe by Professor Dowden will soon be issued in 
Messrs. Scribner's series of " Literary Lives." 

« The Praise of Hypocrisy, " being an essay in Cas- 
uistry by Dr. G. T. Knight, is issued as a booklet by 
the Open Court Publishing Co., having originally ap- 
peared in the pages of *< The Open Court. " 

Mr. Mitchell Kennerley publishes a new edition of 
the « Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton, B. A., " now ac- 
knowledged as the work of Mr. A. C. Benson, but first 
published anonymously more than twenty years ago. 

The MacmiUan Co. continue to issue the Ei^glish 
«< Who 's Who," which in the volume for 1907 contains 
about two thousand closely-printed pages. This is the 
fifty-ninth annual issue of this extremely Useful book of 

"The Bridge Blue Book," by Mr. Paul F. Mottehiy, 
is the latest candidate for the favor of bridge enthusi- 
asts. It is a compilation of expert opinion upon dis- 
puted matters, and is published by Messrs. Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 

« Municipal Control of Public Utilities," by Dr. Osoar 
Lewis Pond, is published in the Columbia University 
series of studies. The author's special task has been 
the examination of recent judicial decisions upon this 
very live subject. 

Mr. Walter Taylor Field's articles on children's 
reading, several of which have appeared in The Dial, 
will be published next month by Messrs. A. C. McClurg 
& Co., in a volume entitled <« Fingerposts to Children's 

<* Soils: How to Handle and Improve Them," by 
Professor S. W. Fletcher, is the Utest addition to « The 
Farm Library" of Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. It 
makes a large volume, abundantly and handsomely 

Two new volumes in the « Oxford Higher French 
Series " are a « Choix de Lettres Parisiennes de Ma- 
dame de Girardin," edited by Mr. F. de Baudiss, and 
Hugo's « Hemani," edited by Mr* 0. Kemshead. Mr. 
Henry Frowde is the publisher. 

Professor George lAnsing Raymond's ** The Essen- 
tials of iBsthetics " (Putnam) offers in a single volume, 
and in condensed form, a statement of the author's 
theories about the fine arts, as heretofore embodied by 
him in a series of substantial special volumes. 

Mr. T. S. Osmond has written a volume, which Mr. 
Henry Frowde will publish next month, sketching the 
history of prosodical criticism in England and America 
during the last two hundred years. It is entitled 
« English Metrists of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth 



[Feb. 16, 

Centuries." The author has endeavored not merely to 
enmnerate and summarize treatises, but also to trace 
the gradual development of sounder views about verse 

Air. Lawrence Oilman has written a small guide to 
the " Salome " of Herr Richard Strauss. The story is 
recapitulated, with illustrations from Wilde's text, and 
the leading motives are printed in musical notation. 
The booklet is published by the John Lane Co. 

Professor Gilbert Murray's singularly poetic transla- 
tions of the « Medea," « The Trojan Women," and the 
" Electra " of Euripides, three volumes in one, supplied 
with introductions and notes, come to us from the 
American branch of the Oxford University Press. 

« A Text-Book of Practical Physics, " by Dr. Wil- 
liam Watson, is published by Messrs. Longmans, Green 
& Co. It is a reference book for advanced student 
workers in physical laboratories, and a comprehensive 
guide to the methods of modem physical technology. 

« The Book of the V. C. " as compiled from official 
papers by Mr. A. L. Haydon, is a « popular record of the 
deeds of heroism for which the Victoria Cross has been 
bestowed, from its institution in 1857 to the present 
time." It is a good book for boys. Messrs. £. P. Dut- 
ton & Co. are the publishers. 

Mr. Paul Elmer More, who writes too much to write 
as well as he might, now sends out a fourth volume of 
"Shelbume Essays" from the press of the Messrs. 
Putnam. The essays number eleven, and among their 
subjects are Hawker (of Morwenstow), Herbert, Keats, 
Franklin, Whitman, and Blake. 

Book Three of " The Gnlick Hygiene Series " is called 
** Town and City," and is made up of chapters for chil- 
dren on such subjects as street-cleaning, sanitation, parks, 
watei>4upply, and epidemics. It makes a very useful 
kind of supplementary reading-book. It is written by 
Mrs. Frances Gulick Jewett, and published by Messrs. 
Ginn & Co. 

A new book by Mr. Arthur C. Benson, entitled 
« Beside Still Waters," is announced for March publi- 
cation by the Messrs. Putnam. The volume takes the 
form of a record of the sentiments, the changing opin- 
ions, and the quiet course of life of a young man whom 
an unexpected legacy has freed from the necessity of 
leading an active life in the world of affairs. 

The Spring fiction of Messrs. A. C. McClurg & Co. 
includes the following volumes : << Langford of the 
Three Bars," by Kate and Virgil D. Boyles, illustrated 
in color by Mr. N. C. Wyeth; "The Iron Way," by 
Mrs. Sara Pratt Carr ; " Indian Love Letters," by Mrs. 
Marah Ellis Ryan ; and ** The Story of Bawn," by Miss 
Katharine Tynan. 

A <« Large Print Edition " of standard literature is 
announced by Messrs. Doubleday, Page & Co. The 
series will be printed from bold-faced type on thin 
Bible paper, in a form convenient to hold and to carry 
about. Miss BrontS's "Wuthering Heighto" and 
Charles Reade's " Love Me Little, Love Me Long " are 
the first volumes announced. 

Those well-known books of a past generation, « Ten 
Acres Enough " and " Liberty and a Living," are to 
have an up-to-date successor in Mr. Bolton Hall's 
"Three Acres and Liberty," which the Macmillan 
Company will publish shortly. In the preparation of 
his facts and figures as to modem cultivation of the 
soil, Mr. Hall has had the aid of several well-known 
specialists in this field. 

" American History and Government, " published by 
Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co., is a text book of United 
States history by Professors James A. Woodbum and 
Thomas F. Moran. It is a book for the grammar 
grades, but might be profitably used a little higher up, 
although it falls short of the requirements for senior 
class work in the high schools. 

A "New Classical Library," edited by Dr. Emil 
Reich, is published by the Macmiillan Co. The volumes 
are small, and two of them are now at hand. One is 
"An Alphabetical Encydopiedia of Institutions, Per- 
sons, Events, etc., of Ancient History and Geography," 
and has been prepared by Dr. Reich himself. The 
other offers a translation, by Mr. G. Woodrouffe Harris, 
of the first three books of Herodotus. 

Two new volumes will soon be published by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. in " The Chief Poeto Series." 
Their titles will be " The Chief English Poeto to the 
Time of Chaucer," edited by Professor C. G. Child, of 
the University of Pennsylvania; and " The Chief En- 
glish Poeto from Chaucer to Tottel's Miscellany," 
edited by Professor W. A. Neilson and Dr. Kenneth 
G. T. Webster, of Harvard University. 

Beginning with the January number the famous &i- 
glish quarterly, "Mind," is to be published by Mac- 
millan & Co., Ltd., London, and The Macmillan Com- 
pany, New York. Professor G. F. Stout, who has been 
the editor for more than fifteen years, retains that 
position, and Professor E. B. Titchener, of Cornell 
University, remains the American editorial representa- 
tive. The Advisory Committee includes Dr. Edward 
Caird, Professor Ward, and Professor Pringle-Pattison. 

The alumn» of Bryn Mawr College have undertaken 
to create within the next two years an endowment fund 
of one million dollars, to be devoted to the strictly 
academic needs of that institution. In furtherance of 
this fund the Bryn Mawr alumnie of Chicago have ad- 
opted the novel and somewhat daring plan of present- 
ing at the Auditorium during the week of February 
18 the San Carlo Opera Company in a varied reper- 
toire, This organization, which includes such capable 
artisto as Madame Nordica, Sig. Campanari, and Miss 
Alice Neilson, has met with marked success in ito tours 
of the past two years, under the direction of Mr. Henry 
Russell. The week in Chicago promises to be a bril- 
liant one, and should result in the substantial advance- 
ment of a worthy educational cause. Nearly 9100,000 
has already been raised for the proposed endowment in 
Boston and other cities. 

Two books of special interest in view of the ap- 
proaching tri-centennial of Jamestown, Va., will be 
published this Spring by the Macmillan Company. One 
is the " Travels " of the famous Captain John Smith, — 
" The Generall Historic of Virginia, New. England, and 
the Summer Isles, with the Proceedings of those Sev- 
erall Colonies and the Accidento that Befel them in all 
their Joumyes and Discoveries. By Captaine John 
Smith, Sometymes Govemour in those Countryes, and 
Admirall of New England" The rare works that 
make up this volume are here assembled in convenient 
form for the first time since their original publication 
in 1624-30. The edition will contain facsimile repro- 
ductions of all the maps and illustrations in the origi- 
nals, including the Yare portraito of the Duchess of 
Richmond and Pocahontas. The other book is " The 
Birth of the Nation : Jamestown, 1607," by Mrs. Roger 
A. Pryor, author of " The Mother of Washington and 
Her Times," and " Reminiscences of Peace and War." 




liisT OF New Books. 

[The following list, containing 88 tiiUSf includes books 
netived hg Tbk Dial since its last issue."] 


fltndtos In BloffTttphy. Bj Sir Bpenoer Walpole. With pho- 

toffrsTiire portaalt, large 8¥o, gilt top, uncut, pp. 878. E. P. 

Datton&Oo. H. net. 
Balph Waldo Bm«non. By George Edward Woodberry. 

12mo. gilt top, pp. 206. **Bngliflh Men of Letters." Mao- 

millan Go. 76 eta. net. 
ConMdy C^iieais of tlio Oeorgian lSr». By John F^vie. 

nina. in photograyore, large 8vo, gilt top, uncat, pp. 446. 

E. P. Datton A Oo. |4. net. 
Vittoria OolonnA. with an Aooount of her Friends and her 

Times. By Mand F. Jerrold. With photogravure portraits, 

large Sto, gilt top. uncut, pp. 886. E. P. Button & Ck). $4. net. 
Quoen and Caxdlnal: A Memoir of Anne of Austria and 

her Relations with Cardinal Masarin. By Mrs. Oolquhoun 

Grant. With portraits in photogravure, eta, large 8vo, gUt 

top. pp. 988. E. P. Dutton A Oo. |8UX> net. 
▲ RoYolationary Prinoeaa : Christina Belgiojoso-Trivulzio, 

her Life and Times (1808-1871). By H. Remsen Whitehouse. 

nius. in photogravure, etc.. large 8vo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 819. 

B. P. Dutton A Co. $8. net. 
yadama mnamlar and hear Prianda. By H. Noel Williams. 

New and revised edition ; with photogravure portrait, large 

8vo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 880. Charles Scribner's Sons, 
I b aa n . the Man. his Art, and his Significance. By Haldane 

Maofall. With portraits, 12mo, uncut, pp. 828. New York: 

Moxgaa Sbepard Oo. llJSOnet. 

Garman BaUgiona lAtb in Colonial Tlmaa. By Lucy 
Forney Bittinger. 12mo. pp. 146. J. B. Lipplncott Oo. 

Lord KUnar'a Work In Soatli Africa from its Commence- 
ment in 1887 to the Peace of Vereeniging in 1902; Containing 
Hitherto Unpublished Information. By W. BasU Worsfold. 
With portraits in photogravure, etc., large 8vo, gilt top. 
pp. 880. E. P. Dutton A Co. |4JX> net. • 

Tha Bnamy at Trafalgar : An Account of the Battle from 
Eiye- Witnesses' Narratives and Letters and Despatches ftom 
the French and Spanish Fleets. By Edward Eraser. Illns., 
large 8vo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 488. E P. Dutton A Co. tiJSO net. 

Tha Writlnira of Jamaa TIffadiaon : Comprising his Public 
Papers and his Private Correspondence, including Numerous 
Letters and Documents Now fOr the First Time Printed. 
Edited by GaiUard Hunt. YoL VI., 1790-1802. Large 8vo, gilt 
top. nncnt, pp. 464. G. P. Putnam's Sons. |6. 

Tha Thraad <^ Qold. By Arthur Christopher Benson. New 
edition : 8vo. gilt top, pp. 286. B. P. Dutton & Oo. |2. net. 

L ooaa Baada. By Katharine Burrill. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 222. 
E P. Dutton A Oo. $1.26 net. 

Fapara and Addraaaaa. By William Gilbert Davies, 8.B. 
With frontispiece, 12mo, gilt top, uncut, pp. 888. Bobert 
Grler Oooke. 

Tha Ooldan Bayin^a of tlia Blaaaad Brothar Oilaa of 
Aaafai Newly trans, and edited, together with a Sketch of 
His Ufa. by tlie Rev. Fr. Paschal Robinson. HIus. in pho> 
tQgravnre, etc.. ISmo, pp. 141. Philadelphia: The Dolphin 
Press. $1. net. 

XJnoolnioa : Familiar Sayings of Abraham Lincoln. Collected 
and edited by Henry Uewtf lyn Williams. With photogra- 
vure portrait, 2lmo, gilt top, pp. 202. ** Ariel Booklets." 
G. P. Pataam's Sons. Leather, 76 cts. net. 


Acamamnon of iBadhyliia. Trans, by Edward FitzGerald. 

Iiimitwl edition ; with portraits and map* large 8vo, pp. 71. 

Woodstock. Vt. : Elm Tree Press. |2. 
Tador and Stnart Library. New vols. : Sir Fulke Greville's 

Life of Sir Philip Sidney, with introduction by Nowell Smith ; 

Pearhsm's Compleat Gentleman, with introduction by G. S. 

Ckndon. Each 12mo, uncut. Oxford University Press. Per 

vol., tl.76 net. 
Oomplata Worka Abraham Unooln. Edited by John G. 

NIcolay and John Hay; with Introduction by Richard 

Watson Ollder. Gettysburg edition; Vols. XI. and XII.. 

oondoding the work, ea^ with photogravure portrait, large 

8vo. onoat. Francis D. Tandy Co. 

Bonnata from tlia Tropbiaa of Joa^-Xarla da Haradla. 
Rendered into English by Edward Robeson Taylor. Fourth 
edition ; 12nio, pp. 190. Paul Elder A Oo. $LJBO net. 

Tha Ck>llaotad Worka of Hanrik Ibaan. Copyright edition. 
Vol. rv.. Peer Gynt, trans, by William and Charles Archer, 
with Introduction by WiUlam Archer. 12mo, pp. 280. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. H. 


AotSBon, and Other Poems. By John Srskine. 18mo, uncut, 
pp. 96. John Lane Co. 11.26 net. 

Tha Cry of Dafaat. By Lisi de CiprianL With portrait, 
12mo, gilt top, pp. 92. Gtorham Press. 11.26. 

Tha Soal'a Frograaa. and Other Poems. By Louis V.Ledooz. 

18mo, uncut, pp. 94. John Lane Co. 11.26 net. 
Foama. By S. L. Noble. 12mo. gilt top, pp. 216. Gorham Press. 

Onanavara : A Play in Five Acts. By Stark Young. 12mo. gilt 

top, uncut, pp. 84. Grafton Press. 91.26 net. 
Tha Blind Man at tha Window, and Other Poems. By Stark 

Young. 12mo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 84. Grafton Press. 
Driftwood. By Russell Whltcomb. 12mo. pp. 48. Gorham 

Press. 11.26. 


Tha FortofETiaalng Man. By Meredith Nicholson. Illus., 

12mo, pp.899. Bobbs-Merrill Co. HJtO. 
Tha Saorat of TonL By Molly Elliott Seawell. Illus., 12mo, 

pp. 881. D. Appleton A Oo. 91.50. 
Froat and Friandahip. By George Frederic Turner. lUus.. 

12mo, uncut, pp. 820. Little, Brown, A Co. 91.60. 
Tha Diamond Ship. By Max Pemberton. nius., 12mo, 

pp. 867. D. Appleton A Co. $LJBO, 
Tha lionaly Lady of Oroaranar Bqnara. By Mrs. Henry 

de la Pasture. l2mo, pp. 887. E P. Dutton A Co. 91 JK). 
LIfa'a Shop-Window. By Victoria Cross. 12mo. pp. 871. 

Mitchell Eennerley. 91.60. 
Tha Ifona Furrow. By W. A. Eraser, llmo. pp. 864. D. 

Appleton A Co. $IM. 

A 807*8 Marrlava. By Hugh de S6lincoort. 12nio, pp. 807. 
John Lane Co. 91.60. 

Tha Woman'a Victory, and Other Stories. By Maarten 
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Tha Whlta Darknaaa, and Other Stories of the Great North- 
west. By Lawrence Mott. Illus., 12mo, pp. 808. Outing 
Publishing Co. 91^. 

Trathftil Jana. By Florence Morse Kingsley. 12mo, pp.829. 
D. Appleton A Co. 91.60. 

Oaptnrad: The Story of Sandy Ray. By General Charles 

King. Illus. in color, 12mo, pp. 849. R. F. Fenno A Co. 9l<60. 
A Saalad Book. By Alice Liyingstone. nius., 12mo, pp. 884. 

R. F. Fenno A Co. 91.60. 
Mamolra of Arthur Hamilton, B.A. By Arthur Christopher 

Benson. New edition; 12mo, gilt top, pp. 186. Mitchell 

Kennerley. 91.26 net. 

Uganda to Khartoum : Lif^ and Adventare on the Upper 

Nile. By Albert B. Lloyd; with Preface by Victor Buxton. 

lUus., large 8to, gilt top, uncut, pp. 812. B. P. Dutton A Co. 
Arotio Bzploration. By J. Douglas Hoare. nius.. large 8vo, 

pp. 806. E. P. Dutton A Co. 98. net. 
On tlia Maadoan Hirhlanda : With a Passing Glimpse of 

Cuba. By William Seymour Edwards, nius., 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 288. Jennings A Graham. 91.60 net. 


Tha Tamptation of Onr Liord, Considered as Related to the 

Ministry and as a Revelatioxi of His Person. By H. J. C. 

Knight, B.D. 12mo.pp.210. Longmans, Green, & Co. 91.40 net. 
Tmtli and Falaahood in Baliglon. By William Ralph Inge, 

M.A. New edition ;12mo, pp. 176. E. P. Dutton & Co. 91.60 net. 
Tha Ooming' of tha Sainta: Imaginations and Studies in 

Early Church History and Tradition. By John W. Taylor. 

nius., large 8yo, pp. 826. E. P. Dutton & Co. 98. net 
Tha Strannona OoapaL By Thomas G. Belby. 12mo, uncut, 

pp. 426. Jennings A Graham. 91.26 net. 
Tha Intarpratation of Soriptara, and Other Essays. By 

Benjamin Jowett; with Essay on Jowett*s lAte by Sir Leslie 

Stephen. New edition: with photograyure portrait, 12mo, 

gUt top, pp. 666. E. P. Dutton A Co. 91. net. 
Tha Maaaiah Idea in Jawlah Hlatory. By Julius H. 

Greenstone, Ph. D. 12mo. pp. 847. Philadelphia: Jewish 

PuUication Society of America. 



[Feb. 16, 

108. JenniiigB ft 

The Goldtn Book of Henry Dnunaond. 

ander Carrie White. 34mo. silt top, pp. 
Grabam. 76 ots. net. 


NowMT IdMU* of P6A06. Bj Jane Addams. 12mo. pp. 348. 

*' Citizen's Ldbraij." MacmiUan Co. 81.26 net. 
The International Law and Diplomaoy of tlie Bnaao- 

Japaneee War. By Amos 8. Hershey, Ph. D. Laise 8vo. 

gilt top, pp. 88A. Macmillan Co. 18. net. 
The Army in 1906: A Policy and a Vindication. By H. O. 

Amold-Ponter. M. P. Laive 8yo, ffilt top, pp. 668. E. P. 

Button A Co. 84. net. 
Tlie Tariff and tlie Tmate. By Franklin Pieree. Umo, pp. 

887. Macmillan Co. $LJBO net. 
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D. Appleton ft Co. 11.60. 

Beac and Soolety : Btodiee in the Sooial Piycholosy of Ses. By 
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Bxperimental Zooloffy. By Thomas Hunt Morgan. lUus., 

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Pratt, Pb, D. 12mo, nncat, pp. 827. Macmillan Co. HUSO net. 
Beport of the Smithsonian Institatlon, for the year ending 

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ending June 80, 1906. Laige 8vo, pp. 120. Washington: 

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The Baaentlala of JBsthetloe in Music, Poetry, Painting, and 
Architecture. By George Tiansing Raymond. L. H. D. Ulus., 
8vo, gilt top, pp. 404. G. P. Putnam's 8ons. 12.60 net. 

Newne'e Art Library. New vols. : Michael Angelo, with In- 
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Introduction by Belwyn Brinton. Each illus. in photograyure. 
etc.. hose 8yo. Frederick Wame ft Co. Per yol., 11.26 net. 

The National Gtadlery. Iiondon: The Karly British School, 
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am* "Salome": A Guide to the Opera with Musiod Dins, 
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John Lane Co. $1. net. 


Nelaon'e Bnoytdopssdia. Edited by Frank Moore Colby. M. A., 
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large 8yo. Thomas Nelson ft Sons. 
An Alphabetical Bnoydopeedia of Institutions. Persons, 
Kyents, etc., of Ancient History and Geography. By Emil 
Reich. 12mo, pp. 224. **New Classical Library." Macmillan 


The Second Form Master of St. Cyril's. By H. Bscett- 

Inman. Illus., 12mo, pp. 888. Frederick Wame ft Co. 81.26. 
The Many-Sided Uniyerse: A Study Specially Addressed 

to Toung People. By C. M. E. 12mo, pp. 160. E. P. Dutton 

ft Co. 11.26 net. 
Oomplete Version of Te ** Three Blind Mice." By John 

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The Mythology of G reece and Borne, Presented with Special 
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banks, nins., 12mo. pp. 408. D. Appleton ft Co. 11.60. 

A Test-Book of Praotloal Physios. By William Watson. 
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Soils : How to Handle and Improye Them. By 8. W. Fletcher. 
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The Story of the Ontlaw : A Study of the Western Desperado. 

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The Will to Be WelL By Charles Brodie Patterson. Fifth 
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STUDY and PRACTICE of FRENCH in 4 Parts 

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No. 497. MARCH 1, 1907. Vol. XLIL 





Books and the UMinl oonBoionaBeflB. — Browniqg 
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Shakespeare and Raleigh. — I^mety-eiz novels fram 
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BrosoneU 135 


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Andrew Shafer 180 


M, Bemme 141 

RECENT FICTION. WUUam Morton Payne ... 142 
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NOTES 149 



After a fitful existence of four months, the 
New Theatre of Chicago has dosed its doors, 
and the phiyhouse whidi has been the scene of 
its praiseworthy enterprise has fallen into the 
hands of the Philistines, to become the resort 
of those for whom dramatic art means no more 
than vapid or vulgar entertainment. The ex- 
periment thus brought to an untimely esA has 
cost its promoters upwards of fifty thousand 
dollars, besides other sacrifices that cannot be 
measured in monetary terms. It was an illus- 
tration of honorable endeavor in a deserving 
cause ; and if that cause seem lost for the time 
being, the outcome must be attributed to mis- 
taken means and methods rather than to any 
inherent defect in the actuating motive. The 
enterprise was prompted by a fine sense of pub- 
lic spirit, and an unselfish desire to contribute 
toward the redemption of our stage from its 
present low estate ; those who were responsible 
for it, and who have seen their hopes rudely 
shattered, have at least the poet's consoling 

** Kot failure, bat low aim, is crime/' 

to cheer them in the retrospect. 

Readers of The Dial know how persistently 
it has always stood for the hi^ber ideal of the 
drama, botii as literature, and, in its stage- 
production, as an ethical agency. The aims of 
the New Theatre were so clearly in the right 
direction, and its purpose so consonant with 
what we have urged for so many years, that we 
should not be misunderstood if, in analyzing 
the present case, we may seem to speak with 
something like severity of the way in which the 
enterprise has been conducted. All the way 
from start to finish, there were such evidences 
of mismanageihent, such an obvious lack of 
intelligent direction, that failure was almost a 
foregone conclusion with the impartial outside 
observer. It is best not to mince matters ixi 
dealing with this subject, because the experi- 
ment which has now &iled is going to be tried 
over again — perhaps many times, — and is 
eventually going to prove successful. And the 
best way to hasten its success must be to under- 



[March 1, 

stand the causes of the previous failure, in order 
to avoid their repetition. 

To b^in with, there was an element of un- 
due haste in the starting of the New Theatre. 
Eagerness to be first in the field (of which more 
anon) was responsible for a lack of the neces- 
sary deliberation, and for putting into effect a 
phin that had not been carefully matured. This 
haste was manifested in the choice of both busi- 
ness manager and dramatic director. In both 
cases the selection made was unfortunate, 
although for different reasons. The business 
manager was too practical, and the dramatic 
director was not practical enough. The associa- 
tions of the former were entirely with theatrical 
affairs of the type to which the New Theatre 
sought to stand in the sharpest possible con- 
tewt, which made his sympathetic furtherance 
of its auns well-nigh impossible. The latter 
was a gentleman of remarkable knowledge and 
technical equipment, who nevertheless failed in 
comprehension of the unmediate problem pro- 
vided for his solution. He offered the best of 
reasons for the thinsn he did, but they often 
proved to be the wZg tilings in spite of their 
intellectual defence. And the men who stood 
back of these two executive figures constituted 
an ill-assorted body. Their intentions were of 
the best, but their ideas were illustrative either 
of an innocent helplessness or of an excess of 
the academic spirit, which meant confusion of 
counsel and the inability to define their means 
as definitely as their Jtimate purpose was de- 
fined. There was thus mherent in its organiza- , 
tion such a lack of harmonious coordination 
among its parts that the enterprise was fore- 
doomed, if not to absolute failure, at least to a 
difficult course and the making of a blurred 
impression upon the public. 

Now the public has to be taken into account 
very seriously in such an experiment as this ; 
but the new venture was so untactfully heralded 
as to alienate the public at the outset, and to 
make it feel, all the time the experiment was 
in progress, that its cooperation was not partic- 
ularly desired. The idea got abroad that the 
new playhouse was the resort of a coterie, that 
it was a ^^ society " affair, that visitors would 
feel uncomfortable unless they wore evening 
clothes and diamonds. Its sponsors were largely 
of a class better known for the possession of 
worldly goods than for other qualities, and their 
names were advertised much more extensively 
than the names of the performers. They seemed 
to think that the sanction of their presence 

was all that was needed for success, that the 
stamp of their approval would magnetize the 
undertaking:. They made the fatal mistake of 
establiZ^a scale of prices that only an extra, 
ordinary attraction could justify, and the sup- 
port of the public — even of that section of the 
public which had been in a receptive mood — 
was forever lost. The opening night filled the 
theatre with a brilliant audience ; the night fol- 
lowing found it comparatively empty. It was 
an ^^ endowed" theatre, so tibe playbills said. 
" Very well," replied the public, " those who 
have endowed it may keep it for their own play* 
thing ; it does not interest us, and has no need 
of our encouragement." As for the claim of 
^^ endowment," it was of course unjustified; 
all it really meant was that a sufficient sum of 
money had been pledged to provide for a part 
of a single season. 

When the doors of the New Theatre were at 
last opened for the initial production, there were 
revealed a prettily-decorated hall, a stage of toy 
dimensions, and a company of actors most of 
whom had good records as iiidividuals, but 
whose collective performance was hopelessly 
mediocre and even amateurish. As for the 
opening bill, its character was such as to leave 
fairly aghast all serious sympathizers with the 
undertaking. Instead of selecting some strong 
and vital play of the sort for which the institu- 
tion was supposed to exist, the director had 
patched up a programme by taking Gilbert *& 
^^ Engaged," mutilating it almost beyond recog- 
nition, and associating with it two small pieces, 
one an insignificant trifle from the French, the 
other a character-sketch by a popular humorist 
of the day. The defence urged for this extra- 
ordinary hodge-podge was that it ^labled every 
member of the company to have a part in the 
opening performance. We spoke a little while 
ago of die director's gift of finding excellent 
reasons for doing the wrong things ; this is a 
typical illustration of what we meant. Never 
did a mountain's labor bring forth a more 
ridiculous mouse. From that moment the fate 
of the enterprise was sealed. 

During the four months of life for which it 
was destined, the playhouse conducted a series 
of opportunist experiments which discovered no 
trace of unity of purpose. A play a fortnight 
was the rule, which was follow^ until near the 
end. After the unfortunate first fortnight, a 
really great play — Sefior Echegaray's "El 
Gran Graleoto " — was produced. Now this is 
exactly the kind of play for which the New 




Theatre was supposed to be created; had it 
been boldly given at the start, or any other 
woA. of similar rank, the fortunes of the en- 
terprise might have been vastly different. At 
the worst, its eventual failure would have 
been dignified, had such a beginning been made 
and such an ideal been consistently pursued. A 
few good plays were given during the follow- 
ing months — such plays as Herr Fulda's 
^^Maskerade," Augier's "Poirier," and Heme's 
*^ Margaret Fleming'' — just such plays as 
should have been given, ^e other productions 
ranged from the passable through the barely 
admissible to the wholly inexcusable — the 
lowest depth having been reached with a cheap 
melodrama (an adaptation of ^^ The Spoilers "); 
which was not ^* playing the game," althougn 
the house was packed for the first and only 
fortnight during its career. 

Further analysis of the case is unnecessary. 
The mistakes already catalogued are enough 
to account for the failure many times over. 
It provides one more example of disinterested 
devotion made futile by hasty effort and faulty 
judgment. The experience has been profitable 
for correction, and the next enterprise of the 
kind will know many definite things to avoid, 
although likely enough to make new mistakes of 
its own. That next enterprise is already much 
mare than a dream. It is ah effort that has 
been deKberately nurtured for several years, 
that has evolved a comprehensive plan covering 
both the administrative and the artistic aspects 
of the undertaking, and that is now announced, 
with considerable show of definiteness, for in- 
auguration next autumn. It has for its respon- 
sible backing the Chicago Woman's Club, a very 
largeand influential organization withmanygood 
woikB to its credit, that usually accomplishes 
what it undertakes. The plan would probably 
have been put into practical effect last year, 
had not the New Theatre cut the wind out of 
its sails, for its course was charted long before 
that misadventure was conceived. Its friends 
would not have begrudged the success of the 
rival enterprise, had that been possible ; but 
sinoe it has proved impossible, ^ey expect to 
benefit by tjie lesson the failure has taueht 
them. We are optunistic enough to hope iLt 
a year from the present date we may be able to 
report the proposed Players' Theatre as an or- 
ganixation in active existence, perhaps not over- 
prosperous, but at least assured of continuance 
through the season and through other seasons 
to fallow. 


One by one the stars go out in the poetical firma- 
ment : with each extinction the night grows more 
cheerless, and the pilgrim's track, no longer control- 
led by its gliding skymark, is made less certain of 
its goal. This modem world of ours is not so rich 
in poets that it can mark the passing of one of them 
without a pang, and when the yoice that is stilled is 
one of such authentic utterance as the voice which 
spoke from the lips of Carducci, the news brings 
with it a sense of grievous and irretrievable loss. He 
was one of the great poets of modem times ; with 
the single exception of Mr. Swinburne, he was the 
greatest poet living in the world when the nineteenth 
century gave place to its successor. And now he is 
dead, after reaching the scriptural limit of man's 
years, and the whole world joins in paying reverent 
tribute to his memory. 

The association of Carducci's name with that of 
his great English contemporary (less than a year 
his junior) is more than fortuitous. The two poets 
are linked by their common devotion to the cause of 
free Italy, for the years of their early manhood 
were those in which that ideal became realized, the 
years of what Frederic Myers calls <' the last great 
struggle where all chivalrous sympathies ooul^ range 
themselves undoubtingly on one side." And they 
are also linked by certain fundamental principles 
common to both, by their hatred of all forms of 
tyranny, their efforts to bring poetry back to its 
dassical modes of expression, their intimate feeling 
for nature, the high seriousness of their thought, and 
the sustained elevation of their poetical flight. 

Giosu^ Carducci was born in 1836, a Tuscan of 
ancient and distinguished lineage. His father was 
a physician by profession and a Manzonian by intel- 
lectual affinity, which meant that the romantic spirit 
sought to claim the youth for its own. But the in- 
fluence of that spirit, at least in its mediievalizing and 
catholicizing aspects, was already far spent in Italy, 
and the boy'p idealism slowly groped its way from 
Giusti and Manzoniback to Leopaidi, then to Dante, 
and then to the Romans, where it took refuge, not, 
however, in any pedantic or servile sense, but in the 
sense that the freedom and sanity of the classical spirit 
were instinctively felt by the youthful poet, when he 
came into close contact with them, to be his soul's 
own birthright. Meai^while, his country was prepar- 
ing for its resurrection. The leaven of Mazzini's 
gospel was spiritualizipg the life of young Italy, and 
die first shock of the upheaval had come with the 
great year of revolution, the memorable year of 
1848, which brought only immediate disaster, yet 
nevertheless thrilled the whole world with hope. It 
left the boy of twelve an ardent republican, urging 
upon the petty political leader of his village the 
duty of raising the war-cry, ^^Aha$$o tutti i re: piva 
la republica/** And a republican in spirit he re- 
mained all his life, serving his country as such in 
both houses of the legislature, although unwilling 



[March 1, 

to assume the intransigeant attitude of Mazzini, and 
accepting the constitutional monarchy of the Re Gral- 
antuomo as a working compromise in the country's 
political progress to its predestined ultimate good. 

His academic career (for he was a professor more 
continuously and steadfastly than he was a poet) 
began at the early age of twenty-three, when he was 
appointed to the University of Pisa. In 1861 he 
entered upon his duties at the University of Bologna, 
which remained the scene of his academic activities 
for upwards of forty years — practically the rest 
of his life. There he lectured year after year, im- 
pressing upon the fortunate youth of new Italy the 
stamp of his rugged and austere personality, incul- 
cating upon their minds hb own hatred of shams 
and love of truth, his feeling for all that was worthy 
in the traditions of the race, his devotion to the 
noblest ideals of art and thought and conduct. And 
there, as he grew gray in the service of his nation, 
he drew upon himself, by the might of genius, the 
eyes of Italy and the world, until the Italian people 
came to realize that his modest dwelling in the 
ancient towered city of Bologna housed their greatest 
man, and united in paying tribute to his fame. 

That fame was, of course, for the world at large, 

primarily the fame of the poet ; yet those who knew 

the poet also as teacher and as friend must have 

felt that theirs was a doubly rich possession, for 

there is much testimony to indicate that the mortals 

thus favored were hardly able to tell whether it was 

for Carducci the poet or Carducci the man that they 

felt the greater reverence. And it is well for the 

millions of his lovers who never saw him in the 

flesh to be assured that, had they known him in 

person, or been acquainted with the more intimate 

aspects of his life, their ideal would have suffered 

no impairment He was, like our own Milton and 

Tennyson, one of the poets who order their lives with 

" Clo8e heed 
Lest, having spent for the work's sake ' 
Six days, the man be left to make." 

He once wrote that " the poet should express him- 
self and his moral and artistic convictions with all 
the sincerity, the clearness, the resolution in his 
power ; the rest is no concern of his." If we read 
this passage with a heavy emphasis on the word 
^< himself," it will be an exact- statement of the sum 
of Carducci's poetical activity. 

There was certainly no lack of sincerity, clears 
ness, or resolution in the famous '^ Hymn to Satan," 
the poem which first made him a national figure. 
It was written at a single sitting in 1863, and ap- 
pearing in print two years later was hurled like a 
bombshell into the camp of reaction and obscurantism. 

^^ Salute, o Satana, 
O libellione, 
O forzavindice 
De la ragione ! 

" Saori a te salgono 
Orincensi e i Yoti, 
Hai yinto il €^va 
De i sacerdoti." 

The note of uncompromising defiance sounded in 
these closing stanzas found an echo in all ardent 
and generous souls, and the advance guard of liberal 
thought throughout Italy turned instinctively toward 
its new leader and rallied about his standard. The 
poet was vilified, of course, misrepresented, and mis- 
understood. He became the storm centre of a fierce 
conflict which is even yet something more than a 
memory. Time has softened the earlier asperities 
of that struggle, and now even those who are the 
poet's intellectual opponents are willing to recog- 
nize the sufficiently obvious fact that the hymn is 
by no means a glorification of evil, but merely the 
expression of a firm determination to march with 
^' Uie avenging force of reason " upon the intrench- 
ments of superstition. 

The volume of Carducci's poetry is very con- 
siderable. It includes the ^'Rime" of 1857, the 
" Levia Gravia " of 1867, the " Decennalia," " Nuove 
Poesie," and '* Giambi ed Epodi" of the next decade, 
and the three volumes of '^ Odi Barbare" published 
from 1877 to 1889. These titles represent the 
landmarks in his poetical career; but the biblio- 
graphy of the subject is very complicated, owing 
to many republications and rearrangements. The 
^< Odi Barbare," which occasioned as much con- 
troversy (although in different circles) as the polit- 
ical and philosophical poems, represented a highly 
interesting attempt to write modern Italian verse in 
classical metres — alcaics, sapphics, and elegiacs. 
This subject would need a volume for its discussion; 
but we may reproduce Carducci's statement that he 
called the poems '* barbarous," for the reason that 
<^ they would so sound to the ears and judgment of 
the Greeks and Romans, although I have wished to 
compose them in the metrical forms belonging to 
the lyrical poetry of those nations; and because they 
will, too truly, so sound to very many Italians, 
although they are composed and harmonized in 
Italian verses and accents." The experiments thus 
characterized have certainly borne the practical test 
of public approval ; many of the poems written in 
these "barbarous" measures are among his best- 
beloved productions. 

The majority of Carducci's poems have not been 
translated into English; many of them it would be 
unwise to attempt to translate. Now and then his 
English readers have found the temptation irresist- 
ible, and thus a number of the poems may be read 
in creditable English versions. The best of these 
versions with which we are acquainted have been 
made by Mr. Frank Sewall, Mr. G. A. Greene, and 
Mr. M. W. Arms. We regret that Mr. Howells 
and Mr. William Everett did not come down as 
far as Carducci in their books on modern Italian 
poetry. There is still an excellent choice remain- 
ing for the judicious and competent translator. 
And of Carducci's prose, which is of large volume 
and great intellectual significance, there is no rea- 
son why we should not have an adequate English 





Books and the moral ookbciousness have inter- 
relationB of more kinds than one. The acquisition of 
ooreted Yolumes by methods other than purchase or 
gift has long been held a venial sin, a mere peccadillo, 
in fact, that should no more cause prickings of con- 
science than do similar modes of acquiring umbrellas. 
The open-shelf system now gaining favor with public- 
Ub«iy nmnagers <u>d patrons offers extrsordinaxy 
temptations to book-lovers of an easy conscience. The 
librarian of the Oakland (Cal.) Public Library reports 
1808 books missing at the annual inventory — a sad 
testimony to the innate depravity of human nature. 
Comfort, however, may be derived from his confidence 
that these hundreds of volumes are not all lost to the 
libiary, but that most of them wiU come back with the 
same informality that marked their exit. Yet the least 
abuse of a valuable privilege is to be deplored. Do 
open shelves breed contempt for the rights of literary 
property ? A return to chained books would perhaps 
awaken the culprits to a proper sense of the benefits 
they now so lightly esteem. But there are cheering 
signs in other quarters that not all book-reading com- 
munities are so lax in bibliothecal ethics. The Trenton 
(N. J.) Public Library, for example, allows its patrons 
unparalleled privileges: they have free access to a large 
selection of books and may take home as many as they 
wish — first having them properly charged, of course — 
except that in fiction a borrower must solace himself 
with only one work at one time. We have, too, the 
librarian's personal assurance that this generosity is not 
abused. And this from the state of New Jersey, almost 
from that palace of political iniquity the New Jersey 
state capitol t • • • 

Brownino in Seattle has as queer a sound as 
<< Cicero in Maine," the book-title with which Mrs. 
Martha Baker Dunn startled her readers two years 
ago. But that the city on Puget Sound is not so Klon- 
dlke-orazy, so Alaska-mad, so exposition-eager, as not 
to see charms in « Paracelsus " and " The Ring and the 
Book," all may convince themselves by reading, in the 
February " Comhill," the interesting article on « Brown- 
ing out West" which is contributed by Professor 
Frederick Morgan Padelford at the instance of Dr. 
Fnmivall. Mr. Padelford's unexpected and highly- 
gratifying^ success in conducting a Browning elective at 
the state university of Washington is agreeably narrated 
by him. Browning, he believes, more than any other 
English poet, appeals to the American love of strenuous 
endeavor, to the inquisitive American interest in charac- 
ternmravelling, the national aggressiveness, curiosity, 
bent for psychological analysis, and fondness for so- 
ciological problems. While the English university ideal 
is culture, and the (jerman university ideal is scholar- 
ship (of the Dryasdust brand), the writer holds that 
the American university ideal is public service, the 
betterment of society. The younger generation wishes 
to become men and women who do things, not who have 
things; and these young men and women find their 
creed worthily formulated in Browning, in his philo- 
sophy of life and his clarion call to spiritual conflict and 
ultimate spiritual triumph. Even his harshness and 
roughness (artistically considered) would seem to work 
for and not against him; at any rate they do not repel 
his stalwart disciples of the far Northwest as they tend 
to repel readers in whom the artistic sense predominates. 

The BMOLUBfENTS OF AUTHORSHIP have rarely been 
large, but have always furnished a theme for curious 
discussion. Some statistics recently collected con- 
cerning the savings of authors show that seven eminent 
writers, lately deceased, including Edwin Arnold, 
George Gissing, and William Sharp, left estates that 
together amounted to about $65,000, or an average of 
$9,285 apiece — not a princely fortune, surely. But 
they have their reward, we must believe, even if it be 
not in the coin of the realm. And of those writers 
whose works are produced solely with a view to mon- 
etary returns, we can truly say that << they have their 
reward " also. The modem saw that << to die rich is to 
die disgraced " has a measure of truth for others besides 
ironmasters. At any rate, the books that have sold by 
the hundred thousand copies, and have filled the authors' 
pockets, are often not the books to look back upon with 
unmixed satisfaction. • , » 

Shakespeare axb Raleigh are two illustrious 
Elizabethan names that are again to be associated in 
the forthcoming life of the bard of Avon for the « English 
Men of Letters" series by Professor Walter Baleigh. 
Strange enough is it that the greatest name in English 
literature — or in all literature, for that matter — has 
so long been conspicuous by its absence on this roll of 
honor, headed, twenty-nine years ago, by Leslie 
Stephen's life of Johnson. Is it that some dim sense of 
the absurdity of calling Shakespeare a "man of letters" 
has hitherto deterred the publishers from adding his 
name to their list? Or has the difficulty lain in finding a 
biographer of the exceptional qualities requisite for the 
task ui hand? Except perhaps Mr. Sidney Lee, no one 
ts better fitted to write the projected volume than 

Professor Raleigh. 

• • • 

Ninety-six novels from the same pen is a remark- 
able record, but that is the number now credited to 
« John Strange Winter," or Mrs. Stannard, as she is 
known in the world of fact. Other work, too, has come 
from her busy hand and brain; and now she confesses 
that she is " tired of writing novels," but that " it does 
not do to be tired of earning one's living." She has 
certainly earned the right to be weary of novel-writing. 
There are those who would be excessively wearied if 
they had even to read ninety-six novels, not to speak of 
writing them. • • • 

Shakespeareana manufactured in England for 
THE American trade are now said to lure the dollars 
from the pockets of unwary book-collecting American 
millionaires visiting England — a neat reprisal for our 
heartless carrying off 6f so many literary treasures from 
that country, notably and very recently the Shelley 
notebooks which our English cousins may well have 
grieved to lose. An ostrich appetite for costly rarities 
can hardly be attended with an Epicurean nicety and dis- 
crimination in picking and choosing. 

• • • 

Irving's old home in New Tore, at the comer of 
Lrving Place and Seventeenth Street, is in danger of 
being destroyed to make way for modem improvements, 
and a project is now under discussion for its preserva- 
tion, and its conversion into a museum that shall serve 
as a perpetua] reminder of the good old days of literary 
New Tork. It was this house that Irving occupied 
when his fame was at its height, and thd historic struc- 
ture is hallowed by many associations dear to lovers of 
our literature in its early prime. 



[Mareh 1, 

C^t W^tbi §00k8. 

Some Famous IjITerabt Aposti^bs.* 

Mrs. Charles Brookfield, who with her hus- 
band recently gave us a very pleasant account 
of ^^ Mrs. Brookfield and her Circle,'* has sup- 
plemented this with another volume of the same 
readable, literary-gossipy sort, containing still 
further reminiscences of her father-in-law, Will- 
iam Henry Brookfield, and his friends — chiefly 
those whose friendship dated back to the ^^ golden 
age" at Cambridge and his student days at Trin- 
ity College. The « Apostles," as is weU known, 
were certain bright young men,*poetic in tem- 
perament, specuktiye, inquiring, and whoUy 
fearless, who formed an association called the 
^^ Cambridge Conversazione Society," at whose 
meetings essays and poems were read, and un- 
tramdled diacussion wbs carried on concerning 
all things in heaven and earth, and a few other 
matters besides. Minutes of these meetings 
were never published, if indeed they were reg- 
idarly kept ; and whether or not the club was 
a hot-bed of radicalism, atheism, and worse, 
was left to the anxious or amused conjecture of 
university authorities and others. Its vigorous 
prime covered the years 1824-1840, and it was 
in thiB period that, a8 Trinity ^ obnerved to 
contribute the main support of the society, its 
meetings came to be held in that college ; and 
as its membership was limited to twelve, it ac- 
quired the jocose nickname of ^^ Apostles." 

Of those who were members of tibe society in 
its golden prime, Mrs. Brookfield gives sketches 
and letters and traditions of thirteen, her father- 
in-law (who, however, another authority de- 
clares, was not a member at all) claiming first 
place and having more spa^ aJ>rded hii than 
anyone else. A bright light he undoubtedly was, 
being a popular preacher, a wit whose presence 
enlivened any company, a Shakespearean reader 
hardly excelled by the Kembles, father or daugh- 
ter, and a thoroughly good-hearted, high-minded, 
pleasant-tempered gentleman. But the distinc- 
tive quality of his wit seems to have been untrans- 
ferable to the printed page : we are repeatedly 
assured of its delicate and delectable flavor, but 
somehow never quite succeed in getting a tooth- 
some morsel into our mouth. Other men's good 
things, which he was fond of repeating, are 
offered us in some abundance, and these help 
one to judge of his taste in such matters. For 

*Thb Cambbidob "Apostlbs." B7 Frances M. Brookfield. 
With portraits. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 

example, concerning an estimable man who 
was said to be of exemplary modesty^ someone 
ventured to ask, ^^What has he done to be 
modest of ? " This pleased Brookfield, as also 
did Douglas Jerrold's saying, after reading 
Harriet Martineau, ^^ There is no God — and 
Harriet is his prophet.'' We can imagine him 
enjoying such Elian absurdities as the famous 
question put to the man carrying home a rodent 
of the genus lepuB^ ^^ Is that your owa hare or 
a wig?" In short, one surmises that Brook- 
field's wit had that delicately subtle and deli- 
ciously unexpected quality that often expresses 
itself largely in gesture and facial expression 
and tone of voice, and that depends for its 
thorough enjoyment on atmosphere and associa- 
tion — on the context, so to speak. Venables, 
a competent authority, says : *^ In irresistible hu- 
mor none of the ^ Apostles' rivalled Brookfield." 
^^ He had infioiite humor," says Kinglake, ^^ but 
humor resulting — like Shi^espeare's — from 
mastering of human characters, and not from 
any love of mere shallow, mindless drollery. . . 
I never heard him say a bitter thing." 

Besides Brookfield, whose biography has been 
fuUy given in ^* Mrs. Brookfield and her Circle,'* 
the ^^ Apostles " selected for notice, each in a 
separate chapter, are Blakesley, Buller, Hallam 
(of ^^In Memoriam"), Kemble, Lushington, 
Maurice, Milnes, Spedding, Sterling, Tennyson, 
Trench, and Venables. Some excerpts are now 
in order ; first one about the ^^ Apostles " col- 

« But trivial assaults the < Apostles ' could afford to 
ignore, for if they had detractors they had also admirers 
and imitators. W. E. Gladstone founded an Essay Club 
at Oxford on the model of the < Apostles ' and boastod 
of it — though he owned it never quite satisfied him. 
< The Apostles,' he said, < are a much more general soci- 
ety.' Blakesley leaves it recorded that it was Arthur 
Hallam who founded this Club, and he probably thought 
this because Hallam had given Gladstone help in the 
drawing up of its rules. < The Sterling ' was certainly 
inspired by the 'Apostles,' as were numerous other 
societies; and, indirectly, the London Library, an insti- 
tution of an entirely different kind, grew out of it." 

Thackeray, who, though intimate with mem- 
bers of the society, appears never to have be- 
longed to it, wasa warm friend aad admirer of 
Brookfield, if one may judge from the following : 

« Thackeray admired Brook eld with the ardour of 
a generous nature; he loved to hear him talk, and 
would unweariedly listen to him a whole night through. 
He went to hear his sermons and his readings whenever 
he could; he loved his wit and took it up and used it 
and illustrated it; as also, by the way, did Leech." 

Thackeray has immortalized Brookfield as 
*' Frank Whitestock " in « The Curate's Walk.*' 




And all tHuB warmih of regard was reciprocated 
by its object, even to the extent of disliking the 
novek of Dickens. ^^ Unredeemed trash," is his 
verdict on " The Old Curiosity Shop." Of Brook- 
field as a pnlpit orator it may be worth while 
to cite Lord Lyttleton's assertion that he had 
*' never heard anyone so easy, almost colloquial, 
msomuch that there was a sort of temptation to 
forget that it was preaching, and get up and 
answer him." Ghreville records in his diary : 
«« A magnificent sermon from Brookfield. He 
is one of the few preachers whose sermons 
never weary me, however long, . . . and the 
elocution perfect." 

George Stovin Yenables is perhaps best 
known as the man who in boyhood, on the 
Charterhouse phiyground, met his schoolmate 
Thackeray in fistic combat, in response to the 
other's challenge, and did such execution that 
the embryo novelist came out of the engagement 
with a broken nose — and also a lasting affec- 
tion for the breaker, an affection that was 
warmly returned. Yenables, barrister and after- 
ward judge, contributed to the literature of his 
day chiefly in the form of anonymous journal- 
ism. The '' Saturday Review " and the '' Times," 
among other papers, profitted by his scholarly 
attainments. That he had a ready wit, in addi- 
tion to his other accomplishments, is made 
pleasantly apparent. 

"Onoe when Venables was leaving a dinner party 
where Sir Frederick Pollock also had been he took up 
his hat in the hall, saying, < Here's my Castor — 
where 's Pollock's ? ' Always a favoured guest at the 
Grange, he said at a time when he and the world in 
general were much excited over inland travellers, that 
Mr. Ptokyns' book on Africa was the most successful 
attempt on record of a man being able to reduce himself 
to the savage state." 

Concerning Hallam, that youth of rare prom- 
ise who died at twenty-two, on the eve of wed- 
ding Emily Tennyson, it must here suffice to 
quote Gladstone's entimsiastic encomium. 

** There was nothing in the region of the mind which 
he might not have accomplished. I mourn in him, for 
myself, my earliest near friend ; for my fellow-creatures, 
one who would have adorned his age and country, a 
mind full of beauty and of power, attaining almost to 
that ideal standard of which it is presumption to expect 
an example. When shall I see his like ? " 

None of the baker's dozen of attractive per- 
MHialities portrayed in Mrs. Brookfield's pages 
is more attractive and more lovable than James 
Spedding, the man who wasted his best energies 
(as many thought) in whitewashing Bacon. To 
Brookfidd he was ^^ Spedding the Sublime"; 
IltzGerald called him ''old Jem Spedding" 
and ''my Sheet-Anchor*'; while Thackeray 

playfully dubbed him " Jeames Spending " and 
" that aged and most subtile serpent." Sped- 
ding's early baldness, and the gentie raillery 
evoked thereby, he took with philosophic amia- 
bility. It is pleasant to read FitzGerald*s 
friendly and admiring allusions to the Baco- 
nian's lofty and depilated brow, which he some- 
where likens to Shakespeare's. Says Mrs. 
Brookfield : 

« Spedding was a favorite subject for his friend 
FitzGerald's banter. He writes for instance, < Spedding 
is all the same as ever, not to be improved, one of the 
best sighte in London.' When he went to America with 
Lord Ashbumham, FitzGerald said: <0f course you 
have read the account of Spedding's forehead landing 
in America; English sailors hailed it in the Channel 
mistaking it for Beachy Head.' And later on in this 
visit he mentions that he begins to feel sure that Sped- 
ding would be safe in America, because *• to scalp such 
a forehead was beyond any Indian's power.' " 

Except Henry Lushihgton, each of the 
^^Apostiies" sketched by the author's pen is 
also presented in pictorial likeness, the half-tone 
reproductions being from paintings or drawings. 
Spedding's portrait is drawn by his own hand, 
llie book, like its predecessor, is handsomely 
made, with clear iype, good paper, and an 
index,^ whose five, pages, however, do not con- 
tain all the entries one might have occasion to 
look for — not even all the names of persons 
mentioned in the work. If the book has still 
anotiier fault, it may by the more serious be 
thought to be an unduly generous inclusion of 
pleasant trivialities. However, they entertain 
— or, if not, they may be skipped. 

Perct F. Bicknell. 

A Book of Spanish Phantaseks.* 

To the lover of Spain, every new book de- 
scriptive of the countiy comes as a fresh delight. 
" The Cities of Spain," by Mr. Edward Hut- 
ton, is one of the last and outwardly one of ihe 
most attractive of last year's large output. 
Twenty-four full-page illustrations in color by 
Mr. A. Wallace Rimington, together with a 
nearly equal number of photographic copies of 
paintings from the Prado gallery, make the 
volume well worth possessing. This affords 
some comfort to the purchaser who, upon open- 
ing the book, reads ^e following statement of 
the author: 

« It is the art of Literature that I praotice, and by my 
achievement or failure in this art I am to be judged. 
Therefore, if I prefer not to speak of Spain at all within 

* Thb Gitibs of Spaik. By Edward Hatton. With Ulustra- 
tlons in color and photosra^nre. New York : The Macmlllati Co. 



[March 1, 

the chapters of my book, it is that I do not wish facts 
to become of too mnch importance there, of more im- 
portance, that is, than I, the artist, choose, and becaose 
I will not speak of what I have loyed without knowledge." 

Of course if Mr. Hutton prefers not to speak 
of Spain because of insufficient knowledge, well 
and good ; but why, then, label his work " The 
Cities of Spain*'? After reading the booh, the 
reviewer suggests, as a more fitting title, ^^ Span- 
ish Phaihtasies " or, " Sobs of the Desert." 

In his practice of the art of literature, the 
author tells us that the country about Toledo 
is ^''fulfilled with an immense energy, the en- 
ergy of silence." Speaking of a chapel in the 
cathedral at Burgos, he says : ^^ To pray in such 
a place if one were sorry might seem impossible, 
and if one were glad one would go to the hills." 
He gazes upon the ^' tawny passionate land- 
scape," and the ^^ latent groinings of the hills.' 
He loves the very look and sound of the words 
"desert," "sun," and " stars," and sprinkles 
his pages with them until they resemble a chart 
of the starry firmament itself. "For while 
some have loved women and others have sought 
for fame, and others have flung everything 
away for money," he says, " it is the sun that 
I have loved, the sun which is the smile of God." 
Spain, through this medium, makes an especial 
appeal to Mr. Hutton, who thus further exr 
presses himself : 

<< And, though for no other cause, yet for this I find 
Spain the most beautiful country of Europe: that with 
her abide the mountains and the desert and over all the 
Sim. . . . Now, therefore, let as rejoice together, that 
there remains to us a land where these things are; for 
there the wind blows on the mountains, and in the de- 
sert there is silence, and at dawn and at noon and at 
evening we may behold the sun." 

There come times, however, when our author 
finds the sun so hot that he is " afraid "; but we 
feel less concerned about him when we read 
that he is also sometimes frightened at the lack 
of Sim. Upon his return to his London home, 
he writes : 

« And a sort of twilight everywhere in this city of 
mean streets continually makes me afraid and is heavy 
upon me, and there is no sun." 

In other respects he seems an imeasy, restless 
body. When in England, he yearns to escape 
from the " trumpery cities" to the " land of the 
sun and the desert," where " the very boulders 
are writhing in agony to find expression." In 
Spain, however, he longs for England. At the 
Escorial, after wandering through the immense 
corridors, he says : 

'< I was thinking of the spring far far away in the 
world where the peach-blossoms flutter over the gar- 
den» like pink butterflies, and the willows are laughing 

together beside the rivers, and the wind is blowing over 
the sea; and I was weary because I was so far away.'' 

The book, then, is subjective throughout. It 
records Mr. Hutton's sentiments and impres- 
sions, when he is weary, or frightened, or merely 
" sorry." Burgos he finds to be the first aitj 
he has seen " that verily believes in Christ." 
" She is an image of Faith, of Exaltation in a 
world that is overheated and full of lies and 
greatly desirous." Avila is " the visible image 
of the word Amen." In the Mosque of Cor- 
dova he "remembered only beautiful things 
and joy." " I lost myself in a new contempla- 
tion ; I kissed the old voluptuous marbles ; I 
touched the strange, precious inscriptions, and 
with my finger I traced the name of Ood." 

In order better to receive the message that 
Spain has for him, Mr. Hutton frequently 
travelled on horseback. In approaching Avila, 
he says : 

" What she means to those who come to her by rail- 
way, I know not, who saw her like a mirage in the 
desert after many days. Lost in the infinite silence, 
under the sun and the sky, I had longed for her as of 
old men longed for the Holy City, and when I found 
her at last, I came to her on foot leading my mule over 
the stones." 

Let those disposed to pity Mr. Hutton for the 
hardships that he must have endured upon such 
a trip read the foUowing passage from his Intro- 
duction : 

« Night fell — a night of large, few stars — and cov- 
ered us with her coolness; even yet we were far from 
any city. And at last I could go no further, and told 
my guide so, who without any expression of surprise 
lifted me from my beast, laid me under a great rock, 
covered me with my rug, tethered the mules and began 
to prepare supper. I shall not forget the beauty of Uiat 
night, nor the silence under those desert stars." 

After comforts like these in the open, is it any 
wonder that the failure of the ele^c Ught i 
the hotel at Yalladolid fairly unmans him ? He 
speaks thus of this fearful experience : 

« The horror of the toilet, in an unknown room, the 
search for the bed with the help of a match, I will not' 

It is surprising to note, in a book with the 
title ^^ The Cities of Spain" and containing 324 
pages, the amount of space allotted to each city. 
The chapter dealing with Cadiz numbers two 
and one-half pages ; that which treats of Jerez, 
one and one-half pages by the author, together 
with a wholly irrelevant quotation from an En- 
glish diary of the seventeenth century. Four 
pages are given to Cordova, and four to the 
Escorial, nearly one-half of which is quoted. 
The description of the Alhambra is reprinted 
from Swinburne's eighteenth century account. 




while eight of the fourteen pages on Madrid are 
taken from James Howell who wrote in 1622. 
There is a chapter of about sixty pages on the 
Prado Grallery, and another shorter one enti- 
tled ''Early Spanish Paintings." The art 
criticism here is vague and unsatisfying, witii 
somewhat long historical digressions. 

As an excellent example of Mr. Hutton's 
style and subject-matter, we quote his closing 

« For me, at least, Spain remains as a sort of refuge, 
a land of son and desert. If that be the obscure need 
of your spirit, go to her and she will heal you. For in 
the sun everything is true, all we have hoped and be- 
lieved and at last forgone, all the beautiful things of 
old time when Aphrodite at noon loved Adon, and 
Demeter sought for Persephone, and in the woods and 
on the mountains the women, stained with the juice of 
grapes, followed Dionysos; when, in the dusty ways .of 
the city, Christ gave sight to the blind, and in the heat 
of the day when the almond trees were shedding their 
bkMsoms He went by the stony ways to Grolgotha. 
And we, too, shall be weary at evening, for he made the 
stars also.'' 

George G. Brownell. 

8TUBeis*8 History of Architbctuke.* 

The first yolume of Mr. BusseU Sturgis's 
*^ History of Architecture " is at hand, and the 
two volumes remaining to complete the work 
are scheduled for the present year. The work 
is large in scope, as a brief summary of the 
contents will serve to show. 

Volume I. treats of those epochs and styles 
which are only half known to the modem stu- 
dent — the Egyptian, Babylonian and Assyrian, 
and later Western Asiatic styles ; Greek art 
down to the final conquest by Rome ; the earlier 
Italian art in its various forms ; the Roman 
Imperial architecture. 

Volume II. treats of the architecture of India, 
China, Japan, and other oriental nations, and 
includes also that Mohammedan architecture 
which arose out of the Byzantine styles. A 
treatment of the great Gothic school of Central 
and Northern Europe brings the history down 
to the fifteenth century. 

Volume III. deals with the fifteenth century 
remodelling of the art of Europe, the French 
florid Gothic, the English Tudor style, and as 
contemporary with these the beginnings of the 
classical revival in Italy, followed by the Euro- 
pean styles of the revived classic or neo-classic. 
Finally, in tlus volume will be studied the 

*A HiaroBY of Abch i t mctub k. Bj Biua^ Staivis. A.M. 
Vohmie L. Antiquity, muatrated in photoffraTure, etc. New 
York : Baker A Tajlor Go. 

'' anomalous modem conditions, with an exphir 
nation of the failure of the nineteenth century 
in architecture while it was succeeding in paint- 
ing and in sculpture, and with constant effort 
to disentangle the serious attempts at original 
design from the mass of building which is un- 
disfiniisedly copied from earlier styles, and which 
is Sty LZercial in its inspTrati;.n.» The 
record is brought down to the time of «^' those 
innovaticms in building which now foreshadow 
complete changes in all architectural style," — 
which last, probably, instead of *^ changes" 
means the development or evolution of a new 
architectural style. 

The publishers of the work explain that ^^ in 
all this long inquiry the domestic architecture 
of each period is kept in view as offering a 
necessary corrective of conclusions which the 
grandiose ttfchitecture of the temple and the 
church, taken by itself, would suggest. This is 
eapeciaUy the case in more recent times, when 
it is often found that the design of the dwelling- 
house is more nearly akin to refined and noble 
art than is that of the larger and more notice- 
able buildings." This last is a saving clause, 
for it is only in very modem times that domestic 
architecture and monumental architecture have 
failed to develop harmoniously in all essential 
characteristics, and this harmonious develop- 
ment very probably runs back to the earliest 
times ; though the author regrets his inability, 
through insiidKcient data, to write critically of 
the domestic architecture of such comparatively 
well-known civilizations as those of Egypt and 
of Greece, fearing to trench upon the domain of 
historical romance. 

Architecture is itself a history — a record of 
human desire and activity, of race movement 
and achievement ; and a history of architecture 
may be one or the other of two things, or a 
blending of them. It may be an interpretation 
of the art and a determination of its relation to 
the life and philosophy of the race, showing the 
effect of modes of life and thought upon the 
ideals of the race as expressed in building in 
the abstract ; or it may be a record of technical 
achievement, made forceful by a comparison of 
concrete examples. If it be a judicious blend- 
ing of the two, it will hold more of human 
interest and be m^re effective as an educational 
factor in the general evolution of a sympathetic 
knowledge of art. 

Mr. Russell Sturgis, author, critic, and one- 
time architect, comes well equipped for his task 
of formulating critical and comparative judg- 
ments on such material as would naturally form 




tihe basis of a great desoriptiye history of aidii- 
teetare. His great knowledge and infinite 
patience, his keen observation and care for de- 
tails even to the counting and recording of the 
number and disposition of bride or stone courses 
m a monumental stroctuie, his capacity for bal- 
ancing part against part and whole against 
whole, render his judgment as a connoisseur 
hig^y to be respected. As a record of archi- 
tectural events, this history, as evidenced by the 
volume in hand, leaves nothing to be desired. 
The work so &r is an admirable example of 
the second form which a history of architecture 
may take, as above stated. Whether the com- 
pleted work will express that most desirable 
blending of human life with technical achieve- 
ment which constitutes art, remains to be seen. 
In the absence of the remaining volumes, the 
publishers' statement on this point may be given. 

<<The History of Architecture which we announce 
will discriminate closely between the natural artistic re- 
sults of construction and those methods of design which 
are quite apart from construction and are the result of 
abstract thinking and of the pure sense of form — or, 
in a few cases, of color. An architectural design of any 
kind may have been conceived much as a piece of sculp- 
ture is conceived, that is, as a piece of pure form; and 
it is in this way that much of Greek architecture took 
shape — the simple requirements of the building of the 
time having but little influence upon it. On the other 
hand, with an energetic race of builders like the French 
of the twelfth century, a race not gifted with the sense 
of form to anything like the degree in which it was pos- 
sessed by the Greeks, the merit of a design would na- 
turally be found in the extraordinary logic and in the 
sincerity of the work, the placing of each stone helping 
at once the artistic results and the construction. Tliose 
are the extremes. Between them is the wide field of 
styles in which both influences are at work." 

The two extremes thus indicated may be denom- 
inated broadly the architecture of ^^form" and 
the architecture of ^^ feeling," the architec- 
ture of the intellect and the architecture of the 
emotions. The volume before us is dominated 
by the classic ideal, and the emotions have little 
play. The architecture of Egypt which reaches 
emotional depths is treated with too formal a 
touch, and it is only from the illustrations that 
one can fully understand why Greek art stopped 
at the threshold of Egypt, nor sought to com- 
pete with the intellect against the passions. 

A history of architecture which is based on 
race psychology will explain |irhy the pyramids 
express the soul of Egypt and of no other 
coimtry ; will explain not only that the columns 
were of magnificent proportions and the lin- 
telled roofs were massive, but also that the dom- 
inating thought in the mind of the race made 
other proportions and less enduring masses im- 

possible ; that the colunm was not a column, but 
an everlasting support, — that a lintel was not a 
lintel, but an everlasting roof. A study of the 
mind of Greece will show in the changing di- 
mfflisions of column and lintel not only a develop- 
ment of architectural form but the birth of an 
idea which becomes clear and clean-cut and is 
evolved to its logical limit. A study of the 
Roman temperament will show how it was re- 
flected in an overpowering architecture in which 
the undeveloped idea of the arch and the fully 
developed idea of the lintel were hopelessly con- 
fused and endlessly entangled. Not all of this 
is set forth in the present volume as fully or as 
vividly as the student could desire. Such treat- 
ment does not necessarily take history into the 
domain of romance. A history of architecture 
which is based on the philosophy of life will ex- 
plain how, when Grreece bowed to i^ypt, the 
exploiters of Roman classic art could have car- 
ried their wares into the presence of the great 
temples of the north and not have been humbled 
into inactivity. This and kindred matters of 
race psychology should find treatment in the 
final volume. It is needless at this time to 
anticipate this treatment further than to suggest 
that perhaps painting and sculpture in general 
have not in the nineteenth century reached a 
comparatively much higher plane than has ar- 
chitecture. Mr. Sturgis's appreciation of sculp- 
ture, as evidenced in the first volume, is very 
sympathetic ; and its treatment is on the side of 
tiie relation of this art to architecture. The 
. present day has made it a thing apart, which is 
not necessarily elevating it to a higher plane. 
Conditions which now surround architecture are 
very different from those of Egypt, Greece, and 
Fnmce of the twelfth century; but that does 
not necessarily relegate to a lower plane that 
architecture which characteristically sums up 
these conditions. But in point of fact, we pro- 
duce no great architecture of form, for our in- 
tellects are devoted to the development of the 
sciences ; nor do we produce great architecture 
of feeling, because our emotions are swamped 
in the strenuous hustle of the commercial life. 
Our intellects do not any longer imagine forms, 
they simply remember; our emotions no longer 
throb passionately, they merely flutter. And 
what applies to art applies with more or less 
equal force to the maMng of books and even 
the writing of history. 

The specimen pages sent out in advance do 
not fairly represent the work. With these in 
mind, one first opens the book with misgivings. 
However, it is pleasing to note that the style is 




and much in the author's earlier 
manner. The task of collating and arranging 
the great mass of detail has been heavy, and 
the outcome is a work of great value and a mat- 
ter of congratulation to both author and pub- 
lisher. In general make-up, the work is very 
attractive. The letter-press is well-nigh perfect; 
while the illustrations, which number more than 
four hundred in the first volume, are well chosen 
and extremely well reproduced. The full-page 
plates are carbongravures, while the illustrations 
in the text are half-tones from photographs and 
photo-etchings from line drawings and engrav- 
ings, but so harmonized in scale and so well 
placed that l^e effect of the whole is pleasing 
to an extent that is not always the case when 
varied means of reproduction are employed. 
The most serious mechanical slip seems to be in 
the inversion of the first half-tone plate in the 
chapter on the Corinthian style. Beyond this 
mishap, too much praise can hardly be given to 
the care which has entered into the artistic 
make-up of the initial volume, and which it is 
to be hoped sets a standard to be followed in 
the remaining ones. Ikving K. Pond. 

Washington Ijife in Eably Days.* 

It has been said that we are all gossips at 
heart, no matter how we try to conceal our in- 
terest in our fellows. Even if not belonging 
to a class that likes to listen to gossip over a 
back fence, we may still be of those who wel- 
come a fresh bit of scandal ^^ about Queen Elizar 
beth." And if history be, as Carlyle avers, 
merely the biographies of great men, is it a 
thing to blush for that we are glad of any new 
light upon their daily lives ? 

The best biographers and diarists have been 
men ; but when it comes to letter-writing, the 
honors between men and women are more nearly 
equal. What an array of bright spirits is evoked 
when we call the roll of women whose letters 
have been given to the world to teU us some- 
what of the precious old days that were before 
Leisure died. It is a sorrowful thought that 
regards these writers as having no present suc- 
cessors; forecasting a barren future for the his- 
torian who is to come after this prosaic day of 
telephone, tel^ram, type-writer, and picture- 

Since a volume of good old letters is a pos- 

* Tbb FnwT FoBTY Tbabb of Washhtoton Society. Prom the 
Letlen mm! Joomala of Mrs. Samnel Huriaon Smith ( Maisaret 
Bajard). Edited by Qftillard Hont. mustrated. New York: 
CSiarlee 8cribiier*B Sons. 

session to be grateful for, we must acknowledge 
our obligations to Mr. Gaillard Hunt for his 
careful editing of the correspondence and note- 
books of Mrs. Samuel Hairison Smith in the 
volume which he calls " The First Forty Years 
of Washington Society. " To Mrs. Harrison 
Smith's grandson, Mr. J. Henley Smith, t^e owe 
a prefatory note in which he tells us that in the 
autumn of the year 1800 Samuel Harrison 
Smith of Philadelphia, the son of Col. Jonathan 
Bayard Smith of the Continental Congress and 
the Continental Army, and a signer of the 
Articles of Confederation, married his cousin 
Margaret Bayard, whose father, Colonel John 
Bayard, had had a public record almost parallel 
in importance wi£ that oi Colond S^. 
The young pair proceeded at once to Washing- 
ton, where Mr. Smith founded and for many 
years conducted the ^' National Intelligencer," 
a journal of national circulation which acquired 
a great influence in American politics. Later, 
he was for a short time Secretary of the Treas- 
oiy: h« ^ tiie first CommiLioner of the 
Revenue of the Treasury, and was for many 
years president of important banks. It was 
but natural that his wife should take her place 
among the great ladies of the young capital ; 
and as she had some talent for writing, she be- 
came (anonymously, as befitted the taste of the 
day) a contributor to several journals. She 
also wrote a two-volume novel called ^^ A Winter 
in Washington, *' now exceedingly rare, which 
is valuable because of its faithful study of 
Thomas Jefferson. 

Such meagre outlines can easily be filled in 
with light, color, and movement, if one recalls 
that in the Washington of those days there were 
peculiarly favorable opportunities for delight- 
ful social intercourse and intimate friendships 
between people of refinement and intelligence, 
such as are no longer possible in the beautiful 
cily seething with politics and slowly but surely 
coming under the benumbing influence of the 
modem commercial spirit. 

Our story opens (to use a favorite phrase of 
the Lady's B<x)k age of American letters) with 
a description of the visits paid to the young 
wife, whose guests were ^' treated to my wed- 
ding cake." In the next sentence we learn 
that '^ Mrs. B(ell) brought us a large basket of 
sweet potatoes, and some fine cabbages," — an 
astonishing compliment, surely, to a bride I In 
retiuning the visit paid by Thomas Law 
(brother to Lord Ellinborough) and his wife (a 
descendant of Lord Baltimore, and a grana- 
daughter of Mrs. Washington) Mr. and Mrs. 



[March 1, 

Smith were persuaded to remain '^ and dine off 
a fine turkey"; and they were conducted to the 
kitchen to see a ^' contrivance " called a 
" Ranger " on which the fowl had been roeusted. 
A few days later, a modest gentleman called to 
arrange about the publication of a MS. ^'as 
legible^ as printing," which turned out to be 
the work known as "Jefferson's Manual," the 
modest gentleman who brought it discovering 
himself to be its author. Thus are we brought 
face to face with the real hero of Mrs. Smith's 
writings. Her intimate personal study of Jef- 
ferson covers many years, and was conducted 
in many places and through many scenes, but 
always with a loyalty and sincerity which are 
creditable alike to both. 

Following the inauguration of 1801, the 
President's house was presided over by his 
daughters, Mrs. Randolph and Mrs. Eppes, 
with the grace and dignity that have given them 
an enviable position among the great ladies of 
American society. The diniiers which were fre- 
quently given by Jefferson were laid on a round 
table at which twelve guests were seated ; and 
the letters are filled with the sayings and doings 
of the brilliant men who were making history 
with every sentence they uttered and, every 
page they wrote, — men upon whom we have 
come to look as the giants and ancients of our 
own younger and smaller day. Like a thread 
of bright embroidery worked about the historic 
tapestry the men were weaving, are the names 
of the women who created the society in which 
they shone, — Mrs. Madison, Mrs. Cutts, Mi^s. 
Monroe, Mrs. Adams, Mrs. Wirt, Mrs. Clay, 
Mrs. Calhoun. Like a panorama, we behold 
the charming home-life of the Jeffersons at 
Monticello and the Madisons at Montpelier ; 
the burning of the Capitol and other public 
buildings by the British, and the flight of the 
terrified Washingtonians. We smile at Mrs. 
Smith's alarm, which leads her to say : " I do 
not suppose Grovemment will ever return to 
Washington. All those whose property was 
invested in the place will be reduced to poverty." 
Smiles are called forth also by her lively por- 
trayal of the scenes during Mr. Clay's Con- 
gressional speech on the Seminole War, which 
is here partly reproduced. 

<< When I reached the Hall it was so crowded that it 
was impossible to join my party, and after much hesi- 
tation I consented to allow Mr. Taylor to take me on 
the floor of the House, where he told me some ladies 
already were. In the House, or rather lobby of the 
House, I found four ladies whom I had never before 
seen, all genteel and fashionable, and under the pro- 
tection of Mr. Mercer, who shook hands with me. The 

Senate had adjourned in order to hear Mr. Clay; all 
the foreign ministers and suites, and many strangers, 
admitted on the floor in addition to the members, ren- 
der'd the House crowded. The gallery was full of 
ladies, gentlemen, and men to a degree that endangered 
it. Even the outer entries were thronged, and yet such 
silence prevailed that tho' at a considerable distance 
I did not lose a word. Mr. Clay was not only eloquent 
but amusing, and more than once made the whole 
House laugh. . . . Every person had expected him to 
be very severe on the President, and seemed rather 
disappointed by his moderation. When Mr. Clay fin- 
ished he came into the lobby for air and refreshment. 
The members crowded around him, and I imagine by 
his countenance that what they whispered must have 
been very agreeable. When he saw me he came and 
sat a few minutes by me. I told him I had come pre- 
pared to sit till evening, and was disappointed at his 
speech being so short: he said he had intended to have 
spoken longer, but his voice had given out; he had 
begun too loud and had exhausted himself. . . . The 
gentlemen are grown very gallant and attentive, and 
as it was impossible to reach the ladies through the 
gallery, a new mode was invented of supplying them 
with oranges, etc They tied them up in handkerchiefs 
to which was fixed a note indicating for whom it was 
designed, and then fastened to a long pole. This was 
taken to the floor of the house, and handed up to the 
ladies who sat in the front of the gallery. I imagine 
there were near 100 ladies there. So these presenta- 
tions were frequent and quite amusing even in the 
midst of Mr. C.'s speech. I saw the ladies near me 
were more accessible, and were more than supplied with 
oranges, cakes, etc. We divided what was brought with 
each other, and were as social as if acquainted." 

No less quotable are passages describing the 
family life of William Wirt; the excitement 
over the defeat of the now-forgotten Crawford ; 
the social upheaval which has passed into his- 
tory as the Peggy O'Neil incident; and the 
entertainments given in honor of Miss Marti- 
neau. Upon the deeper character and influence 
of the many notable men about her, Mrs. 
Smith's comments are of no great value. A 
woman's views of men and affairs are at best 
but a woman's views. But a clever woman is 
often able to see and portray the peculiar 
characteristics of an individual or an event in 
a way that is illuminating and valuable. It is 
this quality in the letters of Margaret Bayarh 
Smith that makes their publication well wprtd 

while. Sara Andrew Shafer. 

The dramatic awaksnino at Obebun, which has 
marked its current college year, gives fresh evidence 
of itself in an announcement, from the classical depart- 
ment, of a projected performance of Aristophanes s 
« Clouds " toward the end of the spring term. This 
will be the first presentation of a Greek play in English 
translation that Oberlin has seen. (How many plays in 
the original Greek Oberlin has given, we are not told.) 
It is claimed, too, that this will be << almost the first " 
performance of " The Clouds " in any American college. 




Thk Flight of Mabeb Antoinette.* 

An English translation of M. Lenotre's Lt 
Drame de Varennes appears with the title 
'' The Flight of Marie Antoinette." From the 
bookselling point of view, there is a certain 
utility in the change of title; but the words 
^' Drama of Varennes " suggest more adequately 
the spirit in which M. Lenotre has treated one 
of the most startling and tragic situations of the 
French Kevolution. Moreover, in his narrative 
the queen is not the principal figure, although 
she is inevitably the heroine. The interest is 
fixed, from beginning to end, upon the way in 
which every successive obstacle is passed by or 
broken through, until, upon the very threshold 
of security, the royal family is entangled in the 
meshes of new diffictdties, which are in part 
simply the debris of previous obstacles swept 
along in the flight. Li one sense, the English 
title is more exactly descriptive than the French ; 
for no account is given of the making of the 
plot, the theme is the denouement and the final 
catastrophe, including the humiliating return to 

Those who are acquainted with M. Lenotre's 
other work need not be reminded that he has 
used the historical method as severely in deter- 
mining each detail of the story as if he were 
engaged on a far duller task. He refers to his 
*^ sources" specifically, and is not afraid to 
insert an occasional long foot-note. But this 
method should not ahum the general reader. 
The fulness and exactness of the author's in- 
formation has not impaired his sense for the 
requirements of the story. The foot-notes are 
merely pertinent asides, to which the reader 
may refuse to listen. 

The escape from the Tuileries is perhaps the 
most interesting group of incidents in the story, 
though not the most unfamiliar, because a single 
false step might have defeated the design at 
the outset ; and yet the different members of 
the party, in spite of minor mischances, suc- 
cessfiilly carried out the rdlea assigned to them. 
The situation was rendered more hazardous by 
the necessity that the royal children be taken 
to Count Fersen's carriage before the coiLcher. 
The queen personally attended them, with 
Madame de Tourzel, passing through unused 
rooms down toward the brilliantly lighted court- 
yard, where she might be recognized. 

** They paused at the end of an empty room; through 
the hage glazed door they saw the glimmering lights 

*Tsn FtJOBT OF Maub Amonrsrnt. From the French of 
G. Lnotre. By Mrs. Bodolph Stawell. ninstrated. Phila- 
delphia : J. B. Lippinoott Oo. 

of the Carrousel and the groups of people moving in 
the court. The Queen looked out for a moment, and 
then hid herself once more in the gloom. Under the 
cold insensibility a£Fected by the legal documents, one 
can guess at the anguish that must have wrung the 
heart of Marie Thtfr^se's daughter at this fatal hour." 

But she went out, saw the children safely in 
the carriage, and ^ »g^n in her apartmLte 
by a quarter to eleven. The king's coucher 
began at eleven. Lafayette arrived fifteen 
minutes later. The king talked with him, but 
seemed preoccupied and went several times to 
the window to observe the weather. The mo- 
ment riven the kine for his escape was while 
his vaSt was undre^mg in an ad&ung toon., 
after he had assisted the king into bed and had 
drawn the curtains of the bedstead. When the 
attendant returned, he fastened to his arm a 
cord the other end 6t which was suspended on 
the curtain near the king's hand as he supposed. 
He then lay down on his own cot, '^ with his 
customary care lest he should awake his master." 
The further adventures of the family before 
they were installed in the berline are better 

If one were inquiring about the dangers of 
historical rhetoric, it would be instructive, after 
finishing M. Lenotre's story, to read Carlyle's . 
account. Carlyle's positive errors have already 
been pointed out by Mr. Oscar Browning, or 
by the l:;ecent editors of the " French Revolu- 
tion," Mr. Fletcher and Mr. Bose; but the 
trouble is not in these errors so much as in the 
total impression from the narrative, which is 
that we have here almost a comedy or farce, 
rather than a drama which is deeply pathetic. 

Among the results of M. Lenotre's special 
investigations is his conclusion about the recog- 
nition of the king. He discredits Drouet's tale, 
showing from the official report of the muni- 
cipality of Ste. M^nehould that Drouet only 
suspected the possible presence of the king and 
did not think of communicating his suspicions 
to the municipality until the carriage was gone 
an hour and a half. The king had already been 
recognized much earlier at Chaintrix, where the 
carriage arrived at half-past two in the after- 
noon. The royal family took no pains to deny 
their identity, and received the homage of the 
postmaster and his daughters. They were re- 
cognized again at Chalons, and M. Lenotre be- 
lieves that from '^this time forward the news 
of the fugitives' approach preceded them." At 
Ste. M^nehould, a barmaid spread the rumor 
that the king was going to pass ; ^^ everywhere 
the inhabitants gave signs of being already in 
an anxious and over-excited state, everywhere 



[March 1, 

they crowded along the route of the berline/' 
It was this situation, every moment growing 
more ominous, which aggravated the difficulty 
of keeping the dragoons at the place where 
BouiUe had ordered them to await the coming 
of the royal carriage. 

In one of his supplementary chapters, ^^ The 
Case of Monsieur L^nard," M. Lenotre seems 
hardly consistent with himself. He intimates 
that the alarmist reports spread by L^nard ac- 
count for the &ilure of the post horses to be at 
their station in'Varennes. In the general nar- 
rative, however, he says that the young officers 
in charge of the horses were waiting at the hotel 
Grand Monarque, watching at the open windows 
for the approach of the couriers who should 
tell them that the carriage was nearing the town. 
This statement gives the impression that there 
was a misunderstanding ; for Yalory, acting as 
courier, did not enter the town, although he 
reached it a quarter of an hour before the ber- 
line arrived. 

In the supplementary chapters may be found 
examples of the sort of work in M. Lenotre's 
previous books, including four volumes on 
Revolutionary Paris. For the lovers of a good 
story, as well as for those who wish to<8tudy 
side-lights on the Revolution, and who may not 
be able to read French, it would be fortimate 
were a selection made from these volumes for 
translation. Henry E. Bourne. 

Recent Fiction.* 

Those who are acquainted with the fascinating 
hiBtory of Marcus Ordeyne his morals will need no 
word of commendation for ^'The BelovM Vaga- 
bond." Mere announcement of the fact that Mr. 
Locke has produced another novel will be sufficient 
to set them on its traiL And they will not be dis- 
appointed, for the new story is no whit inferior to 
its predecessor, which means that it offers the same 

* Thb Bblovbd Vagabond. By William J. Locke. New 
York: John Lane Oo. 

SOPHV OP Kravonia. By Anthony Hope. New York: Harper 
St Brothers. 

Hbitbt Nobthcotb. By John OoIUb Snaith. Boston: Herbert 
B. Tomer A Oo. 

Thb Call of thb Blood. By Robert Hichens. New York: 
Harper A Brothers. 

Thb Avbnoino Hour. By H. F. Prerost Battersby. New 
York: D. Appleton A Oo. 

Chippinob Bobouoh. By Stanley J. Weyman. New York: 
McCliire. PhllUpB A Co. 

Bib Johk Constamtinb. By A. T. QuUler-Conch. New York: 
Charlee Scribner's Sons. 

Doubloons. By Eden Phlllpotts and Arnold Bennett. New 
York: McClure. PhiUipe A Co. 

Thb Whitb Plumb. By S. B. Crockett. New York: Dodd, 
Mead & Co. 

Thb Illustrious O* Hag an. By Jostin Huntly McCarthy. 
New York: Harper & Brothers. 

altogether delightful blend of invention and humor 
and booldshness and tender pathos and subtly iron- 
ical philosophy. The Vagabond is a masterpiece of 
characterization. Once known to respectability as 
Gaston de N^rac, he has long since sloughed off the 
integuments of convention, and become a joyous 
Bohemian, an oracle of the ea/l^ a peripatetic phi- 
losopher who can adapt himself to any environment 
that does not mean the submission to artificial 
restraints. The manner of his emancipation was 
this : in his early days of respectability he was be- 
trothed to an Eughsh girl, having won her from his 
rival, a French nobleman whose wealth was equalled 
by his depravity. Her father being threatened with 
disgrace, Gaston had made a quixotic bargain with 
his rival, whereby the father was to be saved, and 
the self-sacrificing lover waste disappear, apparently 
deserting his betrothed. All this took place many 
years ago. When the story opens, we find the hero 
in a London garret, and in the act of adopting a 
small boy of the slums, in whose breast he has de- 
tected a spark of genius. This boy joins his fortunes 
with those of his benefactor, receives a surprising 
education from this companionship, and becomes the 
chronicler of all that follows. The dull streets of 
London are soon exchanged for the friendly boule- 
vards of Paris and the sunny highways of France. 
There follow many adventures of a more or less 
picaresque nature, interspersed with expositions of 
the vagabond philosophy. Toward the dose, there 
is an interlude, occasioned by the death of the 
French nobleman, and his widow's discovery of the 
truth about her old-time lover. She seeks him out, 
their love is declared anew, and he makes a des- 
perate effort to become respectable once more. The 
experiment might have worked had it been con- 
ducted in Paris, but a brief sojourn in an English 
provincial town proves fatal to its success. The 
vagabond tries vainly to submit to the regimen of 
clothes and cleanliness, of abstinence and decorum, 
and makes a pathetic attempt to fit his conversation 
to the vacuous thought of his new associates. After 
a few weeks of silent martyrdom, he can endure it 
no longer, and bolts for his beloved Paris, where he 
relieves his pent-up feelings in a glorious spree and 
the congenial companionship of some amazingly 
abandoned rascals. Having thus restored his equi- 
librium, he weds a buxom peasant damsel, and 
prepares to end his days on a small farm which he 
is just able to purchase with what remains of his 
capitaL Ilfaut euUiver notre jardin becomes his 
watchword, Voltaire replacing Rabelais. What we 
have written may do well enough for an outline of 
the story, but it can convey no notion whatever of 
the character of the hero, who is one of the most 
genial and hmnan figures ever encountered within 
the pages of a book. It would take a very stern 
moralist indeed to find him, despite his obvious 
faults, anything but sympathetic and lovable in all 
the phases — even the most sordid — of his pictur- 
esque and eccentric career. 

Eravonia is a principality to be sought on the 




map somewhere in the vicinity of Zenda, and is, 
like most of the states of the mythical group to 
which it belongs, the sport of diplomatic intrigue. 
Its prince is sorely beset by enemies, but when he 
acquires a princess, in the shape of a beautiful En- 
glish maiden — transformed from a lowly maid- 
servant into a captivating adventuress — his for- 
tunes change, and he gives his foes a run for their 
money. Unhappily, he is killed just when triumph 
is at hand, and his princess goes into exile cherish- 
ing the memory of the glorious weeks of the con- 
ffict. Mr. Hope's hand has lost little of its cunning 
since the days when he invented Zenda, and his 
<< Sophy of Kravonia" is a capital story, albeit the 
type i« now ■omewhat worn. 

Mr. John ColUs Snaith is a writer comparatively 
new to fame, but his *' Henry Northcote " is a book 
to be reckoned with. It is a tragedy of ambition, 
sombre in its coloring and questionable in its mor- 
ality, but possessed of a compelling force that is far 
out of the conunon. The hero is a penniless bar- 
rister who must be described as a megalomaniac 
He is fairly bursting with the consciousness of his 
power to become a leader of men, if only oppor- 
tunity may be granted him, but is meanwhile starv- 
injg in a garret. In the lowest deep of misery, the 
coveted opportunity comes to him in the form of a 
brief, which charges him with the defence of a de- 
praved woman, a murderess whose crime v beyond 
the shadow of a doubt He conducts the defence, 
and secures her acquittal by an appeal of demonic 
eloquence to the jury. The tragedy of. the situa- 
tion is psychologiod, for he knows in his heart that 
his plea is sophistical and that his motive is sheer 
personal ambition. This consciousness turns the 
victory to dust and ashes in his mouth, and he is 
almost at the point of renouncing the brilliant posi- 
tion which his forensic triumph has won for him. 
But with a mighty resolve, he casts all scruples to 
the winds, murders the woman whose life he has 
just saved, destroys the evidence of his crime by 
boming the building in which her body lies, and 
faces the future without feeling, as far as we are 
permitted to perceive, a tinge of remorse. This does 
not make a pleasant story, but its grip is undeniable. 
It is also remarkable for the way in which it pre- 
serves the classical unities, for the entire action 
covers only a period of three days. We may add 
that no one who begins to read it will be likely to 
delay as long as that in reaching the closing page. 

The ** Call of the Blood " is a worthy successor to 
^ The Garden of AUah," hitherto the masterpiece of 
Mr. Robert Hichens. It offers the same combination 
of glowing color, picturesque setting, and psycholo- 
gi<»il interest. The scene is Sicily, which is suffi- 
cienUy tropical a country to justify the warmth of 
treatment which characterized the African romance 
first named. Mr. Hichens works up his material 
with great thoroughness, and in this case, as in the 
oither, has submitted himself to the influences of 
the environment until he has become saturated wil^ 
its spirit. His hero and heroine are both English, 

but the fom^er has a strain, of Italian blood in lus 
veins, and -it runs riot when he takes his bride to 
Sicily for the honeymoon. Instincts awake in him 
that might never have declared themselves under 
the gray English skies, and he enters into the joy- 
ous existence of the island peasants and fisher-folk 
with results that prove disastrous. The cause of 
his undoing, and of the wreck of the bride's happi- 
ness, is a girl of the people, whose unsoplusticated 
charm stin. his donnant v^us, «id finally lures 
him to death. For this inevitable outcome every 
chapter and episode of the book help to prepare 
the way, and the author, with a fine artistic mar- 
shalling of his materials, brings the long-impending 
tragedy to its appropriate climax. In respect of 
scene-painting, dramatic construction, and emotional 
force alike, the book deserves unusual praise. 

Owen Davenant, the hero of Mr. H. F. Prevost 
Battersby's <^The Avenging Hour," is on his way 
from London to South Wales, where Lord St Osyth, 
the aged kinsman from whom he expects to inherit, 
lives in a remote castle with the young wife who has 
recently accepted the offer of his hand and what 
remained of his heart The only other occupant of 
the railway carriage in which Davenant travels is a 
woman of such alluring charm that he cultivates her 
acquaintance as speedily as the circumstances will 
allow, and is fdded therein by certain fortuitous hap- 
penings, chief among which is an accident to the 
line which considerably lengthens the journev. To 
put the .matter bluntly, he has accomplished her se- 
duction before the journey's end, and then learns, to 
his consternation, tiiat they have the same destina- 
tion, and that she is no other than the wife of the 
kinsman whom he is about to visit This is a start- 
ling situation indeed, yet a situation managed with 
so much delicacy and Jiterary art as to seem far 
less shocking than it ought to seem, and of course 
really is. The next move in the game is to intro- 
duce the aged husband, and to represent him as a 
very vulgar and disagreeable person, thereby creat- 
ing a distinct prepossession in favor of his erring 
wife. This is deftly don^, but even then Davenant's 
decent instincts (for he has them) make his stay 
under that roof intolerable, and he departs on a 
military expedition to Africa, where he takes long 
chances, leads forlorn hopes, and escapes unscathed 
in accordance with the accepted conventions of this 
sort of melodrama. While thus far away news 
comes to him that St Osyth is dead, but that illict 
love has borne its fruit, and that, by the strictest 
poetic justice, his sin has become the instrument of 
his undoing, for the posthumous child is the legal 
inheritor of the estate. Still later, the child dies, 
which somehow seems to make it possible for the 
lovers to come together, and the whole miserable 
business is patched up after the fashion which was 
to be expected — at least by' the confirmed reader 
of modern sex-fiction. The teller of this story dis- 
g^uises its essential repulsiveness by a skilful use of 
the casuistry of sentiment and the grace of literary 
composition — those insidious devices by which the 



[March 1, 

modern noyelist contrives to blur every principle 
he pleases, and make almost any atrocious act seem 
ethically plausible. 

^' Chippinge Borough," Mr. Weyman's new novel, 
is not unprovided with those elements of per^ 
sonal and sentimental interest that go to the making 
of popular fiction, but it is essentially a novel of 
political history, and the Reform BUI is its real 
subject. The hazardous fortunes of that measure, 
and its ultimate triumph, are matters of such tre- 
mendous importance so vividly set forth that by 
comparison the fortunes of the rather colorless hero 
and heroine seem unexciting. It is not that these 
fig^es, and the others subsidiary to them, are badly 
done, for Mr. We3rman is too skilled a story-teller 
to g^ve us puppets for human beings; but they 
somehow tend to become accessories to an action 
which has issues far more fateful than those which 
concern any of the individuals involved. Chippinge 
is one of the rotten boroughs menaced by the Bill, 
and barely escapes being wiped off the political map. 
Its two seats have hitherto been the imdisputed 
property of one Robert Yermuyden, who is a most 
uncompromising Tory. His kinsman and putative 
heir is a yoimg man who becomes infected with 
radical notions, and is daring enough to oppose the 
Vermuyden interest by joining with the reformers. 
He is sdso sentimental enough to fall in love with a 
demure schoolmistress, which complicates patters 
a good deal, since the young woman turns out to be 
old Yermuyden's daughter, long mourned for dead. 
The tangle is straightened out, as a matter of course, 
the Bill passes the Lords, and one. of Chippinge's 
seats is saved from the wreck. Among historical 
figures, Brougham figures strikingly in the story; 
and among historical happenings, there is a fine 
picture of the Bristol riots. On the whole, we must 
congratulate the author upon what m very nearly if 
not quite the best of aU his novels. 

Corsica in the middle of the eighteenth century, 
struggling under Paoli to escape from Genoese rule, 
offers a fine field for historical romance, and Mr. 
Quiller-Couch has made the most of it in his <* Sir 
John Constantine." But Paoli is not the hero of this 
tale, for invention has come to the aid of history, 
and supplied more legitimate claimants for the 
Corsican throne in the offspring of one King Theo- 
dore, an adventurer of somewhat shady character, 
but, according to the novelist's scheme, of unques- 
tionably royal authenticity. Brought to the degra- 
dation of a debtor's prison in London, this exalted 
scapegrace obtains succor from an Englishman, Sir 
John Constantine, an old-time lover of the woman 
who, by marriage with Theodore, had become for 
a brief period Queen £milia of Corsica. He is a 
quixotic old gentleman with an only son, for whom 
he has conceived great ambitions; Between the 
exiled king and the Englishman a bargain is struck. 
Theodore declares that he has no children living 
(although he knows that he has ) and, in considera- 
tion of certain moneys, makes over to Prosper, Sir 
John's son, the royal title. There now remain only 

the invasion of Corsica, the expulsion of the Grenoese, 
and the establishment of Prosper upon the throne 
— an easy matter, in the estimation of our modem 
Don Quixote. The army of invasion (numbering 
seven in all) is collected, and sails merrily for the 
Mediterranean. A skirmish with Barbary pirates 
threatens to imperil the expedition, which, however, 
in somewhat battered condition finally lands upon 
the Corsican shores. Hardly has this haven been 
reached, when Prosper faUs into the hands of 
brigands, who turn out to be under the leadership 
of a young man and woman, brother and sister, who 
are the legitimate children of Theodore and Emilia, 
and consequently the real heirs to whatever titles 
and dignities those royal personages have the power 
to transmit. But even these young people are with- 
out honor in their native country, for suspicion 
attaches to their past, and meanwhile the Paolis are 
rallying the patriotic forces of the island to their 
own standard. So we have the situation of the 
legitimate heirs to the kingdom fugitives in the 
maoehia, and the innocent English pretender a 
captive in their hands. The plot works out by disclos- 
ing the despicable and treacherous character of the 
Prince, and the passionate and high-hearted temper 
of the Princess. The obvious solution (since his- 
torical fact does not permit either Prince or Princess 
or Pretender to achieve a throne) is for Prosper 
and the Princess to fall in love with one another 
(which they do in course of time) and in the end to 
sail away together from the distracted island. As for 
Sir John, he dies fighting the Genoese, and his end 
is no less heroic than the rest of his career. The 
other figures in the romance awaken our interest; 
he alone commands our love. 

The names of Mr. Eden PhiUpotts and Mr. 
Arnold Bennett appear conjointly upon the title- 
page of ^^ Doubloons." Reading the story, we find 
it to be the tale of a mysterious crime in London 
followed by a ^nysterious expedition to the Carib- 
bean in search of buried Spanish gold. This com- 
bination of '^Sherlock Holmes" and ^< Treasure 
Island " is pleasing in its simple fashion, but what ia 
Mr. PhiUpotts doing in that galley ? We refuse to 
associate him with so preposterous a yarn, and in- 
sist that his literary partner must be held chiefly 
responsible. The London part of the story is bet- 
ter than its sequel, and provides a thrill for every 
chapter. After a while, the complication becomes 
so great that there is nothing for it but to cut loose 
and take refuge in foreign parts. Meanwhile, all 
sorts of loose ends are left hanging, and some of 
them are not gathered up at all. 

*< The White Plume," by Mr. S. R. Crockett, 
once more drags long-suffering Henry into the lime- 
light. Among those who surround him upon the 
stage are his easy-going consort, the wicked Queen- 
mother with her flying squadron, the other and 
weaker Henry who is King of France, and the sin- 
ister Guise. Far off in Spain, the spider Philip is 
seen in his web in the Escorial, spinning the threads 
of intrigue. A prologue to the tale gives us St 




Bartholomew and the murder of Coligny. Given 
these materials, a historical romance of the conven- 
tional type makes itself, and the considerable interest 
of the present example most be attribnted in part 
only to the ingenuity of its fabricator. Still, Mr. 
Crockett has put his historical facts (duly supple- 
mented by sentimental inventions) to skilful use, 
and made the old story quite readable again. 

<' The Illustrious O'Hagan " is the title of Mr. 
Justin Huntly McCarthy's new novel, and the 
ninstrious O'Hagan is its hero. The first thing to 
be explained about this hero is that there are two of 
him — twins so closely alike that their friends can 
hardly tell them apart He (or they) became 
^* illustrious " by fighting under the French king at 
Fontenoy. Afterwards, one of him goes to the Morea 
and gets killed. The other, resting on his laurels in 
Paris, is summoned to a little Grerman principality 
to rescue a sweetheart of his youth from her brute 
of a husband. He starts blithely on the adventure, 
and is soon followed by his brother, who is conve- 
niently resuscitated at this juncture, being needed 
in the novelist's business. The scene is henceforth 
in Schlafingen, where the maiden is in sore distress, 
and where we learn that her princely husband is 
even more of a brute than we had ventured to 
anticipate. Since the O'Hagan is now doubled — 
a fact unknown to anyone but himself — he is ena- 
bled to work for her rescue in two places at once, 
which gives him a decided advantage in the game. 
Of course the rescue is effected, and then the super- 
fluous O'Hagan and the brutal prince kill each other 
in a welter of gore, which is just as well for both 
parties, since one of them is not fit to live, and the 
other is badly wanted (for a hanging matter) in 
England. Here ends our entertainment, a romantic 
one withal, and a merry. 

William Morton Payne. 

Briefs ok Nbw Books. 

Something unique in the way of war 

ifti?'«^T«i::«^llecti«'« » Mr. J. W. Munson's 

'' Remimscences of a Mosby Guer- 
rilla " (Moffat, Yard & Co. ) . Heretofore the public 
has known little of the real life of that famous war 
band commanded by John S. Mosby, who in 1864 
Greneral Grant tried to capture and hang, who in 
1872 was a political lieutenant of President Grrant, 
and in 1907 is said to be one of the advisers of 
President Roosevelt on Southern affairs. This book 
throws much light upon the character of the com- 
mand — its leader, the members, and its methods of 
warfare. There is not a word about constitutional 
theories, nothing about State Rights, no latter-day 
historical philosophizing, no description of conditions 
in the South during and after the war, nothing, in 
short, except a lively account of the fighting life of 
the Forty-third Virginia Battalion of Partisan 
Rangers, commonly known in both North and South 

as ^'Mosby's Guerrillas." The regular troops of 
the Confederacy thought that too many privileges 
were given to Mosby and his men; the Federal 
commanders thought that the Rangers ought to be 
hanged, and they did hang some of them, — but 
Mosby retaliated, and since he could hang about a 
hundred to one, he thus stopped that plan of deal- 
ing with his men. Mr.'Munson, the author of this 
book, joined the Rangers when seventeen years of 
age and served until the final surrender. Judging 
from the tone of his book, he was much in love with 
the life of the Rangers. Most of his narrative is 
about what he himself saw and took part in. He 
informs us that the chief object of Mosby, who 
operated within the Federal lines, was to secure 
information for Lee and Stuart, to protect Southern 
S3rmpathizers outside of the Confederate lines, to 
capture supplies, and to '^ annoy the enemy." In 
the latter purpose General Grant complained that 
it took 17,000 of his men to look after Mosby's 
four hundred. The region in which the Rangers 
operated embraced Fauquier and Loudoun counties^ 
about a hundred and fifty miles from Richmond, 
near the Blue Ridge Mountains. This was called 
" Mosby's Confederacy," and of Mosby's rule here 
the author says : '' During the war all local govern- 
ment in that country was suspended. . . . The 
people looked to Mosby to make the necessary laws 
and to execute them ; and no country before, during, 
.or since the war, was ever better governed. Mosby 
would not permit a man to commit a crime ... in 
his domain. One of his men, in a spirit of deviltry, 
once turned over an old Quaker farmer's milk cans, 
and when Mosby heard of it he ordered me to take 
the man over ... to Greneral Early with the mes- 
sage that such a man was not fit to be a Guerilla." 
It was a rare body of reckless young fighters whose 
exploits are chronicled in this volume. With the 
help of this description of the possibilities of guerrilla 
warfare, we may gain a conception of the service 
rendered to both South and North by General Lee 
when he refused to countenance such a method of 
prolonging the contest. The recent statements of 
Mr. Charles Francis Adams on this point have an 
added force when one thinks of the conditions that 
would have followed had there been hundreds of 
such organizations in the remote districts of the 

A taster and * '^^® non-professional critic is likely 
reiuher of the to be fresher and more inspiring in 
b€9t luertuure, relating his adventures among books 
than is the practised writer on the same themes, 
with all his critical apparatus of gauges and stand- 
ards and measurements and tests, his stereotyped 
phrases, and the approved cant and jargon of his 
calling. Mr. Bradford Torrey, like his fellow na- 
turalist, Mr. John Burroughs, can chat to us as 
pleasantly about books as about birds. His ^^ Friends 
on the Shelf" (Houghton, Mifiiiu & Co.) is chiefly 
a reprint of '^ Atlantic" essays on literary subjects, 
taking its title from FitzGerald's words in one of 



[Maich 1, 

his letters, " I must get back to my friends on the 
shelf." He treats of Hazlitt, FitzGerald, Thoreau 
(most admirably, of course), Stevenson, Keats, M. 
Anatole France, sundry matters of style, traTcllers' 
notebooks, and our alleged lack of a national litera- 
ture. An enamored reader, he writes with a charm- 
ing disclaimer of being anything but a taster and 
relisher. But " self-dispraise goes little ways," as 
the essayist himself admits, and " the good critic is 
he who narrates the adventures of his own mind in 
its intercourse with masterpieces," says M. Anatole 
France, as quoted by Mr. Torrey. Some little mat- 
ters to quarrel over might easily be singled out. For 
instance, when the writer declares that FitzGerald 
« meant to be obscure," is he indisputably in the 
right ? We all know that our £nglish Omar cared 
not for ^^rank and office and title, and all the 
solemn plausibilities of the world "; but in recalling 
his repeated self-depreciation and his frequent hu- 
morous references to the great world's disregard 
of his literary and critical endowments, one should 
also remember that (to quote Mr. Torrey in another 
connection) 'Hhe more considerable a man's gifts, 
the more likely he is to speak disparagingly of 
them." A keen sense of the mocking irony of fate 
in snatching from our reach the very prize we most 
covet and seem to ourselves (in secret) most to 
deserve, is not exactly the same as a deliberate re- 
solve never to win that prize. In his blunt bidding 
of his friends to do no more than acknowledge the 
receipt of his little books, unless they found some- 
thing to censure, may be detected FitzGrerald's rec- 
ognition of the perilous sweetness of praise. The 
naturalist peeps forth, welcomely, in many a passage 
of Mr. Torrey's, as for example — a good quotation 
to end with — "If a man is not greater than the 
greatest thing' he does, the less said about him and 
them the better. His work should drop from him 
like fruit from a tree. Henceforth let the world 
look after it, if it is worth looking after. The tree 
should have other business." 

Some ttudiet What constitutes the vagabond poet 
ofiuerary or essayist or story-writer? In his 

vaoabondt. y^fc, " The Vagabond in Literature " 

(Dutton), Mr. Arthur Rickett declares the charac- 
teristic qualities to be restlessness, a passion for the 
earth, and constitutional reserve ; and the writers 
whom he finds especially marked by these attributes 
are Hazlitt, De Quincey, Borrow, Thoreau, Stevenson, 
Jefferies, and Whitman. He distinguishes between 
bohemianism and vagabondage, and though some of 
his distinctions and definitions seem strained, and 
many of his opinions are expressed with the finality 
and certainty of scientific truths, the essays on his 
chosen seven authors are good as literary apprecia- 
tions from a particular point of view, and are likely 
to send more than one reader ba<^ again to the 
imperishable pages of the writers discussed. Mr. 
Rickett now and then splits hairs, as in calling De 
Quincey " a simple nature and a complex tempera- 
vjpent." He speaks of " the frank confidence of his 

Confessions" — as if ingenuous simplicity could 
anywhere be found in the rhetorical De Quincey, — 
but later admits that "the difference between the 
editions of De Quincey's ' Opium Eater ' is sufficient 
to show how the dreams have expanded under 
popular approbation." Of the writing of essays on 
Thoreau there is no end in sight. A litde search 
discovers half a hundred by authors of more or less 
repute in English and American books and maga- 
zines, besides the increasing number of formal bio- 
graphies. In this field Mr. Rickett says nothing 
strikingly new, but he says enough to betray his 
own unfamiliarity with Thoreau's haunts, if not 
even with his books. We read that " Thoreau turned 
his back on civilization, and found a new joy of 
living in the woods at Maine." The three brief 
excursions into Maine, as related in "The Maine 
Woods," are apparently confused with the sojourn 
at Walden. The expression, " the woods at Maine," 
occurs again later. Perhaps Maine is thought to be 
the town in which Walden Pond lies. Even gram- 
matical slips occur in this unfortunate essay, as 
"The riotous growth of eccentricities and idiosyn- 
crasies are picturesque enough "; and, with a reck- 
less piling up of perfect tenses, "But one would 
have liked to have heard much more about them." 
Borrow is " six foot three " in height These agree- 
able essays are not epoch-making — how few books 
are ! — but they offer many a page of good reading, 
none the worse for being on well-worn themes. 

studieain "^^^ publishers of Professor W. I. 

the evolution Thomas's volume of studies in the 
of Woman, social psychology of sex, "Sex and 

Society" (University of Chicago Press), have 
thought it desirable to issue with it a statement that 
the press notices commenting upon its concluding 
chapter (which appeared earlier in periodical form) 
have caused it to be misinterpreted in the direction 
of an ungallant appraisal of the mentality of the 
gentler and more sensitive sex. It is most unfortu- 
nate that the insatiable reporter should have seized 
upon this nuiterial for plying his sensational trade ; 
but since he has done so it is pertinent to state that 
Professor Thomas's volume is a sober and for the 
most part objective study of the influences shaping 
the life of woman, particularly among primitive 
peoples in the longer reaches of uncivilized man- 
kind. So far as deductions go, the conclusion is at 
least equally direct that with the removal of these 
^ anthropological " disabilities the mental powers of 
the feminine mind will be released to a freer and 
fuller expression of its- capabilities. Apart from 
this concluding chapter, which is indeed open to 
criticism as maintained upon a less consistent plan 
of exposition than pervades the others, the volume 
consists of a group of carefully elaborated and well 
sustained essays upon the organic differences of the 
sexes, the rdle of sex in primitive social control, 
social feeling, industry, morality, family life, and 
the evolution of modesty ; while the trend of the 
argument is best brought to a focus in the very in- 




terestii^ olutpter upon the adventitioiM eharacter of 
wonuui. In tJiese delicate fields, amontr mooted data 
«Kl con.pic»oa. temptation, to'hastjr fnf erence and 
oonvenient though misleading formukD, Professor 
Thomas moves with an expert discernment, discloses 
many a shortcoming in prevalent doctrine, and builds 
up a consistent objective picture of woman's s6cio- 
logical status. Sociology is a new science, and by 
itB invasion of a field in which all who run may 
read, and aU who read may write or argue, is beset 
with peculiar liability to misinterpretation which 
may take the shape of ridicule. Professor Thomas 
sbcMild not be held responsible for the vagaries com- 
mitted under the name of his science,, nor for the 
popular distortion to which his views and his subject- 
matter lend themselves. 


The Westward movement, which in 
spite of its preeminent importance 
has only recently begun to receive 
the attention that it should have from students of 
the history of our country, is narrated in a pleasant 
popular manner by Mr. Archer Butler Hulbert in 
his ^'Pilots of the Republic: The Romance of the 
Pioneer Promoter in the Middle West" ( McClurg). 
As the title indicates, this movement of our popu* 
lation and institutions across the Alleghanies and 
into the farther West is characterized and described 
through accounts, which may originally have been 
popular lectures, of some of the leading " promoters '* 
of these various expeditions or enterprises, — those 
heroes and patriots who personally led these pioneer 
undertakings and endured their toils and dangers, 
or those who, hardly less heroes and no less patriots, 
inspired others to undertake the forward movement 
of our national expansion and to suffer in many 
cases the fate of pioneers. These men are well 
worth reading about, and any book that can make 
them live again for us of a quieter and less adventur- 
ous time is a useful one. The *' promoters " whom 
Mr. Hulbert includes are : Washington, the story of 
whose life-long interest in the West and untiring 
efforts to open it to settlement and commerce make 
the most interesting chapter in the book ; Richard 
Henderson, the founder of Transylvania, that first 
invasion of the red men's country west of the 
Alleghany mountains ; Ruf us Putnam, the father of 
Ohio; IHivid Zeidberger, the devoted missionary; 
George Rogers Clark ; Henry Clay, the promoter of 
the Cumberland Road ; Morris and Clinton, fathers 
of the Erie Canal ; Thomas and Mercer, rival pro- 
moters of raOway- and canal farther south ; Lewis 
and Clark; Astor, the promoter of Astoria; and 
Marcos Whitman of Oregon. Sixteen portraits add 
value and interest to the book. 

-«r&«f^^^«.# Professor Graziano Paolo Clerici's 
scandal of the ^^11 ptu Lufigo Scandolo del Seeolo 
imh eetuury." XTX.," which appeared about three 
years ago in Italy, has been translated and supple- 
mented by Mr. Frederic Chapman, and handsomely 
poblishedf with many portraits, by Mr. John Lane 

under the title, " A Queen of Indiscretions." Lives 
of Queen Caroline, ill-starred consort of Greorge IV., 
there were already in abundance ; but it appears 
that Signer Clerici has had access to hitherto unused 
^ Italian records, both in public departments and in 
private ownership." Consequently his pages pre» 
sent fresh incidents that may modify opinion as to 
the guilt or innocence of the indiscreet lady who so 
narrowly escaped conviction of something worse 
than indiscretion. The Italian author's severity of 
judgment is balanced by the £nglish editor's lenity ; 
and between the two Caroline comes off rather as 
frivolous and frail than as deliberately profligate 
and licentious. The poor foolishly-reared girl was 
by no means a Messalina of wickedness. The mys- 
tery of her early separation from her royal spouse 
remains a mystery still, though the author attempts 
an explanation by comparing Greorge IV. in certain 
emotional and physiological respects to Rousseau, 
and by finding in both (as he thinks) a congenital 
defect incapacitating them for marriage. Even the 
Princess Charlotte's alleged resemblance to her sup- 
posed father is not allowed to invalidate this fanciful 
theory. The English reader well versed in his naval 
history will note the vague reference to Admiral 
Sir William Sidney Smith as ^*a certain Sydney 
Smith." The index calls him " Captain Sir Sydney 
Smith "; but under his portrait the name is correctly 
given. The index, by the way, is evidently not the 
work o} an expert, its entries being unwisely chosen 
and grouped, and the page references inexact. Under 
'< Pergami, Bartolomeo," for instance, at least four 
page numbers lead one astray. There is a lack, too, 
throughout the narrative, of definite acknowledg- 
ment of sources; the reader follows his author 
blindly. Fifty-seven portraits and portrait-groups 
are interspersed. 

Art of the Again Mr. H. B. Walters comes be- 

ancient fore the reading world with a book 

Greeks. ^^^ ought to be highly valuable, and 

again that world has good reason to be disappointed. 
In ''The Art of the Greeks," no less than in his 
'' History of Ancient Pottery," the author falls far 
short of his opportunity. The best of the books in 
the same field is now a decade old, and a decade 
makes great changes in the facts and theories of 
archaeology in such an excavating age as ours. 
The new work is far more imposing than the older 
one, more handsome and ambitious; but it takes 
no account of the Kaufmann head in discussing 
the Cnidian Aphrodite of Praxiteles. It dismisses 
FurtwUngler's monumental work at Aeg^na with 
the remark, ''A few additions have been made 
from the recent excavations, but nothing of special 
importance." It says of the Famese BuU, that 
'' It was removed to Rome and there preserved to 
this day," when even the most casual visitor to the 
Naples Museum any time these eighty years must 
have seen that conspicuous group, whatever else 
may have escaped him. Such faults are hard to 
excuse; but the numerous and handsome illustra- 



[Majch 1, 

tions do what they can by way of oompensation. 
They are of unusual value, both because of their 
excellence and their yariety, and because they repro- 
duce many subjects not otherwise easily accessible 
to the general public Among such old-time faTor- 
ites as the Aphrodite from Melos, the LaocoOn, and 
the victory from Samothrace, are pictures less often 
seen. Reproductions of vases and of such bronzes 
as the charioteer from Delphi, the youth dredged 
up near the island of Cythera, and Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan's Eros, are so rare except in books designed 
for specialists that it is gratifying to find so many 
and such good ones in this work of more popuhur 
character. The type is in its way as pleasing to the 
eye as the pictures are in theirs. The publishers 
(Macmillan) have produced such a charming book 
in all external respects that it seems a pity it should 
not be equally satisfying to the mind of the classical 

ak^tcheii^the " Life m Ancient Athens," by ^^ 
golden period T. G. Tucker, Prof essor of Classical 
of Athenian Hfe. PhUology in the University of Mel- 
bourne, is the latest of the Macmillan ^'Handbooks 
of ArchjBology and Antiquities." The volume 
is a treatise on Athenian life at its most attract- 
ive period — that is, roughly speaking, the cen- 
tury beginning with 440 B. c. — and i6 presented 
in an easy, readable " f ootnoteless " form for the 
general reader, although the author endei^vors to 
incorporate the results of even the most recent in- 
vestigations. The first sixteen chapters treat of 
such subjects as Public Buildings, Citizens, Out- 
landers, Slaves, Women, Social Day of a Typical 
Citizen, Army and Navy, Festivals, and the Thear 
tre. The seventeenth chapter deals with the Modem- 
ness of the Athenians. The eighty-five illustrations 
are generally well chosen and modem, although not 
a few of them are pretty familiar — the restoration 
of the Acropolis, for instance, being our old friend 
from Schreiber's AUas. The general style may be 
characterized in the author's words as "the oppo- 
site of pedantic, utilizing any vivacities of method 
which are consistent with truth of fact"; and it must 
be admitted that these vivacities are sometimes of 
questionable felicity. On the whole, the volume 
achieves its modest aim, which at once disarms 
criticism; but it rather suffers from the inevitable 
comparison with some of the other members of the 
same series, as Professor Ernest Grardner's admir- 
able " Handbook of Greek Sculpture," or Professor 
A. H. J. Greenidge's concise presentation of " Roman 
Public Life." ■ 

A volume ^^X ^^^^7 ^anny (Walpole) 

of' trifiinp Nevill, daughter of the third Earl of 

reminUeeneet.*' Orfopd ( second creation ), and widow 
of the late Reginald Nevill, has published her 
"Reminiscences" (Longmans) — "this volume of 
trifling reminiscence " she modestly styles the book 
in her dedication to the Marquis of Abergavenny 
— and her son, Mr. Ralph Nevill, has acted as her 
editor. Though she begins her book with her birth, 

she, woman-like, omits to record when she was bom; 
nor does she present anything like a full account of 
her life, but touches lightly and pleasantly, some- 
times wittily, on persons and events that have in- 
terested her. Among her favorite pursuits are to 
be noted the collecting of old hand-made buttons, 
and the practice of horticulture, wood-carviag, and 
book-illumination. WeU-disposed toward America 
because she has always found American visitors 
" courteous, clever, and altogether most attractive," 
she yet cannot forgive us for luring Sir Purdon 
Clarke over to New York to preside over the 
Metropolitan Museum. A clever charaeterizaiion 
of the Greville Memoirs is quoted by her: " It is as 
if Judas Iscariot wrote the lives of the twelve 
Apostles"; also Sir William Harcourt's comment on 
his son's marriage : " I have but one objection — 
that I could not marry the bride myself." The 
writer thinks the purchasing power of money 
greater now than in her youth — which, if it be 
true, cannot long remain so with prices advancing 
at the present rate. Of a very tall custodian at the 
Munich Glyptothek she says, " He might, indeed, 
have been a soldier in the great Frederick's famous 
regiment of giants ! " It was the great FrederidL's 
father, Frederick William, who collected giants ; the 
son attached more value to brain than brawn. A 
portrait of Lady Dorothy, from a crayon drawing, 
is provided as frontispiece. 

"'Pevchology ^* ^ ^'^ ^^® ^*® ®^ *^® t&nn as ap- 
ofReiigioue plied to Professpr Pratt's study of 
Belief," religious belief, to say that it pre- 

sents a very sane attitude toward the complex data 
involved. Its sanity consists of a wholesome and 
equally a discerning determination to view the facts 
as they are, and as finding an illumination in the 
teachings of modern psychology as embodied in the 
modem man. The sustaining position of the thesis 
is that religious belief, conformably to the status of 
belief as a psychological product, presents itself in 
three forms which are concisely formulated as the 
religion of primitive credulity, the religion of 
thought, and the religion of feeling. The psycho- 
logical foundation of the former is reached in the 
inevitable unanalysed attitude of the psychic novice, 
the child or the savage, — that of acceptance, of 
reaction in a positive and simple manner to the 
situations of life. Among these are beliefs as well 
as customs ; and thus tradition and the reliirion of 
primitive crediditjr are formed and pre«w!^ With 
experience comes reason, analysis, and doubt; and 
in the positive religious field, dogma and theology. 
Yet underlying all is the true motive that makes 
mystics of some, brings conversion to others, and 
engenders prayer, devotion, and the sensitiveness to 
the eternal mysteries. These phases are exemplified 
in the great historical religions, as well as in the 
unf oldment of every thoughtful life. They are rein- 
forced in a somewhat novel manner in the present 
volume by an analysis of the responses to a religious 
^' questionaire." The author believes strongly in the 




temperamental and emotional aatnre of the religious 
ezperieBeey whioh in a measure has thus an organic 
foundation in the snbconseious mode of reaction to 
the elemental psychic stimulL As a simple and direct 
presentation of reli^^ous-mindedness, the essay is to 
be conmiended. (Macmillan.) 

Roeiuand That a new edition of Dr. Greorge 

thHr ehamoe P. Merrill's '< Rocks, Bock Weather- 
iPiio wilt. j„g^ mnj g^Qg »» jg called for speaks 

for the continued usefulness of this well-known 
hook. The present edition (Macmillan) follows 
dosely the plan of the first one published in 1897. 
As before, the work is essentifdly a compilation. 
There has been yery little attempt to harmonize 
conflicting views, and almost none at independent 
interpretation. The pages devoted to rocks and 
to soils reflect current views rather than suggest 
new ones. The chapters devoted to rock-weathering 
are the best in the book, and constitute in the 
aggregate our most authoritative treatise on this 
subject. In them Dr. Merrill gives the results of 
personal investigations^ and is at his best. His con- 
tusions are interesting and suggestive, but subject 
to all the doubt incident to the necessity of making 
in each case a first assumption as to the stability 
of some one element in the rock. The fact that 
the element chosen differs with each rock indicates 
that there is no great certainty as to this assump- 
tion. The book is especially useful to readers who 
desire a knowledge of the general facts and princi- 
ples involved in the study of rocks and their change 
into soils. 


Mr. Booker T. Washiagton's biography of Frederick 
Doaglaas, promised last year by Messrs. George W. 
Jaeobs ft Co. for the ** Amerioan Crisis Biographies," 
but uavoidably delayed, is to be issued this month. 

Professor W. H. Crawshaw has prepared a new work 
entitled «The Making of English Literature," which 
Messrs. D. C. Heath ft Co. will soon publish. The vol- 
ume eoven the whole field chronologically, bat gives a 
greater part of its space to the more significant authors, 
who are appreciatively interpreted. 

The SQocess of Mr. Arthnr Christopher Benson's 
«• Upton Letters," "From a College Window," and 
other books, has led to the reprinting of some of his 
earlier work. An entirely new book by Mr. Benson, 
entitled ** Beside StiU Waters," will be published this 
montli by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

Professor Charles £. Garmaa, who died last month, 
completed last June twenty-five years' service as teacher 
of ^uloeophy in Amherst College. In commemora- 
tion of that oocasion, thirteen of his former pupils 
presented him with a book entitled << Studies in Philos- 
ophy and Psychology," which they prepared and pub- 
Ibked thron|^ Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin ft Co. 

Two years ago, Mr. Arlo Bates gave at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois a series of " Talks on Teaching Litera- 
ture.** The book now published with that title by Messrs. 
Houghton, Mifflin ft Co. contains the substance of those 
^ Talks," eonaiderably elaborated for publication. It is 

a very interesting and suggestive book, and we particu- 
larly recommend to the teachers into whose hands it 
falls the chapter whioh tells how Blake's « Tiger" was 
brought by the author within the comprehension of a 
boy of eight. We have rarely seen as sensible a book 
upon the subject with which it deak. 

The April issue of ** Putnam's Monthly " will contain 
the opening chapters of a three-part serial by Mr. 
Maurice Hewlett, author of «The Forest Lovers," 
« Little Novels of Italy," ete. It is a romance entitled 
"The Coxmtess of Picpus," and records the stirring 
adventures of Captain Brazenhead in a picturesque 
period of French lustory. 

Commander Peary's complete story of his great Aro- 
tio expedition which made a new world's record and 
planted the Stars and Stripes <* farthest north," will 
be published by Messrs. Doubleday, Page ft Company 
this month under the title of « Nearest the Pole." 
There will be an introduction by President Roosevelt, 
and the work wiU be adequately illustrated from the 
collection of 1,200 photographs taken by Commander 

In addition to £. Phillips Oppeaheim's new book, 
« The Malefactor," Messrs. Little, Brown ft Co.'s early 
publications include novels by Greorge Frederic Turner, 
an Rnglish author; Arthur Stringer, who wrote '* The 
Wire Tappers "; Anna Chapin Ray, whose romances of 
modem Quebec are well known; Eliza Calvert Hall, 
a Kentucky writer; John H. Whitson, who has forsaken 
Western scenes for the East; Ellis Meredith, a Colorado 
author; and Lucy M. Thurston, who wrote ** A Girl of 

Mr. M. S. Levussove's mononaph upon the work of 
E. M. Lilien, published by Mr. B. W. Huebsch, wiU en- 
able the reader to comprehend the motive of an artist 
inspired by the national renascence of the Jews as 
expressed in the modem Zionistic movement. - Four- 
teen reproductions from the black and white designs of 
this artist, whose manner reflects that of the Munich 
<< Secessionists," bear witness to a symbolism at once 
lucid and forcible, and to the optimistic confidence for 
the future of the Jews as an agricultural race in Pales- 
tine. The work will appeal alike to those who have an 
interest in the rejuvenation of an ancient race, and to 
those who wiU be attracted by a technique suggestive 
of the skill of Japanese decorators and of the European 
masters of Une-work. 

Longfellow's inaugural address at Bowdoin College, 
delivered by hun, September 2, 1830, as professor of 
modem languages, has just been published by the Bow- 
doin College Library in a limited edition of 250 copies, 
and may be obtained from Librarian Greorge T. Little, 
Brunswick, Maine, for two dollars (cloth-bound) or 
three dollars (in full flexible leather). This address, 
on the ** Origin and Growth of the Laag^nages of 
Southern Europe and of their Literature," was given 
soon after the young Longfellow's return from abroad, 
where he had been fitting himself for the chair estab- 
lished for him at his college. It was his first extended 
essay in prose, it <^ers a comprehensive survey of its 
subject, and it also illustrates the writer's attitude 
tov^ud literature and poetry. Brief extracts appeared 
in the well-known biography of the poet by his brother, 
but this is the first pubhoation of the address in full. 
Printed from the autograph manuscript, it makes a 
volume of 130 pages, four inches by seven. It is a 
book that should appeal to collectors as well as to 
Longfellow lovers. 



[Mareh 1, 

IjIST of New Books. 

[The following list^ containing ^8 titleg, includes hooke 
received by Thb Dial since its last issue,] 


The LifB of the SmiveM Buffenle. By Jane T. Btoddsrt. 

Third edition ; with photogravtire portraits, large 8yo, uncat, 

pp. 811. E. P. Datton & Go. I8. net. 
Heroines of French Society, in the Oonrt. the Bevolntion, 

the Empire, and the Restoration. By Mrs. Beame. Bins., 

largeSyo, gilt top, pp.486. E. P. Datton & Go. 
Ky Life ae an Indian : The Btory of a Bed Woman and a 

White IdUtn in the Lodges of the Blackfeet. By J. W. Schnltz. 

nius., l2mo, pp. 426. Donbleday. Page & Oo. 11.60 net. 
^ulntin Hogg : A Biography. By Ethel M. Hogg; with Pre- 
face by the Dnke of Argyll. Popular edition ; with portrait, 

8yo, pp. 419. £. P. Datton & Oo. $1.60 net. 
Henry Wadeworth Iiongfbllow : A Sketch of his Life. By 

Charles Eliot Norton. Together with Longfellow's Chief 

Autobiographical Poems. With portrait, 12mo, pp. 121. 

Hooghton, Mifflin St Oo. 76 cts. net. 
Amerigo VeepnocL By Frederick A. Ober. With portraits, 

12mo, pp. 268. " Heroes of American History." Harper & 

Brothers. 11. net. 

The Biee and Decline of the Netherlands : A Political and 

Economic History and a Stody in Practical Statesmanship. 

By J. Ellis Barker. Laige Svo. gilt top. pp. 478. E. P. Datton 

St Oo. 18.60 net. 
Ontoome of the Oivil War, 1883-1886. By James Kendall 

Hosmer, LL.D. With portrait and maps, 8to, gilt top. 

" American Nation." Harper St Brothers. $2. net. 

The Heart of Hamlet's Kyetery. Trans, from the German 

of Karl Werder by Elizabeth Wilder; with Introduction by 

W. J. Rolfe. 12mo, gilt top, pp. 228. O. P. Putnam's Sons. 

11.80 net. 
Ifettere to Toim^ and Old. By Mrs. O. W. Earle. Svo, 

pp.884. E. P. Button & Co. $2.60 net. * 

The Steps of Life : Further Essays on Happiness. By Carl 

Hilty; trans, by Melvin Brandow. with Introduction by 

Francds O. Peabody. 12mo, gilt top. pp. 284. Macmillan Co. 

$1.26 net. 
The Anoestry of Ohanoer : A Dissertation. By Alfred Allan 

Kern. Laige 8vo, pp. 168. Baltimore: Lord Biiltimor^ Press. 

The BhetOTJo of John Donne's Verse ; A Dissertation. By 

Wightman Fletcher Melton. Laige 8yo, pp. 209. Baltimore: 

J. H. Furst Oo. Paper. 


Poems. By Allan Brant. 12mo. gilt top, uncut, pp. 80. Oorham 
Press. $1. 

The Frooeasional : A Paan. By G^eorge Gordon. 12mo. Gk>r- 
ham.Press. H. 

The Jewels of King Art.' By James Connolly. 12mo, pp. 60. 
Gtorham Press. |1*26. 

The Dream of HelL By O. Wilson Duley. 12mo, pp. 82. Oor- 
ham Press. $1. 


The Kinsman. By Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 12mo, gilt top, 

pp. 884. Macmillan Co. HJH). 
Prisoners of Fortune: A Tale of the Massachusetts Bay 

Colony. By Ruel Perley Smith. With frontispiece, 12mo, 

pp.882. L. C.Page &Oo. HJSO. 
The Dnst of Conflict. By Harold Bindloss. Illus. in color, 

12mo, pp. 821. Frederick A. Stokes Co. 11.60. 
The Sweetest Bolaoe. By John BandaL 12mo, pp. 881. E. P. 

Button St Co. $1.60. 
The Casre. By Charlotte T^er. 12mo, pp. 840. D. Appleton 

&Co. HJH). 
The Issue: A Story of the Biver Thames. By Edward Noble. 

12mo, pp. 407. Doubled^y, Page St Co. 11.60. 
A Draught of the Blue, together with An Essence of the 

Dusk. Trans, from the Original Manuscripts by F. W. Bain. 

Illus.. Sto, gilt top, pp. 288. G. P. Putnam's Sons< 11.60. 
Memoirs of Arthur Hamilton. B.A., of Trinity College. 

Cambridge. By Arthur Christopher Benson. New edition; 

12mo, gilt top, pp. 226. Henry Holt & Co. 11.26. 
Where the Bainbow Touches the Qround. By John 

Henderson Miller. With frontispiece, 12mo. pp. 268. Funk 

&WagnallsCo. 11. 


The American 8oene. By Henry James. Sro, gOt top, pp. 

448. Harper St Brothers. $8. net. 
The Desert and the Sown. By Gertrude Lowthian BelL 

Blus. in color, etc., large Svo, uncut, pp. 840. E. P. Button St 

Oo. $6. net. 


Van Dydk. By Lionel Oust. M. V. O. lUus. in photogravure. 

etc, 12 mo, gilt top, pp. 162. " Great Masters in Painting and 

Sculpture." Macniillan Oo. 11.76. 
Whistler: Notes and Footnotes and Other Memoranda. By A. 

E. G. Illus. in photogravure, color, etc., large Svo, pp. 96. 

New York: The Collector and Art Critic Co. 
Felix Mendelssohn; Thirty Piano Compositions. Edited by 

Percy Goetschius; with Preface by Daniel Gregory Msson. 

4to. pp. 187. *' Musicians Library." Oliver Ditson Oo. 11.60. 

The Control of a Boourge; or. How Osncer is Curable. By 

Charles P. Childe, B. A. Large Svo, pp. 280. E. P. Button St 

Co. $2.60 net. 
The Hygiene of Kind* By T. S. Clouston, M.D. Second 

edition ; illus.. large Svo. pp. 284. E. P. Dutton St Co. iBJSOnet. 
Infant Kortality: A Social Problem. By George Newman, 

M. D. Large Svo. pp. 866. E. P. Dutton & Oo. IB JO net. 
The Children of the Nation: How their Health and Vigour 

Should Be Promoted by the State. By Sir John S. Gorst. 

Large Svp, pp. 297. E. P. Dutton St Co. 12.60 net. 

The World Kaohlne: The First Phase of the Cosmic Mecdi- 
anism. By Carl Snyder. Illus., large Svo. pp. 488. Long- 
mans, Green St Co. 92.60 net. 

The Beligious Conception of the World: An Essay in Con- 
structive Philosophy. By Arthur Bjenyon Sogers, PhJ>. 
12mo, gilt top. pp. 284. Macmillan Co. 1^.60 net. 


Birds Every Child Should Know: The East. By Neltje 
Blanchan. lUus., 12mo. pp. 281. Doubleday, Page St Oo. 
$1.20 net. 

Good Hunting: In Pursuit of Big Game in the West. By 

• Theodore Boosevelt. Blus., 12mo, pp. 107. Harper St Brothers. 

Sea Tarns for Boys: Spun by an Old Salt. By W. J. Hen- 
derson. Illus., 12mo, pp. 196. Harper St Brothers. 80 cts. 


The Teaching of Kathematics in the Elementary and the 
Secondary Schools. By J. W. A. Young, Ph.D. Svo, pp. 
861. ** American Teachers' Series.*' Longmans, Green St Oo. 


Christian Soienoe. By Mark Twain. Illus., Svo. pp. 882 

Harper St Brothers. 1^.76. 
Baoe Prejudice. By Jean Finot; trans, by Florence Wade 

Evans. Large Svo. uncut, pp. 820. B. P. Dutton &Oo. 
The Criminal Froseoution and Capital Punishment of 

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A. C McClurg & Co., Publishers, Chicago 

156 THE DIAL [March 16, 

A. C. McClurg & Co. 's Spring List, ipoy 




With many full- The wonderful Campanile of San Gabriers, the cloister courts of Santa Barbara. 

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J. C. McClurg & Co,, Publishers, Chicago 

l»07.] THE DIAL. 167 

A. C. McClurg & Co. 's Spring List, ipoy 


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[March 16, 



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[Mareli 1, 

A thrilling noyel of a great loye which endured through tragedy and money madness. It ia a 

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^ by J. W. ScHULTZ. It is an animated and vivid 

picture of Indian life — a remarkable study of human nature in red. Illustrated from photo- 
graphs. $1.65 postpaid. 

nrho p 1*1 Vfl \^j^ rS Here is a rattling yam by H. B. Maiuuott WaTSOK, who wrote 

« Hurricane Island." It is the story of the fight between two unscru- 
pulous stock gamblers for the possession of a charming English girl who, unknown to herself, 
is the heiress to the controlling interest in an American railroad. Illustrated by Cyrus Cuneo. 

A Sovereifirn Remedy ™* ^^ ^^ *^^ ^^^'^^ ^™°^ 

* •^ Face of the Waters," has real Utorar 

author of **• On the 
Waters," has real literary distinction. Tkt 
SpecUOor (London), says: «It is written with all of Mrs. Steel's brilliance of coloring and 
felicity of phrase. The atmosphere of the Welsh valley is finely reproduced, and we have read 
few descriptions more full of idyllic beauty than the first picture of Aura's home,"' 91.50. 

nphg F^jf^G^ dfl.irn ^ ^^ novel, by M. Hamilton, a young girl, beautiful but unde- 
veloped, has married the local aristocrat — purely for money. 
The story then deals with the true meaning of love and marriage, with a breathless climax 
which cannot fail to interest and impress. 91.50. 

Bett i na « » man w stimdiiig at the ferry and b suddenly greeted by a eharming girl he Ui 

never met and told to run for the boat with her, u it fair to expect that he should 
sternly undeceive the young lady who has mistaken him for an expected chum of her brother ? 
A delightfully humorous tale by Elbanok Hott Brainerd, author of the " Nancy " books. 
lUustrated by Will Gref^. 91.25. 


Issue " ^^ ^^ ^ ^'* Edward Noble'b element. He vrrites of the sea and ships and 

men in the ships with the instinctive grace and grip that are apparent in a 

sailor's movements on a rolling vesseL . 
may be." — The Academy, 91.50. 


. . It grips, and its grip is rough, sa a sailor's grip 


-«-« vS/ •*— w """^ 

D o u B I p.DAY Page &^Ca 

lU-iM-ts) East leTf SrmBT.NBWYbm 





This is the flnt foil Mooimt of Com- iff qUR GEOGRAPHICAL LIBRARY 

mander Peary's great aehieTement of 

phnting the American flag nearest the COlTltnander R. E. PEARY'S 

Pole. It 18 a thrilling recital of modem 

beroiBm, full of the Yigor and strength ** NCarCSt tHC PoIc'' 

of a leader of men. Dliutrationa se- 

leeted from a fine collection of 1200 photographs taken by the author, besides seyeral maps 

and. a frontispiece in color. Beady about March t6, 84.80 net. Postage 34 cents. 

This is the first complete and up-to-date work on the North HPhA Dfin't'llfi T^OOlC 

American reptiles. Eyeiy species of Norik American serpent w ^1^ 

rqirewenUd by a photography eixi/e^i^t two that inhabit practically By RAYMOND L. DITMARS 

inaooessible parts of the Colorado Desert. The 8 plates in color 

and the 126 black and white from photographs, excel anything now existing on the subject. 

Uniform with « The Tree Book." $4.34 postpaid. 

Here U an ideal vol- gj^g EvCfy Child ShOUld KnOW-ThC EaSt 

une m the successful *^ 

series of Poems, Songs, By NBLTJB BLANCHAN 

Fairy Tales, etc., 

" Every Child Should Know." It is written by the author of « Bird Neighbors '*; and the 
hundred pictures of live birds were taken by the foremost nature photographers in the 
conntiy. 91.32 postpaid. 

Fruit Recipes 

A unique book on the uses of fruits as food. The author not only 

shows the unappreciated value of fruit, but gives 900 different 

recipes for fruit dishes and drinks. No former volume has ever ^y ^* ^- PLBTCMER BERRY 

given such a complete and suggestive collection. Illustrated from photographs. 91.65 postpaid. 

A little book of common sense for the health of those work- HPh A Pf f ifTlfifl't' I if fi 

ing in cities, accepting the fact that we're here to do things, 

that most of us must live under intense strains. Dr. Gulick ^^ ^^* *- ^* ^VL^^K 

shows convincingly how to secure efficiency and to work with health and happiness. 

91.32 postpaid. 






A faithful portrayal of rural life in the Blue GraM cowktry, abounding in humor, pathos and homespun 
philosophy. The character drawing is excellent. Every one u sure to loye delightful Aunt Jane and her 
neighbors, her quilts and her flowers, her stories and her quaint, tender philosc^hy. 

Illustrated by Beulah Strono. 12mo, 91^. 



Like the aathor's oHffinal novel. " The Wire Tappers." this 
new book contains the remarkable adventnreB of the hero 
and heroine in a new field, worked oat with amaadng clever- 
ness, niostrated. 11.60. 



A poweifal novel with a larire theme, the weldinc of the 
nation after prolonged civil strife, that appeals to North 
and South. i2mo. |l.fiO. 



Deals with a talented srirrs chances of suooess in New York, 
and contains ample deUghtfol romance so that it is whole- 
some and entertaining reading 




A novel of life in one of the larger American QnlversitleB 
embodTing a study of social maladjustment with ahero who 
is a '* misfit." 12mo, |l.fiO. 



This mystifying story of the strange revenge of Sir Wingrave Seton, who suffered imprisonment for a orime he did 
not commit rather than defend himself at a woman's expense, will make the most languid alive with expectant interest. 

" * The Malefactor ' is an enthralling book, of much more absorbing interest than ' A Maker of History.' and more carefullj 
considered than * A Prince of Sinners,' both of which won nothing but praise." — San FratneUeo CaU, 

Cliistiated. 12mo, $1.50. 




A stirring romance of love intrigue and winter sports, intro- A novel of the Carolina mountains dealing with the devel- 

dudng as a complete noveltj the perils of tobogganing. opment of a poor boy who became rich but selfish. 

lUQStiated. ISmo. llUM). 12mo. |l.fiO. 




A story of dual personality involving Its heroin some sur- New St. Lawrence edition complete, and containing the 

prising adventures and arousing the reader's keenest in- author's last revisions. 

terest. With frontispiece in color. 12mo, li.60. With frontispiece, 12mo, doth extra, $1.00. 



Handsome little volumes 6% x 4}^ (uniform with the Pocket Bslzao), printed on light, thin but opaque paper, wiiJi 
illustrations, tastefully and durably bound. The translations are faithful and unabridg^ Price in doth, gilt edges, 
$1.00 net per volume ; in limp leather, gilt edges over carmine, $1.25 net per volume. Any story sold separately 
as follows : 

ALEXANDRE DUMAS : Marguerite de Valois, 1 vol. La Dame de Monsoreau, 1 vol. The Fortj-Five. 1 vol. The Three 
Musketeers, 2 vols. Twenty Years After, 2 vols. Vicomte de Bragdonne, or Toi Years Later, 4 vols. The Count of Mont^ 
CMsto, 8 vols. 

VICTOR If UOO : Notre Dame, 2 vols. Les Miserables, 4 vols. Toilers of the Sea, 1 vol. The Man who Laughs, 2 vols. 
Ninety-Three, 1 vol. 

iLittle, IBtotoin, & Co., PufiU$i)et$, 234 mMtington %u, IBojOEton 




Crowell's New Spring Books 


The Ministry of David Baldwin 

Y^ih four full-page illustratioiis in color bj R Boyd Smith. 12mo, $1.50. 

This striking story is abreast of the times. Its hero, a young clergyman just out of the 
seminary, endeavors to preach the Bible in terms of modem criticism. He is declared <^ nnsound," 
and is tempted to " suppress his message." The conflict which ensues between his duty and his 
desires is rivalled by the factional fights in the church itself. The characters are strongly and 
faithfully drawn as though from actual types. 

The Greatest Fact in 
Modern History 


The. rise of the United States among the 
gi^at powers of the world is the subject of this 
book. A point of unique interest is the fact 
that it is based upon an address delivered by 
Ambassador Beid before an English audience. 

Kew photoffravnxe portrait, and typography by the 

lurrymoimt Pteea. 75 cents net. 

(Portage 8 oenta.) 

Christ's Secret of Happiness 


Contains such suggestive titles as: "Three 
Kinds of Happiness/' "The Spring of Perpetual 
Youth," and "The Blessedness of Battle." A 
striking book in optimistic vein, written in Dr. 
Abbott's ablest manner, and of special value for 
Easter gifts.. 

Typography by d&e Merrymoont Preas. 75 cents net 

(Postage 8 cents.) White and gold, boxed, $1.00. 

Lhnp leather, $1.50. 

Orthodox Socialism 

By JAMES EDVARD LE ROSSIGNOL, Professor of Economics in the University of Denver. 

One of our ablest writers on economics here defines broadly the creed of socialism, and points 
out its weaknesses. Strikes, labor unions, the struggle of mass with class, and the perpetual ques- 
tions of wages and profit c(»ne in for their share of intelligent attention. The book is worth 
pondering over by every earnest voter. 

'' Growell's library of Eoonomica.'' 12ino, net, $1.00. (Postage 10 cents.) 

The Religious Value of 
the Old Testament 

at Dartmouth College 

This valuable book compares the earlier 
attitude towards the Bible with the present view 
of modern scholarship. It shows how historical 
research among other early religions verifies 
certain points, and throws light upon others. 

90 cents net. (Postage 10 cents.) 

Much Adoe About Nothing 

First Folio Edition 


"I feel quite at a loss to name an edition 
which packs so much wealth into as little room." 
— Sidney Lee, 

"The most useful edition now available for 
students." — Brander Matthews. 

Cloth, 75 cents. Limp leather, $1.00. 


NOTE.— We publish the finest line of standard reprints in the world. Send for catalogue. 

THE DIAIi [March 16, 


By CONSTANCE HILL. Being Chronicles of the Bnrney Family. With 
Qamerons illiutratioiiB by EuJiM G. Hnj, and reproductionB of oontempomf 
portraits, ete. ^ $7.00 wi. Poitagt SS emU. 

" I love oil tliat breed vhun I can be aaid to knoir." 

^Db. JoKVftON c/the Bvnut Familf. 
" A Qiorongbly SDJoyable excoiwni into the ninetaenth oentnry." 

—Nino Turk Evtiiitig Foil 


By FREDERIC LOLIfiE. Traiiakted by AUCE IviMT. With Dumeraiu 
ninatntioiu. g^ $7.00 n^. Pottage 20 etnti: 

Never was a court more richly dowered with beautifnl women than that of Napoleon IIL It was a conrt 

blazing with scandsl and gallantry. 


By ALEXANDER GILCHRIST. Edited, with an IntroductioD, by W. Grasah Robrbtson. Nnmeioas 
reproductions from Blake's most ehaiacteristio and remarkable designs. 

Svo. $S.50na. PoiUxgt SO oetUt. 
"Fredsalj what was needed." " lie atandard Kraroe." 

— Nat York TrOnmt. —New York Eotning Pott. 


By 6. P. CLERICI. The Tragedy of Caroline of Bnutswtok, Qoeeu of 
England. With numerons Ulustrations reproduced from contemporary por- 
traits and prints. g^ ^^qq ^ PcUige «8 cento. 


(Extra NonlmT of di« IntmitalioDal Stuilio) 
Paper, $2.50 net, pottage 26 cenU. Often doA, $3.00 net, pottage S5 cente. 
Interior and erterior domestic arohitecture, decoratioii, and general equipment. The Illustrations number 
seTeisl hundred, including a aeries of special colored plates. Limited edition. 


A Book for the Carrer, the ToMiher, the Desi^r, and the Arehiteot B7 ELEANOK ROWE (tweaty 
yean Manager of the School of Art Wood-carving, South KeDsington). With uumeronB illostratioiu from 
photograph, and Bn« drawhige. j„ JS.OO «1. PMagi IS <xM. 


An Account of his Personal Character and Public Services. By W. N. CRAIG, M.A. NumerouB IlluBtrati(«i8 
and Photogravure Portrait. Croam 9oo. $5.00 ne(. Pottage SS cenM. 


By ALBERT F. CALVERT. 80 colored PUtes and 300 black-and-white Illustrations. 
Large Svo. $15.00 net. Expreu SO cents. 
A brief history of the Moslem mle in Spain, together with a partienlar account of the conatrnclion, the 
arohitectnie, and the decoratian of the Moorisk Palace. Companion volume to "Moorish Remuns in Spain." 

JOHN LANE CO., The Bodley Head, 67 Fifth Ave., New York 


1907.] THE DIAL 

From a Notable Spring List 


Ford Madox Hueffer** vaZuahle work 

England and the English 

OoiBPoaod ot UuM awmtta bnt oon—ontlve rtndliw whleh wbtb iMoed indlvldiuUT In Incluid — tIi. (1) The Ekial of IiOBdmi j (9) 
ThaHewtottheOoontiT; W) The Spirit of the Feuple. Hr. Hnaffer tua Intoritreted, u (vMPOvlbla, the Intimate Inneillteot 
tha luid >nd ol the ncs ; hai endeavorad to oonvcv some llrloc vital coDaeptlem oltlie Aosloflaxon oharaoter. 
FtiUr iUiutiated iriUi pbotocraplia. FoetoaU. tt-U; net, K.OO. 

G. Lowes Dickiiuon's tragedy of the Great JRebeUion 

From King to King 

In a dona diamatie dialoffoea In proae andveivB. the anthor of "A HodBm Bjmiiosliim." " The Ueuilnc of Good." etc.. TeveaUi 
with iraDdertiil tnalaht. tlie Inward iplrltoal ilcnlficanoe of thla (reat eplwiile. Cromwell, Land. Tana, and Ohailei hlmeelf are 
P^rUolpanla. cnotb. Fortpald.«i.lO; nAliJ». 

Burton J. Hendrick's Ida M. Tarbell's 

The Story of Life Insurance He Knew Lincoln 

In raqponaa to a cteat demand. Hr. Hendrick's arttolea pab- A naw picture ot the srand Osnre of onr noble Frealdant, sew 

Uihed in HoOlnie'i are now tnaed In book foim. This U the thnmch the (res ol a fellow townaman. Tender, toochina, 

moet einnmuiful effort ever made to Tender lite Inmnuiae plain sabUme in ita rimple lojaltr it ii one ot the fliieet bita ot 

to the aTK^te reader. imadnatlve writinc In onr Ilterstore. 

ninatratad. Poatpaid, II.S2: net. It.lO. lllnetrated. Postpaid. U oenta i net. EO oenta. 

Cale Yotuiff Rice's Martin Hume's 

A Night in Avignon Through Portugal 

A brM plar in blank verae. b; the anthor ot "Tolanda ot In wblcb are obronloled the experiencea and obMrvatiaQi ot an 

Cnma." " David," etc., deallnc with a uicht In the life of the eztonded trip thronch that remote ooanttr. little vietted b7 the 

(amona Italian lover-poet, Petrarch. touriet. Poitiucal. Ualor Home li an admirable snide, 

doth. PaetpaId,Uaenta;net,WoaDta. . Pnllr IRiutniled. Postpaid. )1.U ; net. tLOO. 


C. N. and A. M. ^iHiamson's rvmmtie novel The Princess Virginia 

A Kunanoe o( Ttv^ lore and oooTt UK. It hai the piquant, iparkliuir oharmot " lb Friend the Cbanffeoi." tlie captlvatlnc. deli 
etonaaVitimentot-'UdrBettr." Six iUnatrationi br OqIpod. HJO. 

Eden Phillpott's iueme drama The WhlHwlnd 

A powsftil drama ot'elanental pavlona.lald In the an thor'i favorite Dartmoor oonntrr. The hnoine, a fair, itnrdr Baion danchter 
ef the aoH. wlna the Immediate lympatlu of the readen. Cloth. (IJK). 

EHorence Wilkinson's fatematmg nord The Silent Door 

Ashton Hlllier's novd 0/ Sngiuh li/a Fanshawe of the Fifth 

AddMtftdDOTelof lluiare"Henr7Eemond" tjpe, deplctiiur Bnallah life at the beKiunins ot the Nineteenth Osntnrr. It lean 
•nthtnUa plotnra ot the Ume. doth, d JO. 

Helen R. Martin's deiieioui hoe »tory His Courtship 

One of the Dioet dainl7 and idjllic ot recent lore itoriea. The anthor baa conoelved a tjpe ot the meet exqalilte strlhood. and aet 
k In ooBtiaat with the coaiee PennirlvaDla " Dnich " envlronineut. 

' DlnstTBted br Alice Barber atephena. tlM. 

McClure, Phillips & Co., No. 44 East Twenty-third Street, New York 



[March 16, 



n^HIS Series provides the gems of English Literature for school use at the 
least possible price. The texts have been carefully edited and are accom- 
panied by adequate explanatory notes which will be found appropriate and 
serviceable. The volumes are well printed, from new clear type. They are 
uniform in style and appearance, being bound in boards with cloth backs. 

Addison's Sir Roger de Coverley Papers $0.20 

Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum 20 

Burke's Conciliation with the American 

Colonies 20 

Bums's Poems — Selections 20 

Bjnron's Poems — Selections 25 

Carlyle's Essay on Burns 20 

Chaucer's Prologue and Knighte's Tale .25 
Col«ridge's Rime of the Ancient Marinei^ .20 

Cooper's Pilot 40 

Defoe's History of the Plague in London .40 
DeQuincey's Revolt of the Tartars . . .20 

Dryden's Palamon and Arcite 20 

Emerson's American Scholar, Self-Re- 
liance, and Compensation 20 

Franklin's Autobiography 35 

George Eliot's Silas Marner . 30 

Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield and 

Deserted Village . 35 

Grajr's Poems — Selections 20 

Irving's Sketch Book — Selections . . . .20 

Tales of a Traveler . 50 

Macaiilay's Essay on Addison 20 

Essay on Milton 20 

Life of Johnson 20 

Macaulajr's Second Essay on Chatham jk>.20 

Milton's L'AUegro, II Penseroso, Comus 

and Lycidas 20 

Paradise Lost. Books I and II 20 

Pope's Homer's Iliad. Books I., VI., 


Rape of the Lock, and Essay on Man .20 

Scott's Abbot 60 

Ivanhoe 50 

Lady of the Lake 30 

Marmion 40 

Woodstock 60 

Shakespeare's As You Like It 20 

Hamlet 25 

Julius Caesar 20 

Macbeth 20 

Merchant of Venice 20 

Midsummer-Night's Dream 20 

Twelfth Night 20 

Southey's Life of Nelson 40 

Tennyson's Idylls of the King — Selec- 
tions 30 

Princess 20 

Washington's Farewell Address and 

Webster's First Bunker Hill Oration . .20 

Webster's Bunker Hill Orations 20 

Wordsworth's Poems — Selections . . .20 

College Ejitrance Requirements in English for Study and Practice, 1906-1908. Contains 
Shakespeare's Julius Csesar, Milton's L' Allegro, II Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas, 
Burke's Conciliation with the American Colonies, Macaulay's Essay on Addison, and 
Macaulay's Life of Johnson. Cloth, i2mo jSo.So 

College Ejitrance Requirements in English for Study and Practice, 1909-1911. Contains 
Shakespeare's Macbeth, Milton's L'AUegro, U Penseroso, Comus, and Lycidas, Burke's 
Conciliation with the American Colonies, Washington's Farewell Address, Webster's 
First Bunker Hill Oration, Macaulay's Life of Johnson, and Carlyle's Essay on Burns. 
Cloth, i2mo 90 





1907.] THE DIAL 16T 






AddiUonal episodes in the ffirlhwMl of *' Bebeooa of Siiiiii7bio<A Farm." DlnsCmted by F. O. Tohii« tl-SS. 


A loTe stonr of strenffth and power hj the aathor of ** The Noithemer." With frontispieoe in oolor. HUSO. 


A xomaiioe of modem New Orleans with an ezoitinff plot. lUustrated by Qriswold TTOff. HUSO. 

MY LADY POKAHONTAS By John Estxk Cookx. 

A diarminff stoiy apropos of the Jamestown Tercentennial. |1.00. 


The antoblocraphy of a oowboy. With frontispieoe. $LJBO, 

MARCIA l3y EixEir Olstxy Kibk. 

The story of a ** land-poor " girl who goes to New York and has a most interesting chain of experiences. $1.50. 



Bnays bearing on one or another phase of the Ideals and oaltnrs of Gennany. as revealed by its literature and life. 

THE YOUNG IN HEART By Abthub Stakwood Pxbb. 

A book of yeiy readable essays on tenniSt swimming-, and other recreations of man in off hours. 


The biography of a gallant soldier in the Ciyil War. Illustrated. $iMnet. Postage extra. 


The real Longfellow by one of his contemporaries, with poems expressive of the poet's individuality. With portraits. 
75 osnts n€t. Postage, 7 cents. 


Edited by Geobob P. Bakbb. 
These ddlghtfnl letters of David Oarrick are full of the personal charm of the great actor, presenting him in a fresh 
and engaging light. 400 copies for sale. ^Mnet, Postpaid. 

The strikiag career of the former president of Swarthmore Ck>llege. Crown 8vo. $1.50 net. Postage. 16 cents. 


The interesting experlsnoes of a reporter who sought new paths for his work. With portrait. I1.S6 net. Postage eoctra. 

600 copies for sale. 8vo. $MOnet, Postpaid. 



A history of the Arthurian legend, readable and complete. Grown 8vo. |1 JSO net. Postpaid. 


A brilUant. startling study of educational theories of vital importaaos to parents and teachers. 

A criticism of the aims and results of current educational theory and practice. 


Studies in the relation of art to life. Crown 8vo. |B.00ne<. Postage extra. 


A gsBeral oatliae of the principles of Justice in the social relations. 



[March 16, 




JFHrtt of a Series of Biographiea of Leading Americant. 

SOLDIERS* Biographies of Waahington, Gbeene, 
Taylor, Soott, Andrew Jackson, Grant, Sherman, 
Sheridan, Moaellan, Mead, Lee, '' Stonewall '* Jack- 
son, and Joseph K Johnson. By the author of 
" Napoleon," etc. 1 vol. Probable price $1.75 net. 

Segur (Marquis de): JULIE DE LESPINASSE. 

Translated by P. H. Lee-Wamer. $2.50 net. By 
mail $2.68. 

Lanke8ter(E. Ray): THE KINGDOM OP MAN. 

The author is Director of the Natural BSstory 
Department of the British Museum and author of 
"' Extinct Animals," etc. Probable price $1. 25 net. 

Travers (Qraham): GROWTH. By the author of 
'* The Way of Escape," etc $1.50. 

The story of the intellectual and spiritual develop- 
ment iA an Edinburgh stAdent that shows* particularly, 
the dominant dSect of the strong personalities with whom 
he comes in contact. 

Wataon (Qilbert): A CADDIE OP ST. AN- 
DREWS. By the author of "Three Rolling Stones 
in Japan." $1.50. 

The hero, ** Skipper." is an old caddie (once a flshennan) 
with a humorous turn of speech and a passion for travel 
and adventure. He is a wonderfully vivid fiffure, humor- 
ous, enthusiastic warm-hearted, whisky-loving, genial. 
The book is the epic of the golf caddie. 

Two otTier Important New Book*, 

Willis P. Johnson's POUR CENTURIES OP 
THE PANAMA CANAL, ^ith 16 iUustrations 
and 6 colored maps. $3.00 net ; by mail $3.27. 

Nation: ** It is the most thorough and comprehensive 
book that has yet appeared on the Panama Canal . . . 
especially interesting because it opens to view the long per- 
spective of the great enterprise . . . fuller detail than in 
any other single work on the subject ... a valuable refer* 
ence bqok." 

Hobhouse's MORALS IN EVOLUTION. By the 

author of " The Labor Movement," " The Theory of 
Sjiowledge," etc. 2 vols., $5.00 net ; by mail $00. 

" Replete with data for the student and material of 
unique interest for the less informed layman. . . . The 
early religion of Egypt furnishes much so grotesque as to 
be undeniably amusing. . . . Fascinating sections are de- 
voted to tracing religion in India . . . intensely readable. 
It is impossible to suggest the multitude of quaint reflec- 
tions evoked by a perusal of the work and the general 
widening of one's mental horizon. One cannot but enjoy 
the curious side lights thrown on our own beliefs and 
superstitutions. . . . Most entertaining." ~7Vni€« Satur- 
day Meview, 

Recent Reprintt. 

HAMILTON. Uniform with the author's ** From 
a College Window." $1.25. 

Sinclair (May): THE TYSONS. New uniform 
edition. $1.50. 

Wells (H. O.): THE TIME MACHINE. By the 

author of ** In the Days of the Comet," etc. $1.00. 

Wells (D. D.): PARLOUS TIMES. This strong 
novel by the author of " Her Ladyship's Elephant" 
has been taken over by Henry Holt <fe Co. $1.50. 




"This is the first complete life of the great 
writer, interwoven with a thorough critical 
analysis of his woTkB.**—ConoregationaH»t. 

" Mr. Steams has buUt up a figure which 
seems more of a real fiesh-and-blood Haw- 
thorne than any that has hitherto been 
dxavm."— ^o«ton TraneeripU 

"Probably the most satisfactory critical 
estimate that we have on the greatest 
American noveUst."~i9^ Ixmie Jtepublio. 

"He has evidently given the works of 
Hawthorne exhaustive study, and interprets 
them in a most fascinating and enlightening 
mMBnier.**^Naehville American, 

10 illustrations. 8vo. Cloth. $2.00 not. 
Postpaid, $2.14. 





THE DEMETRIAN By ellison harding 



Author of " The Lunatic at Large " 




Author of " Thalaasa ** 





$1.00 net 







THE MYSTICS By Katherine Cecil Thurston 

Romance and mystery are delightfnlly mingled tbronghont The tale has the same 
persistent excitement and breathless fascination which marked the author's earlier 
work. — The Masquerader. Illustrated. Price $1.25 


By the author of <* Wall Street Stories." It has remained for Mr. Lefevre to write 
the first real novel of Wall Street life, folly describing the ^ wheels within wheels " 
of the exciting stock-market game. Illustrated* Price $1.50 

THE QlANrs STRENGTH By Basil Kins: 

The romance of the daughter of an American mnlti-millionaire who falls in loye with 
a portrait painter whose family fortunes have been wrecked by the heroine's father. 

Price $1.50 

BY THE LIGHT OF THE SOUL By Mary E. Wilkins Freeman 

A delightful heroine of New England parentage ; an unusual plot which hinges on a 
yotuthful marriage that is neyer reyealed ; scenes of village life — pathos and humor 
— all make up a story of unflagging interest Illustrated. Price $1.50 

THE PRINCESS By nargaret Potter 

That wonderful woman, Princess Catherine, is the central figure. Her dissolute 
husband, the Grand-Duke Dmitri, and her son, the dashing young Constantine, play 
antagonizing parts in a daring plot of intrigue. Price $1.50 



By Mark Twain 

The most serious and extensive criticism of the subject that has yet been made. 

Illustrated. Price $1.75 


By Henry James 

Mr. James' impressions of America on revisit!^ his native land after tvenly-five 
years absence Price $3.00 

NATURE'S CRAFTSMEN By Henry C. McCook, D. D., Sc. D., LL. D. 

An entertaining book about the picturesque in insect life, pointing out unsuspected 
* marvels at our very doors. Illustrated. Price $2.00 net 

THE SUBSTANCE OP PAITH By Sir Oliver Lodge, Sc. D., LL. D. 

The author feels the basic harmony that eziBts between science and religion, and 
attempts their reconciliation. The volume is addressed especially to those who have 
become confused in the flood of modern criticism. Price $1.00 net 

THE FRIENDLY STARS By Martlia Evans Martin 

How to learn, without a telescope, all that is most interesting about the stars. 

Illustrated. Price $1.25 net 




[March 16, 1907. 



Cyclopedia of American Agriculture 

Edited by L. H. BAILEY, Editor of the "^ Cyclopedia of American 
ffortiouUurey** Director of the School of Agrieulturey Cornell Unio&rsity. 

Among the special features of this Yaluable work are these: 

1. It is the work of experts thioughont, and its articles are signed. 

2. Erery article is strictly new and is the latest word of authority upon its subject. 

3. Its illustration is profuse and specially prepared far the articles it accompanies* 

4. Its topics are so arranged as to make it a thoroughly readable book. 

To be conqfUu in fow royal octave voluwus, with about 3000 cvts in the text and 
lOOfuU-page platee. The price of eets in doth it $20M; in haff morocco, $82,00, 


Mr. Bolton HalFs Three Acres and Liberty 

A piaotifial ■olution for the diflloalties of the man whose stransth is drained bjr commercial or financial life Just 
a littte faster than he can rebuild it. IU%uirated^ elotK Itmo, $1,76 net f pottage IS eenttj. 

Mr. B. Parmalee Prentice's « thorough, pcdnttaking, and valuabU " book on 

Federal Power Over Carriers and Corporations 

Cloth, eu oetavo paget, $1JS0 net (pottage 11 centtj, 

Mr. Franklin Plerce*s The Tariff and the Trusts 

Mlae Ida M. Tabbbll calls it ** nnnsoally intereetlBf and fanitotiaat " ; Mr. Goldwik Smrh, **iiot oiiljr a most 
dedeiye oonfatation of the Protecticmiat fallacj, but a rich repertory of illnstratiye facta.** 

597 Itmo paget, clothe $1J0 net (pottage It eentt). 

Professor Charles De Qarmo's w^^orumt new booh on 

i^nciples of Secondary Education The Studies 

It discnaees the best oombinatioiia of studies in relation to after life and the way to combine education for 
insiffht with training for efficiency. Cloth, tW ISmo paget, $lJt6 net (pottage 11 eenttK 

Mabel Osgood Wrij^ht's Birdcraft New and chea^per edition — ihe seventh. 

A field book of 900 sonir. fame, and water birds, with eighty foU-paga plates by Loois Agassix Fnertes. ** One 
of the best books that amatenrs in the study of ornithology can find . . . direct, forcible, plain, and pleasing." 
— The OhenUauqufm, __^_^^__^_ Cloth, tmaU Svo, $fM> net. 

Mr. Jack London's new nood Befofe Adam 

** A remarkable achievement . . . the yitality and realism of the story beget fascinatton which ultimately 
r ea ch e s conviction. . . . Purely a work of fiction and tinged with no devitalizing touch of sdentiflc investigation. 
. . . Jaok London has performed a wonderful feat.**— iVew York Timet Saturdav Review. 

IHuttrated in colore* Cloth, 19mo, $1J0. 

Mr. Owen WIster's ddidous skU How Doth the Simple Spelling: Bee 

He has written nothing so deUghtfOUy homorons since some of the chapters in " The Viiginian.'* 

With teven full-page pUUet. (Jloth, ICmo, 60 eentt, 

Mr. John Oxenham's new nood The \jon% Road 

Opehs with a love story of mrasoal tenderness, sincerity and charm; and in the working out Of Its main Idea 
there is more than a strong dash of originality. Cloth, with frontitpieee, $1J0, 

Qrove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians Revised, enlarged edition 

Among the additions are articles which make the work at last adetiaate on the history of modem masie, and on 
American mnsie and musicians. 

To be complete in five volumet. Volume III., with illuttrotiont. Jutt ready. Cloth, Svo, $6j00. 




9 SbemUfiUmSHz Jommal of Eftnarg Crittctom, ISisunwum, Bttti {ttformatioiu 

THE DIAL (fwmded in 1890) U publUhed on the Itt and leth 
lifeaeh month. Tnuia or SuBSOBiPTioir, |f . a year in advance^ 
pottage prepaid in the United Statet, Canada, and Mexico; 
in other countriee eomprited in the Pottol Union^ so eente a 
year for extra pottage muat be added, BamTTANGBB efumld 
be by eheek^or by exx>ret» orpottal order, payable to THE 
DIAL COMPANY. Unleet otherwite ordered, tubeeriptions 
will begin with the current number. When no direct requeet 
to dieeontinue at expiration of eubecription ie received, it it 
attumed that a eovMnuanee of the evhtcriptton it detirid* 
AovcKTUiAQ Baibb fumithed on applieatton. A II communis 
cationt thould be addretted to 

THE DIAL, Fine Artt BuHdino, C hicago. 


No. 498. 

MARCH 16, 1907. Vd. XLIL 






A poeti' trade-nnioii. — Guaidiaiis for soperan- 
nnated anthon. — The uses of fiotion. — The new 
litenry moyement among the Spamah-Amerioan 
peoples. — The last photograph A Longfellow. — 
A national Diokena library. — The popularization of 
the beet literatore; — The deadi <tf ^ Th. Bentzon." 

— A Hebnuxation of Omar Khayyam's Rnbaiyat. 


On Reading the Magacines. 8. P, Ddany. 


AMERICAN. Percy F. Biekneil 176 


Edith Kellogg DwUon 177 


David Y. Thomat 179 


H. A. Wager 182 


CobUnU 185 



Life and manners of ** the third Italy.*' — A cham- 
pion of liberty and philanthropy. — ElMays on 
happiness. — A handfol of eolorod beads loosely 
strong. — A group of 18th century comedy queens. 

— European international relations. — The diyer- 
nons of an Ez-President with rod and gun. — The 
public addresses of John Hay. — JAhn Shennan as 
an American statesman. — Twelye Tolumes of 
Lincoln's works. 


NOTES 191 

A complete classified list of books to be issued by 
American publishen during the Spring of 1907. 



Comment is frequently made upon our na- 
tional character as an easy-going people. We 
are so tolerant of abuses, until they become 
unbearably acute, that we submit to all sorts of 
discomf orto and petty impositions rather than 
exert the energy needed for their remedy. When 
matters come to a really serious pass, we are 
apt to assert ourselves emphatically enough; 
but until such a crisis is reached, we are accus- 
tomed to bear the ills we have (and might easily 
be spared) as if they were inherent in the natu- 
ral order. This national trait of ours is respon- 
sible for a great deal of petty annoyance, of 
which we cannot reasonably complain, since we 
make no serious effort to get rid of it. We 
submit to the theatre hat, and the tipping sys- 
tem, and the vulgar newspaper, not indeed 
without a murmur, but without any overt act of 
protest indicative of the courage of conviction. 

Being in this supine and craven state, it may 
be worth our while to heed the lesson of a 
recent happening in a Texas town. Upon the 
occasion in question, an opera company gave a 
performance of ^^11 Barbiere di Siviglia." 
Confiding in the proverbial simplicity of back- 
woodsmen, the director of the company short- 
ened the performance by omitting one act of 
the work. But he reckoned without his host. 
Culture is abroad in these days, and it hums 
even in darkest Texas. This artistic affront 
caused the worm to turn, and the Texas audi- 
ence expressed its resentment with characteristic 
frontier strenuosity. Siot was incipient ; and 
without mincing words, these Texas champions 
of the artistic ideal expressed themselves with 
point and emphasis, concluding with a demand 
for the return of the money that had been be- 
guiled from their pockets by a delusive prospect. 

The Texas way of dealmfi: with such offences 
Hu.y be rough, b^t it ^Zply effective, aad 
other communities should profit by the example. 
The same opera company was guilty of the |Mune 
offence in Chicago a fortnight earlier, yid also 
of a similar offence in the presentation of still 
another opera. We are not par^ularly con- 
cerned to exalt '^ Les Huguenots ^ as a musical 
masterpiece, but when its performance is an- 
nounced, and when the p^biUs describe it 
truthfully, as ^^ an opera in^ve acts,*' there is, to 



[March 16, 

put the matter mildly, a good deal of bad faith, if 
not actual dishonesly, in omitting the fifth act 
altogether. This is the trick that was played 
upon the Chicago audience ; and there is no de- 
fence in saying that others have played the same 
trick before. Even a Meyerbeer opera deserves 
more respectful treatment than that ; whatever 
artistic quality '^ Les Huguenots " may have is 
utterly destroyed by abruptly ending the per- 
formance before it reaches its dramatic climax 
in the tragedy of the street scene. It is high 
time for the long-suif ering opera-loving public 
to express its resentment at the false pretenses 
(of which the above is one out of many instances) 
that have gone practically unrebuked for as 
many years as we can remember. 

Changing slightly the venue of this discus- 
sion, we may recall the fact mentioned in our 
last issue, when, speaking of the causes which 
led to the failure of the New Theatre, we spoke 
of the director *s unconscionable mutilation of 
certain of the plays he undertook to produce. 
Tins ^ a pJily wanton proceJing, for 
it was done, not because he thought the plays 
unproved by abridgment, but for the inartistic 
purpose of making room on the programme for 
curtain-raisers,— which simply means taking a 
step away from legitimate th^trical enterprise 
in the direction of vaudeville. The chapter of 
theatrical offences of this sort is a long one, and 
erery frequenter of the playhouse has suffered 
from them many times. The crimes that have 
been committed against Shakespeare alone would 
require a volume to recount. From Nahum 
Tate and Colley Cibber to Mr. Mansfield and 
Mr. Sothem, almost every actor or manager 
who has undertaken Shakespearian productions 
has felt perfectly free to make any rearrange- 
ments he might wish, to distort and mutilate 
at his will in accordance with his own crude no- 
tions of theatrical effect. We may admit, in 
this case, that the conditions of our stage are so 
different from those of the Elizabethan sta&^e 
that some changes a., necessary for a mod^ 
production ; but to say this is by no means to 
condone such perversions as Tate's '^ Lear " and 
Mr. Mansfield's "Henry the Fifth." Altera- 
tions made in a reverent spirit, with a sense of 
the sanctity of the masterpiece dealt with, m^^y 
be allowed ; alterations made as concessions to 
sentimentor sensationalism, for spec^ukr pur- 
poses or the gratification of an actor's personal 
vanity, should be censured in the strongest 
terms. And in the case of a modem play, 
which has no need of being fitted to mLm 
stage conditions, any kind of tinkering is rep- 

rehensible. It is an act of sheer dishonesty 
to advertise a play that already belongs to lit- 
erature, and present something quite different. 
If the play has been changed in any material way, 
the public is entitled to be told beforehand just 
what the changes are, and not left to discover 
them during the course of the performance. 

If dramatic Kterature suffers severely from 
the sort of treatment here described, those other 
species of literature that make their appeal to 
us solely from the printed page suffer in a far 
greater proportion simply because their volume 
is so much the greater. To catalogue the sins 
of editors and publishers in this respect would 
be an undertaking calculated to stagger the 
most industrious. But we trust that all such 
simiers are fimdly brought together in Male- 
bolge. They include, among others, the anthol- 
ogists who reprint mutilated forms of famous 
poems, without indicating where omissions have 
been made ; iUxe editors of school and college 
te:d», who slash their originals right aid 
left, with no word of warLg for^unwary 
students ; the publishers who offer ^' complete 
works," knowing them to be incomplete, and 
who reprint early editions which they know to 
have been superseded, but without vouchsafing 
a hint of this important fact. The expurgators 
constitute a peculiarly vicious class of these 
criminals, since their sins are so cunningly con- 
cealed as to be almost impossible of detection. 
Does it never occur to these gentlemen that their 
zeal for the suppression of the merely verbal 
forms of literary offence results in a form of 
dishonesty that is far more subtly mischievous 
than the evil (often illusor]^) which they are 
seeking to minimize ? 

The more we think of the Texas way of deal- 
ing with artistic misrepresentations and false 
pretences, the more we are inclined to applaud 
it. There may be other and better ways, but 
any way is better than none. We should like 
to see every perverter and falsifier of a work of 
art or literature made thoroughly uncomfort- 
able, until the lesson had been so repeatedly 
enforced as to be no longer needed. This is fax 
from saying that such works should never be 
altered for any*purpose whatever, but it is say- 
ing that they should not be tampered with by 
incompetent bunglers, and it is also saying that 
in the cases which really call for some judicious 
reshaping or abridgment, the public is entitled, 
as a matter of common honesty, to be exactly 
informed of the nature of whatever changes 
have been made, or whatever liberties taken, 
with the original of the work. 





The eaoBes of Bane literary progress and intelli- 
gent citizenship haye seldom had a more faithful 
devotee than Mi, Wendell Phillips Grarrison, whose 
death occurred on the 27th of last month. Casting 
in his lot with the late Edwin Lawrence Grodkin, 
at twenty-flye years of age, he gave his strength and 
talents to ^' The Nation " with a zeal that knew no 
hreak until failing health forced upon him the un- 
welcome necessity of laying the burden down with 
the dose of the eighty-second yolume, a little more 
than eight months ago. As the known author of 
the keenest and most effective political criticism ever 
developed in the history of American journalism, 
Mr. Godkin's personality could never be merged in 
that of his paper. To many, therefore, ''The 
Nation " meant Mr. Grodkin, and they never knew 
that there sat at his side a colleague whose labors 
&om the very start were as vital to the character 
and success of the paper as those of the brilliant 
political critic himself. Of course Mr. Godkin 
realized the worth of his coadjutor, and the recogni- 
tion which Mr. Grarrison's impenetrable modesty 
would not permit to be granted in any public way 
was always most amply bestowed in their private 
intercourse and correspondence. Mr. Garrison's 
preeminent service to ^ The Nation," and through 
it to the causes for which it has stood, lay in tibe 
remarkable insight displayed in making up his large 
body of reviewers and contributors, and Uie success 
with which he held them together. As an illustra- 
tion of this we need only mention that Mr. Groldwin 
Smith, Dr. Daniel C. Gilman, and Prof. Charles 
Eliot Norton have been contributors from the very 
first year, a nucleus for forty years of literary 
eritiGiBm which would have done honor to any criti- 
cal journal ever published in the English tongue. 
Danng the summer of 1905, when some two hun- 
dred of his collaborators united in presenting him 
with a beantiful silver vase, as a token of their per- 
sonal esteem no less than their admiration for his 
editorial ability, the general public learned just how 
far and how carefully Mr. Grarrisoa had been ac- 
customed to search for the right man for any par- 
ticular line of review work or correspondence which 
he desired. And the marvel lies not merely in the 
fact that the list contained so many names of known 
eminence in the world of letters and science, but 
even mora in the substantial unity of tone which 
steadily marked the body of criticism coming from 
this nnmerous, widely separated, differently edu- 
cated and differently circumstanced body of men. 
Of course this unity was no forcible creation of the 
corrective editorial pencil, although no editor ever 
knew better how to wield that pencil, within legiti- 
mate limits. Mr. Garrison would have scorned 
to make a contributor say what he did not think, 
nor would he have wanted any contributor willing 
to continue as such on that basis. It was Ins wide 
knowledge of men, coupled with extremely careful 

experiment where previotis knowledge was not pos- 
sible, enabling him thus to pick men who shared his 
own high ideals and sincerely believed in the funda- 
mental principles on which those ideals were based, 
that gave the literary criticisms of '' The Nation " 
a unity and steadiness of tone rarely if ever sur- 
passed in the history of critical journalism. A foe 
to all sham, insincerity, and corruption, in letters or 
in life, he stood as unflinchingly for his ideals as his 
father before him had stood for the correction of the 
great wrong' of human slavery, and at bottom both 
were fighting against the same enemies — ignor- 
ance, preconceived error, and selfish personal in- 
terests. Whatever other token friends may wish 
to establish in his memory, those eighty-two vol- 
umes of '' The Nation " into which Ins virtues and 
energies were so unstintingly poured, with their 
steady appeal to that enlightened intelligence and 
morality upon which the progress of civilization 
must always depend, constitute a monument the 
fitness of which can never be excelled. 


A POKTS' TRADB-UNION has been formed in England, 
or BO we are told by Mr. Andrew Lang in a pleasant 
littie article contributed to the London « Chronicle "; and 
when Parliament shall have passed the bill draughted 
by the union's secretary, Mr. Baunder, << a gentleman of 
prosperous aspect, with a strong German accent/' En- 
gland will speedily become a veritable ** nest of singing 
birds." By the provisions of this bill every citizen will 
be forced to buy annually a new volume of poetry — 
or, rather, a volume of new poetry — for every twenty 
pounds of income that. he has over three hundred 
pounds a year. Thus a prosperous merchant, or soap- 
boiler, or tallow chandler, with a|i income of two thou- 
sand pounds, let us say, will purchase eight hundred and 
fifty poetry books of the latest make every twelve 
months, at a imiform statute price of six shillings net. 
This protection to poets is considered necessary because 
poetry is at present so much less popular than, for 
instance, history, archieology, and ethics; whereby it 
has come about that, as Herr Baunder affirms, <' the 
poets are remorselessly sweated; thousands of them 
cannot earn any wage at all, not to speak of < living 
wage.' A guinea for a sonnet; what do you think of 
that ?" Shameful, in good sooth, and we hope for the 
early passage of the Baunder Bill — but with an impor- 
tant additional clause. It should provide for pass exam- 
inations to be undergone by all purchasers of poetry, to 
ensure that such poetry is read as well as bought. Not 
only must the horse be led to water, but he must be 
made to drink, and drink deeply, at the Pierian spring, 
under penalty of a heavy fine, or lingering incarceration, 
or both. How else infuse in the people a true and 
lasting love of divine poetry ? 

• • • 

Guardians for suferankuatbd authors may be 
thought desirable if certain tendencies now discernible 
among some of our veterans of the pen should become 
strongly developed. Mr. Maurice Maeterlinck, in com- 
ing to the defense of Shakespeare and in accusing 
Count Tolstoi of taking unfair advantage of European 



[March 16, 

dense ignorance of the poet» puts the qneiy why the 
yenerable Russian has not been prevented bj those 
around him from making an nnedif jing display of him- 
self, and suggests that some friend or relative should 
take steps to spare him the humilation that must attend 
a further exhibition of the decay now undermining his 
mental powers. Another great writer, Mr. Greorge 
Meredith, who has just passed his eightieth milestone, 
is thought by many to have his impulses, of unwisdom. 
His prose output, ceasing to take the form of fiction — 
his last novel came out twelve years ago — has of late 
appeared in the shape of rather excited political utter- 
ances, and of a sensational and much-discussed sug- 
gestion as to the expediency of probationary wedlock. 
That an author who toiled so strenuously in early man- 
hood — spending his last guinea on one occasion for a 
sack of oatmeal, on which he subsisted while writing a 
book — and who has done so much good work and 
raised himself to rank as one of the veiy foremost of 
living English prose writers, and as no mean poet, 
should now be suffered to do anything that may, even 
temporarily, dim the lustre of Ms renown, is to be de- 
ploi«d. Few are the writers that can wield the pen^ as 
did Dr. Martineau and Mrs. Somerville and Alexander 
von Humboldt, with even more power at ei^^ty and 

over than at forty or fifty. 

• • • 

The uses or hctzon, recently referred to in these 
columns under the heading '< Fiction as a Rest Cure," 
should have included ** Fiction as an Advertising Me- 
dium." The fiction-writer of the future, in order to be 
pecuniarily successful, may have to specialize as rigor- 
ously as does the historian or the scientist of to-day. At 
any rate, this is the opinion which such advertisements 
as the following might incline one to form. The first is 
from a London literary review of the highest standing. 

*' Tbx Edxtob of the Talkiito Maobinb Nbws requires stobibs 
(l^SOO to 2J500> with a TalUuff Ifiachine motif. Technical ac- 
oaracy eaeential. Suitable articles would also be entertained. 
Specimen copy on appliofttion." 

The second is from a great city daily of equally high 


"176 Pbiib SiOBias. We want a short story of about 8000 
words coverinir. in a oatchy. readable way, the facts outlined in 
our booklet, * Some Shoe Reforms.' Addrees," etc 

Many an artist, trained in the schools of Paris or 
Munich, has come at last to turn his back on <'art for 
art's sidce," and now earns a comfortable, sometimes a 
more than comfortable, livelihood as a designer of 
posters, anonymous works of art that are never rejected 
by an examining conomittee, and if they are elevated to 
the skies are all the more conspicuous. .Who knows 
how many zealous and gifted followers of Scott and 
Dickens and Thackeray may be glad some day to 
answer just such advertisements as the foregoing? 
Fortunately or unfortunately, the crowding of the pro- 
fessions is making such things increasingly possible. 

• • • 

The new literary movement among the Spanish- 
American PEOPLES has for one of its first fruits a 
little volume of tales and prose poems, Noche lyagicay 
by the Cuban poet, SeBor Arturo R. de Carricarte. It 
is noteworthy how much of the strong, tragic work of 
the day is coming from Southern sources. Out of the 
sunshine, out of the flowers, out of the gay life of 
the semi-tropic lands, come books as terrible and soul- 
shaking as their earthquakes and eruptions. The 
French and Italian tragedians deal less with the outward 
conditions of life — sociological problems, questions of 

reform or change — than do their Northern compeers. 
They are avid of the elemental human passions. As a 
result, their work has a certain beauty and splendor, 
where that of Ibsen and Tolstoi and Turgenieff and the 
German dramatists is homely if not ugly. On the 
other hand, the best work of the North has a mystic 
glamour which the South knows nothing of. Nocke 
Tragiea is a good example of the school we have been 
describing. It is a tale which M^rim^ would have 
liked. Fate, in it, is masked in flowers, but marches 
onward with implacable tread. All of Sefior de Carri- 
carte's pieces have a sombre soul beneath a bright ex- 
terior. In some of the prose-poems he shows an acute 
sensibility to natural phenomena — like a Maurice de 
Gutfrin translated to tiie tropics. According to a cus- 
tom more observed on the Continent of Europe than in 
England or America, there is prefaced to this little 
book a long ^say by Sefior B^cardo del Monte, the 
most brilliant of Cuban critics. This discourse is a keen 
examination of modem thought and literary creation. 
It is always instructive to get at a different view-point 
from our own. Sefior Del Monte is at the centre of a 
horizon quite other than ours. The stars of modem 
literature arrange themselves to his eyes in a different 
way than they show in our sky. The constellations 
of France since 1830 blaze overhead. Single Italian 
or Spanish or German stars mount or descend. But 
only a few English suns peer above the horizon, 
and the Russian and Scandinavian and American hosts 

of light are invisible. 

• * • 

The last photograph or Longfellow, not in fin- 
ished form, but in the negative — from which no posi- 
tive had ever been printed — has been accidentally 
discovered by a young lad in South Boston, a photo- 
grapher's assistant. The stoiy of this forgotten photo- 
graph is interesting. In late February, 1882, the poet 
was walking along Brattle street, Cambridge, when he 
was accosted by a friend, a Mr. Allen, photographer, 
who asked him to sit for his likeness before a new lens 
that he, Allen, had just bought for his camera. Lon^ 
fellow refused to visit the studio, but at last consented 
to pose on his own veranda; and there, only a month 
before his death, he sat for what proved to be his last 
portrait. The negative, filed away and lost sight of, 
passed with the rest of the photographer's outfit into 
other hands, and in a subsequent removal of the busi- 
ness to its present location the precious piece of clouded 
glass was trundled along with a pile of other un- 
considered negatives. Pulled forth veiy recently by 
chance, and held up to the light by an apprentice in a 
moment of idle curiosity, it was fortunately reoognized 
by him; and now its owner would not part with it for 
love or money. Coming to view twenty-five years after 
it was taken, and a hundred years after the poet was 
bom, it is a remarkable bit of treasure trove. 

• • • 

A NATIONAL Dickens library is getting itself estab- 
lished in London, in the heat of the Dickens enthusiasm 
aroused by the ninety-fifth anniversary, last month, of 
the great novelist's birthday. A room in the Guildhall 
Library will be set apart for this collection, the nudeus 
of which has been already formed out of the first 
editions of all the novels, with noteworthy Amexican 
and other reprints and translations, and miscellaneoiia 
Dickensiana of sundry sorts. The widow of the late 
F. G. Kitton, offers to the library his valuable Diokens 
collection for the moderate sum of £300, and sub- 




BcriptioiiB for its purchase are solioited by the editor 
of *<T. P.'s Weekly" (which itself gives £25) at 5 
Tavistock Street, W. C. A flonrishing periodical, << The 
Dickensian," published once a week by the Dickens 
Fellowship, attests the English determination not to 
forget their immortal ** Boz." At the same time, let it 
he gently hinted, there be those to whose delicate senses 
the air of a Thackeray Library would more sweetly 
leeommend itself. But patience ! — 1911 is only four 
years distant. • • • 

Ths fopulajuzation of the best literature is to 
be attempted, with a display of childlike confidence 
that is nothing short of touching, by a new magazine, 
whose prospectus does not hesitate to declare that ** the 
very highest class and most valuable branches of litera- 
tnre can readily be made fully as interesting, attractive, 
and even fascinating to all classes, even to the morbid- 
minded and degenerate, as is now the prevailing 
low order of the great bulk of sensational, exciting, 
stirring so-called < literature, ' so bounteously scat- 
tered broadcast in its corrupting and demoralizing 
blight upon mankind." One would like to know the 
magie formula for rendering, let us say, Matthew 
Arnold or John Ruskin as irresistible to the multitude 
as the latest murder mystery or sensational romance 
or lurid detective story. We wait to learn this, but 
not, alas! in a spirit of confidence that is altogether 
childlike. • • • 

The death of « Th. Bentzon," or Mme. Th^r^se 
de Solms Blanc, as her friends knew her, will be noted 
with regret by many outside her native France, and 
especially by her American readers. Always friendly 
toward this country and its literary workers, she has 
published, chiefly in the pages of the Reoue des Deux 
MondeSf many commendatory reviews of American 
books, eulog^ic studies of American authors, and 
pleasant reminiscences of American travel. That she 
wrote also between thirty and forty novels comes as a 
surprise to most of us, who have commonly thought of 
lier in connection with her more serious work, on which 
her fame as a writer will probably rest. 

• • • 

A Hebeaization of Omar Khattam's Rubaitat 
has been undertaken by Mr. Joseph Massel of Man- 
ehtfster, England; his version being based on Fitz- 
Gerald's first edition, by many considered the best of 
the four. These haunting quatrains seem to have, in 
some sort, an affinity with the Wisdom books of the Old 
Testament, and a good Hebrew translation ought to 
ptrove, not perhaps the best-selling book in the Ghetto, 
but a tolerable literary success. Yet supposing the 
Hebrew version of FitzGrerald's stanzas to be faithfully 
tamed back into Persian, would old Omar know himself 
at the end of this lingual hocus-pocus 7 


(To the Editor of Tbb DiaIi.; 
Few publiidiers of magazines seem to realize the 
of mind most people are in when they pick up a 
magazine. I say most people, because there are a few 
who read the magazines religiously, as they might read 
the Bible, regardless of comfort or convenience. But as 
a role people take up a magazine at a time when they are 

enjoying a few moments of leisure which they wish to 
spend as pleasurably and comfortably as possible. A 
man may be leaning back in his seat on the train, smok- 
ing a cigar, and rejoicing that he is to have a short respite 
from the harassing cares of business ; or he maybe puffing 
his pipe beside a grate fire, imder a green-shaded lamp, 
relaxing cosily after a day's hard work, and taking up 
a magazine for diversion. I do not know so much about 
feminine ways, but I should fancy a woman might be 
reclining for her siesta, and open a magazine for a little 
mental relaxation and composure before she closes her 

Now I maint>ain that most of our magazines are not 
adapted to such a frame of mind. This is not because 
their contents are too serious, but simply because the 
magazines are so constructed mechanically that it is a 
physical effort to read them. In plain English, it tires 
the thumbs. Why do publishers put their magazines 
together so that they will not lie open on the lap? How 
is a man to smoke his pipe as he reads, when he must 
hold the magazine open by all the strength of both 
hands ? I know of only one or two magazines that are 
properly bound with thread and glue, instead of those 
irritating wire clasps. No doubt the clasps are cheaper, 
or they would not be used. That is the explanation of 
most of the impositions on a long-suffering public. But 
I believe any magazine publisher could increase his 
circtdation by abolishing the clasps. The other day I 
closed my subscription to a magazine I had taken for 
years, and ordered another in its place, chiefly for the 
reason that one would not lie open on the table and the 
other would. The wire clasps were a doubtful economy, 
surely, in that case. 

Another reason why many magazines- are tmsuitable 
for leisurely reading is that they are too heavy and 
bulky with advertisements. I am aware that there 
must be advertisements to make the magazine pay. I 
would even go further, and maintain that most of our 
magazines are conducted primarily in the interest of the 
advertising department, and that the literary matter is 
sandwiched in merely to get people to read the adver- 
tisements. But why in that case should this not unwor- 
thy commercial end be defeated by making the magazine 
so heavy and forbidding that not even the advertise- 
ments will be read ? Other things being at all equal, 
I always buy the magazines that contala the fewest 
advertisements. When I must read a magazine that is 
so thick with advertisements that I cannot hold it open, 
I tear off the cover, extract the wire clasps, detach the 
advertising pages in front and back, and then restore 
the clasps to their places. I thus have a light and 
easily handled collection of reading matter, while the 
detached pages make excellent material for starting 
fires in my grate. A handy mechanical device for per- 
forming this separation quickly and easily would find 
speedy favor witii the magazine reading public; indeed, 
1 should not be surprised to learn that one has already 
been invented. It would not be the first instance of 
greed over-reaching itself and defeating its own ends. 
With aU their f avJts, the magazines of to-day contain 
a great deal of good literature. While there is much 
in them that is worthless or of merely temporary inter- 
est, there is also much of value, which intelligent people 
can ill afford to miss. Publishers certainly owe it to 
their readers, as well as to their own interests, to make 
the contents of their magazines as accessible and as 
conveniently read as possible. 3, p, Delant. 

ApjUeton, Witconsinf March 10^ 1907 » 



[March 16, 

Cj^t |l[jefax §00k8« 

Home Impressions of an Expatriated 


It was of course to be expected that Mr. 
Henry James, in recording his impressions of 
the land from which he long ago expatriated 
himself, and which he lately revisited after nearly 
twenty-five years, would give us not so much his 
direct impressions (supposing a mind so subtile 
to be capable of direct and simple impressions) 
as his impressions of his impressions, his con- 
ception of what, in the aesthetic and artistic 
filiiess of things, his impressions ought to be, 
and occasionally a side-glance at those impres- 
sions as he conceives they may impress his 
reader, — all intertwisted and interwoven and 
wroilght out in a pattern of that labyrinthine 
intricacy that is at once the despair and the 
delight of him who would thread the Daedalian 
mazes of this author's wonderful prose. Even 
as Mr. James drives from the wharf in New 
York, on landing, the extreme difficulty of the 
task before him presents itself as somewhat 

<< Yes; I could remind myself, as I went, that Naples, 
that Tangiers or Constantinople, has probably nothing 
brayer to flamit, and mingle with excited recognition 
the still finer throb of seeinir in advance, seeine: even to 
aW, m^y of the «»poB.£iliti«, lying'm ^t for the 
habit of headlong critical or fanciful reaction, many of 
the inconsistencies in which it would probably have, at 
the be§t, more or less defiantly to drape itself. . . . 
Nothing was left, for the rest of the episode, but a kind 
of fluidity of appreciation — a mild, warm wave that 
broke over the succession of aspects and objects accord- 
ing to some odd inward rhythm, and often, no doubt, with 
a violence that there was little in the phenomena them- 
selves flagrantly to justify. It floated me, my wave, all 
that day and the next; so that I still think tenderly — 
for the short backward view is already a distance with 
' tone ' — of the service it rendered me and the various 
perceptive penetrations, charming coves o£ still blue 
water, that carried me up into the subject, so to speak, 
and enabled me to step ashore." 

Already in the preface to " The American 
Scene " the reader has been made aware of the 
iter's deep sense of the weighty responsibiUty 
resting on him as a recorder of impressions, and 
of his brave resolve to face the situation, formi- 
dable though it be, with a noble courage. 

" There would be a thousand matters — matters 
already the theme of prodigious reports and statistics — 
as to which I should have no sense whatever, and as to 
information about which my record would accordingly 
stand naked and unashamed. It should unfailingly be 

*The American Scbnb. 
Harper & Brothers. 

By Henry James. New York: 

proved against me that my opportunity had found me 
incapable of information, incapable alike of receiving 
and of imparting it; for then, and then only, would it 
be clearly enough attested that I had cared and under- 

Mr. James has been, as he says, all his days 

'^ artistically concerned with the human subject"; 

and hence it is his impressions of American men 

and women that form the most characteristic 

portion of his volume, and that furnish the best 

passages for quoting. Of our men and women 

in general he says : 

<<No impression so promptly assaults the arriving 
visitor of the United States as that of the overwhelming 
preponderance, wherever he turns and twists, of the 
unmitigated < business-man ' face, ranging through its 
various possibilities, its extraordinary actualities, of 
intensity. And I speak here of facial cast and expres- 
sion alone, leaving out of account the questions of voice, 
tone, utterance and attitude, the chorus of which would 
vastly swell the testimony, and in which I seem to dis- 
cern, for these remarks at large, a treasure of iUus- 
tration to come. Nothing, meanwhile, is more concom- 
itantly striking than the fact that the women, over the 
land — allowing for every element of exception — ap- 
pear to be of a markedly finer texture than the men, 
and that one of the liveliest signs of this difference is 
precisely in their less narrowly specialized, their less 
commercialized, distinctly more generalized, physiog- 
nomic character. The superiority thus noted, and 
which is quite another matter from the universal fact 
of the mere usual female femininity, is far from con- 
stituting absolute distinction, but it constitutes relative, 
and it is a circumstance at which interested observation 
snatehes, from the first, with an immense sense of its 

This distinction he regards as tJie feature of 
the social scene, and unconmionly fruitful of 
possibilities. In all this there is cheer and hope 
for those who are inclined to deplore, as too 
obtrusively prevalent among us, the business- 
woman type, the new woman, and the bachelor 

Any attempt to epitomize Mr. James, or to 
reproduce him in other than his own words, 
would be rashly presumptuous and inevitably 
imsuccessful. This must be the excuse, if excuse 
were needed, for introducing another consider- 
able passage, one that was inspired by a visit 
to New York's Ghetto. T^e reader will bear 
in mind that no other city has so many of the 
children of Israel. He will not need to be told 
to admire the skill of the literary artist in the 
following word-picture : 

" There is no swarming like that of Israel when once 
Israel has got a start, and the scene here bristled, at 
every step, with the signs and sounds, immitigable, un- 
mistakable, of a Jewry that had burst all bounds. . . . 
It was as if we had been thus, in the crowded, hustled 
roadway where multiplication, multiplication of every- 
thing, was the dominant note, at the bottom of some 
vast sallow aquarium in which innumerable fish of over- 




developed proboscis, were to bump together, forever, 
amid heaped spoils of the sea. The children swarAied 
above all — here was mnltiplicatioii with a vengeance; 
and the number of very old persons, of either sex, was 
almost equally remarkable; the very old persons being 
in equal vague occupation of the doorstep, pavement, 
curbstone, gutter, roadway, and every one lUike using 
the street for overflow. . . . There are smaU, strange 
animals, known to natural history, snakes or worms, I 
believe, who, when cut into pieces, wriggle away con- 
tentedly and live in the snippet as completely as in the 
whole. So the denizens of the New York Ghetto, heaped 
as thick as the splinters on the table of a glass-blower, 
had each, like the fine glass particle, his or her indi- 
vidual share of the whole hard glitter of Israel." - 

Of Baltimore, with its bone-racking cobble- 
stone pavements, its alternate dust and mud, 
and its unsightly and unfragrant surface drain- 
age — an ensemble not attractive to most visitors, 
nor by any means inclining them to picture the 
city in retrospect as an ^^ almost imnaturally 
good child '* sitting '^ on the green apron of ite 
nurse, with no concomitant crease or crumple " 
— the author, after some playful disparagement 
of the fine Washington monument, is moved to 

« Wonderful little Baltimore, in which, whether when 
perched on a noble eminence or passing from one seat 
of the humanities, one seat of hospitality, to another — 
a process mainly consisting indeed, as it seemed to me, 
of prompt drives through romantic parks and wood- 
lands that were all suburban yet all Arcadian — I caught 
no glimpse of traffic, however mild, nor spied anything 
* tall ' at the end of any vista. This was in itself really 
a benediction, since I hiad nowhere, from the first, been 
infatuated with tallness; I was infatuated only with the 
question of manners, in their largest sense — to the finer 
essence of which tallness had already defined itself to 
me as positively abhorrent. . . . Admirable I found 
them, the Maryland boroughs, and so inm&ediately dis- 
posed about the fortunate town, by parkside and lonely 
lane, by trackless hillside and tangled copse, that the 
depth of rural effect becomes at once bewildering. You 
wonder at the absent transitions, you look in vain for 
the shabby fringes — or at least, under my spell, I did; 
you have never seen, on the lap of nature, so large a 
burden so neatly accommodated." 

No traffic however mild, no shabby fringes! 
Surely, our traveller must have passed his time 
in grove-embowered villas in tiie city's most 
favored suburbs, if it has any such. Yet we 
learn from his own narrative that he did not do 
this. The best of health and spirits, then, must 
have been his during the Baltimore sojourn. 

The author's itinerary included, in an autumn 
and winter progress • from New England to 
Florida, the intervening cities of Philadelphia, 
Washington, Richmond, and Charleston, be- 
sides New York and Baltimore. Boston, it need 
hardly be added, was not overlooked, nor were 
Concord and Salem and Newport, and other 
interesting parts of New England. The book is 

one to read in at length, if not to read through, 
and cannot be presented by the reviewer in a 
nutshell. Its pages are strewn with the happiest 
phrases and turns of expression. They teem 
with passages of exquisite artistry, which, with- 
out reference to the scenes and objects so deli- 
cately depicted, are a joy to the lover of the 
gracefully elaborate, the subtilely expressive 
and still more subtilely suggestive, in English 
prose. Those readers whom the end of the vol- 
lune shall leave unsatisfied may take comfort in 
the concluding words of the preface, where the 
author says he has not found his subject-matter 
scant or simple, and intimates that there are still 
further chapters to be told ere his story is done 
— chapters, as he elsewhere hints, that shall 
deal with the Pacific coast, as these earlier ones 
have treated the Atlantic. 

Percy F. Bicknell. 

The Burneys in St. Martin's Street.* 

It is impossible not to agree with Miss Con- 
stance Hill, when she speaks, in the preface 
to her new book, ^^ The House in St. Martin's 
Street," of the perennial interest that attaches 
to the letters — and she might have added, to 
the diaries — of the eighteenth century. It is 
this fact that gives validity to Miss Hill's rather 
slender excuse for writing another book about 
the Bumey family, whose lively correspondence 
and voluminous journals, themselves easily acces- 
sible, have already been copiously drawn upon 
by present-day chroniclers. 

In ^^ Juniper Hall" Miss Hill has already 
given a detailed account of one period in Fanny 
Bumey's life. The title of her new book limits 
its material to the events of the years between 
1774 and 1783, the period which the Bumeys 
spent in the last of their several London 
residences. It was during this time that both 
"Evelina" and "Cecilia" were written, and 
that their girlish author was discovered and 
initiated into the charmed circle at whose centre 
sat Mrs. Thrale and Dr. Johnson. Frequent 
journeys from London took Fanny Bumey to 
Chessington to see her dearest friend " Daddy 
Crisp," and to Streatham and Bath to stay with 
her fond but decidedly exacting patroness Mrs. 
Thrale. Miss Hill does not consider it beyond 
her province to detail anecdotes of these visits, 
as well as of the musical and literary gatherings 

* Thb Housb IK St. Mabtin'b Btrsbt. Being Chronicles of 
the Bumey Family. By Conatance Hill. Uluatrated in photo- 
gravure, etc. New York: John Lane Co. 



[March 16, 

in St. Martin's Street, the plottings over the 
secret publication of ^^ Evelina " that went on 
there, and all the merry and not in the least 
momentous daily doings of the little circle whose 
private life was so famous for its harmony and 
serene happiness that somebody has called them 
the '^most amiable and affectionate of clever 

For novelty of material Miss Hill depends 
upon a very complete description of the St. 
Martin's Street residence, and upon some un- 
published MSS., chiefly a diary kept by Char- 
lotte Bumey through part of the year 1781, 
some letters of Susan to her favorite sister 
Fanny, and a few family letters from Mr. Crisp, 
Mrs. Thrale, and other friends. Most notable 
of all is the MS. of Fanny's unpublished play 
called ^^The Witlings," which is apparently 
newly available, since Mr. Austin Dol^n had 
not seen it when he published his life of Miss 
Bumey in 1903. None of these items is in itself 
of any particular importance. Together, and 
pieced out from the familiar sources — the 
" Early Diaries," Madame d'Arblay's " Diary 
and Letters," and her " Memoirs of Dr. Bur- 
ney," — they make the basis for a decidedly 
entertaining narrative of over three hundred 

The St. Martin's Street house is still stand- 
ing, and not altered beyond recognition. It is 
easy. Miss Hill tells us, to identify the drawing- 
room, though its '^prodigiously painted and 
ornamented " ceiling, in which ibe Bumeys 
gloried, has long since disappeared ; the library, 
which was also their music-room ; and the cheer- 
ful "dining parlour" where the delightfully 
informal teardrinkings took place. Only the 
quaint observatory, once Sir Isaac Newton's 
study and later Fanny's favorite retreat, has 
vanished. Miss Ellen G. Hill has made many 
interesting sketches of the characteristic features 
of this house, and of other houses and scenes 
connected with the narrative. These, with vari- 
ous reproductions of portraits, form a valuable 
pictorial adjunct to the text. 

It is perhaps natural that a feminine chron- 
icler, and particularly one who has already 
given us a detailed accoimt of Miss Bumey's 
real romance, should make a good deal of tiie 
brief but persistent wooing of her earlier lover, 
Mr. Barlow. Miss Hill quotes from Fanny's 
journal for 1776, and from a letter sent her by 
the enamored gentleman ; and these leave no 
doubt in the reader's mind that Fanny's family 
had an exaggerated horror of her dying an " old 
maid," — for otherwise they surely would not 

have thought of urging her to consider a match 
so manifestly unsuitable. It was, however, small 
wonder if Miss Bumey found even the man of 
average talents without charm, when she com- 
pared him with Dr. Bumey and his brilliant 
friends. Every one of these seems to have shown 
his best side to her. Even the gruff and iras- 
cible Dr. Johnson grows actually lamb-like when 
she appears, and S^^to her wfth an unfailing 
consideration that he showed to no one else. 
Fanny comments on this in a letter written in 
1782 to her father, while she was staying in 
Brighton with Mrs. Thrale. 

^ Our dear Dr. Johnson keeps his health amazingly, 
and with me his good humor; but to own the truth, with 
scarce anybody else. I am quite sorry to see how 
unmercifully he attacks and riots people. He has raised 
such a general alarm that he is now omitted in all cards 
of invitation sent to the rest of us." 

But of all the visitors to St. Martin's street, 
Garrick was the favorite with the Bnmey sis- 
ters. A call from him sent them into raptures, 
and his friendship they justly considered a 
great honor. As Charlotte Bumey, the youngest 
daughter, puts it, more forcibly than degantly, 
in her journal, ^' Split me if I'd not a hun- 
dred times rather be spoken to by Garrick in 
public than by His Majesty, Grod bless him I " 
^ It was at th4 house ol (^ck's genial friend 
Sir Joshua Keynolds that the subject of ^^ The 
Witlings " was first broached. Sheridan was 
one of the guests, and, beginning by praising 
^^ Evelina," he insisted that its author ought to 
tiy her hand at a play. Reynolds heartily ap- 
proved the plan. So did Johnson, Mrs. Thrale, 
and the rest of Fanny's friends, when they 
heard of it, save only Mr. Crisp, who was 
doubtful if his ^^ Fannikin " had the temperar 
ment of a playwright, and who feared for her 
the results of a possible failure or a partial suo> 
cess. Six months later the play was finished 
and sent down to Chessington by Susan and 
Dr. Bumey, with a request for an absolutely 
candid opinion. A letter from Susan tells how 
Dr. Bumey read it aloud, to the great delight 
of his small audience. Nevertheless, both he 
and Mr. Crisp decided that in spite of its clever 
characterization and spirited dialogue the play 
would better be suppressed. Fanny, who always 
set the approval of her dearest friends far above 
the praise or blame of the public, did not ques- 
tion the judgment. She writes in gay good 
humor to Mr. Crisp, in answer to what she calls 
his ^^ hissing, groaning, catK^dling epistle," a 
letter concluding thus : 

<< I won't be mortified and I won't be downed; but I 
will be proud to find I have, out of my own family, u 




well as in it, a friend who loves me well enough to 
speak the plain truth to me" 

Miss Hill prints the fourth act of the play, the 
one, according to Susan, which '^ seemed least 
to exhilarate, or interest, the audience." It is 
an amusing satire on the affectation of learning, 
so prevalent among the fine ladies of Fanny's 
day when learning itself was in fashion. But 
it lacks plot interest and dramatic movement. 
We can doubtless estimate, far more easily than 
Fanny's contemporaries, the width of the chasm 
between the majestic progress of the ^^ three 
volume romance '' and the sprightly compact- 
ness of the stage comedy. Nevertheless, *'* The 
Witlings " has, at the least, a documentary in- 
terest that fully justifies the lengthy citation. 

Dr. Johnson once complained that ^^ the little 
Bumey " would not ^^ prattle," though he was 
sure that she could do it well. But she and all 
her family prattle without reserve on paper, 
and they justify the Doctor's suspicion by doing 
it extremely well, making us acquainted with 
themselves and their friends in phntses as artless 
as they are deft and telling. Susan's letters 
are ajs lively as possible, and Charlotte's frag- 
mentary journal reads as if it might have been 
written yesterday by some bright girl of twenty. 
^ He is a genteel-looking man, and full of ratde 
— and I like'rattles," she says of a certain very 
unpopular Captain Williamson. She repeatis 
many epigrams and lively bits of repartee, calls 
Boswell ^^ a sweet creature,'* apparently because 
he made a bon mot about her, and complains of 
a certain Mr. Himiphrey on the very tenable 
ground that all he ever said to her was, ^' Pray 
how do all your brothers and sisters do?" 
Little touches like these give reality to the 
chronicle of the life that went on so merrily in 
St. Martin's Street. 

Miss Hill does not attempt criticism or inter- 
pretation. She acts merely in the capacity of 
shovrman, marshalling her documents and letting 
them tell their own story. Granted the limi- 
tations of her method and of her present oppor- 
tunity, she deserves nothing but praise for her 
conscientious and capable investigation of the 
resources at her command, and for her judicious 
selection and arrangement of her wdl-chosen 

™***'^* Edfth Kellogg Dunton. 

Stirring Chapters of American 


Mjomr Wesley's Journal" is published in an 
abridged edition by Messrs. Jennings & Graham. The 
condensation is considerable but the most characteristic 
and yaluable features o£ this intensely interesting hu- 
man document are preserved, and no liberties (except 
of omission) have been taken with Wesley's text. 

Two important additions hare recently been 
made to American historical literature by writ- 
ers who are masters in their chosen fields. In 
his sixth volume Professor McMaster brings his 
" History of the People of the United States " 
from the accession of Andrew Jackson in 1829 
to the veto of the Whig Bank bills by Tyler in 
1841. In volumes six and seven Th. Rhodes 
completes his monumental ^^ History of the 
United States," which covers the period from 
1850 to 1877. In these two works may be found 
perhaps the best accounts yet written of the 
developments of the American people from the 
close of the Kevolutionary War to the restora- 
tion of home-rule in the Southern States. 

The object of Professor McMaster. through- 
out his work has been to write the history of 
our people, and not simply that of a set of poli- 
ticians or even statesmen. If the present vol- 
ume seems to make a depai;ture from this plan, 
since very little space is given to matters not 
connected directly or indirectly with politics, it 
finds its justification in the fact that die people 
were at last playing at the political game. The 
advent of Jackson,.though neither preceded nor 
followed by any immediate and remarkable 
extension of the suffrage, is commonly looked 
upon as the real beginning of the democratiza- 
tion of the nation. Jackson came fresh from 
the democratic West, where the fight against 
savage foes and wild beasts for a home and sus- 
tenance in the forest left little room for the class 
distinctions and privileges which were charac- 
teristic of older societies. As the representative, 
the very embodiment, of such a democracy, it 
was altogether natural that he should be on the 
lookout for everything which smacked of privi- 
lege. In his eyes, the National Bank was a star 
case of privilege battening on the people ; con- 
sequently he sounded a note of warning at this 
accession, though there was practically no com- 
plaint against the bank at that time. Nothing 
daimted at the general indifference, Jackson, 
ably seconded by Senator Benton, kept up the 
fight, first to arouse the people to a sense of 
wrong and then to right the wrong. In the end 
he compassed the destruction of the bank. The 
resulting derangement of the currency, and the 

* A History op the Pboplb op tetb Unitbd States, from the 
Revolution to the Civil War. By John Bach McMaster. Volume 
VI.. 1880-1842. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

HisTOBY OP THB TJnitbd Statbs from the Compromise of 
1860 to 1877. By James Ford Rhodes. LL.D., Litt.D. Volume 
VI.. 1886-1872; Volume VII., 1872-1877. New York: The Mao- 



[March 16, 

wild schemes of State banks, are matters of 
common historical knowledge. These facts are 
all set forth by Professor McMaster in an enter- 
taining manner ; but in speaking of the work of 
destruction, he follows the not uncommon habit 
of using a slightly misleading term when he 
speaks of ^^ removing the deposits" instead of 
^^ ceasing to make deposits." Though not so 
replete with dramatic interest as the story of 
wild-cat banking in Michigan, the banking 
experience of Florida, at that time practically 
new territory and a sort of ward of the nation, 
certainly is deserving of notice, though it re- 
ceives none. In addition to numerous small 
banks, three were chartered with large capital 
stock. There being no money in the territory 
with which to pay for the stock, the device was 
hit upon of borrowing the capital by the sale 
of bonds. The Territory itself issued three 
millions of dollars of bonds for the Union Bank 
at Tallahassee, where the population within its 
reach probably did not exceed fifteen thousand 
whites and blacks, apd guaranteed the bonds of 
two other banks to the extent of nine hundred 
thousand dollars. The laws under which these 
schemes were put through attracted little atten- 
tion at Washington until the banks were on the 
road to ruin and the bondholders were getting 
uneasy. A few of the bonds were redeemed by 
the banks, but many of them were left outstand- 
ing, and for these die Territory refused to pro- 
vide payment. 

In dealing with the question of Nullification, 
it is doubtful if Prof essor McMaster has laid 
sufficient emphasis on the personal equation in 
the matter. Jackson hated Calhoun, and there- 
fore Nullification in South Carolina was treason. 
On the abstract question of States' Rights, it 
would be hard to say just where Jackson stood. 
His attitude toward tiie bank was the natural 
one of the particularist ; in the matter of the 
Indians he stood complacently by and saw a 
State nullify a decree of the Federal Supreme 
Court. In neither case, however, was he stand- 
ing for any abstract principle, but simply for 
what he believed to be right in each case. The 
bank charter he believed unconstitutional; he 
had fought too many Indians to have much 
sympathy with them. The tariff was a different 
matter. While not at heart a high-tariff man, 
he believed the tariff act constitutional and that 
his arch-enemy Calhoun was at the bottom of 
the effort to nullify it. 

One of the most interesting things brought 
out by the author in this connection is the atti- 
tude of Virginia which foreshadowed her later 

division. Naturally, South Carolina was de- 
sirous to know the attitude of her sister states. 
In Virginia, it seems, the most that could be 
counted on was the neutrality of the eastern 
section, while the western section was sure to 
8tond by the nation. Even more rtriking is a 
letter written by Jackson to Buchanan, explain- 
ing how he had consigned '' nullification and 
the doctrine of secession" to the tomb from 
which they would never rise again. 

It seems now like an anachronism to read of 
a movement in the United States, as late as the 
fourth decade of the nineteenth century, to abo- 
lish imprisonment for debt, or to wipe out 
feudalism as preserved in New Yoric in certain 
remnants of the patroon system. Abolitionism, 
suppression of the right of petition, immigra- 
tion, and other social and economic questions, 
receive due attention. Strange to say, how- 
ever, certain anti-democratic tendencies in this 
age of democratization receive no notice what- 
ever. Some of the states began to lay restric- 
tions on the right of suffrage. North Carolina 
and Pennsylvania disfranchising free negroes 
about the same time. 

The present volume announces that the series 
is to close with one more. If so. Professor 
McMaster will cover more years than he has 
done in any previous volume, and that, too, in 
a period more stormy and significant than some 
of those already covered. The politics of the 
period are ample enough for extended treat- 
ment, and the social conditions will demand 
much fuller treatment than is given to this sub- 
ject in the present volume. A really great 
opportunity lies before the author, though he 
^nU be covering in part a period already well 
handled by Dr. Rhodes, and it is to be hoped 
that he will not cramp himself by too narrow 
limitations in space. If two volumes are ne- 
cessary, let us have them. 

Giving up a promising business career and 
devoting oneself to the writing of history is an 
occurrence not common in this so-called com- 
mercial age. Such, in brief, has been the life 
of Dr. James Ford Rhodes, who has devoted 
nineteen years of the best part of his life to a 
period of our history but little more extended 
in time. The loss to the business world has 
been one of immense gain to the world of his- 
torical literature. The word " literature " is 
used designedly here. Possibly Dr. Rhodes's 
works may not stand a rigid application of all 
the tests invented by the schoolmen to deter- 
mine what is literature, but they certainly cany 




the stamp of verisimilitude and hove the force 
necessary to lure the reader on and invite him 
to return. Whether describing the scattering 
of fresh firebrands by the repeal of the Mis- 
souri Compromise, or depicting social condi- 
tions in the fiftieB, bringing into vivid play once 
more those tumultuous emotions which swept 
men Uihet and ihither in the closing days of 
one admmistration and the b^inmng of another, 
or setting the stage for the full tragedy of the 
Civil War, there is in all and over all tiie deep 
breath of human interest. 

*^ Sordid " and ^^ mean " are terms that have 
been appUed in contempt to American history. 
The blunder-crime of secession was atoned for 
with a mififhty effusion of human blood : but it 
gave to le^orld examples of he«>ic daring, 
patriotic devotion, and pathetic self-sacrifice, of 
statesmanship and military genius, that have 
seldom if ever been surpassed, and, last of all, 
freedom to a branch of the human race. There 
was nothing sordid or mean here. 

But the aftermath of war, that blunder-crime 
against civilization strangely misnamed Reoon- 
struction, — was that not sordid and mean? The 
answer may be found in the last two volumes 
of Dr. Shodes's history. Not that he has at- 
tempted to reveal the base, — rather that, in 
his fidelity to the truth, he has been imable to 
conceal it. Seldom in all history has a nation 
been confronted with such momentous problems 
and presented with such magnificent possibiUties 
m their solution, and more seldom still do we 
find a more miserable failure. Statesmanship 
seems to have died, and selfish political parti- 
sanship at once arose from the corpse. The 
generals of the army had bound up the wounds 
of the prostrate foe ; the politicians opened them 
again and bound them up with vitriol. The 
measures for the re-making of the Union appear 
to have been conceived in hate and bom in a 
lust for pelf and power. The really great op- 
portunity which lay before Congress was to fit 
the wards of the nation, the freedmen, for citi- 
zenship, and to help them in adjusting their 
relations with their former masters. Instead of 
doing this they thrust the ballot into the negro's 
hand and turned him and the carpet-bagger 
loose for one of the most shameless orgies of 
political plunder the world has ever seen. Great 
as was the injustice to the intelligent and 
property-owning classes of the South, it was 
perhaps even greater to the negro. This is an 
age of democracy ; at first blush the enf ran- 
chis^nent of the negro might seem to have been 
a part of this movement. The injustice to him 

came not simply in leaving him in the hands of 
designing men, but in actually forcing him td 
look to them for guidance. Wickedness and 
barbarism cannot rule forever over virtue and 
intelligence. The ten years' orgy had created 
a distrust of the negro, and when his rule was 
overthrown he was thrust under foot as unworthy 
of political rights. And now, forty years after 
his nominal enfranchisement, he must begin at 
the bottom and first prove himself worthy of 
these rights. 

Shameless misgovemment in the South re- 
acted upon the whole country and contaminated 
public life everywhere. If some of the Northern 
politicians were above the carpet-baggers in 
order' of ability, they were not a whit better in 
point of morality. Concerning Benjamin F. 
Butler, Dr. Khodes quotes with approval Weed's 
estimate that he was the most influential man 
in Congress (1878), and the worst. One of the 
strangest things in all our history is that the 
intelligent and virtuous state of Massachusetts 
should have honored this man so often and so 
highly. His love of pelf and power has been 
pointed out by Dr. Rhodes in previous volumes. 
Why speak of Oakes Ames and the Credit 
Mobilier, of Babcock and the Whiskey King, 
and of Belknap and the Indian-trade frauds, the 
last two of whom were protected by President 
Grant ? After reading the complete exposure 
of the character of Blaine, one shudders to think 
how narrowly he missed the Presidency twenty 
years later. Summing up the story of shame. 
Dr. Rhodes says: ^^The high-water mark of 
corruption in national affairs was reached dur- 
ing Grant's two administrations.*' Grant him- 
self is cleared of all personal guilt, in spite of 
Butler's boast that he had a hold over him ; but 
his career as President has beclouded somewhat 
the glory won by the sword. The notorious 
Tweed Ring had no official connection with 
national corruption, but the story of its riot 
and ruin is given as a part of the corruption of 
the age. 

In connection with the Tweed exposure. Dr. 
Rhodes makes a most interesting digression on 
the suffrage. Tweed had maintained himself 
by the vote of ignorant men who had no ma- 
terial interest in the community. The way to 
prevent such corruption, says Dr. Rhodes, is 
to restrict the suffrage by educational and prop- 
erty tests. But no such restriction was put 
in the New York charter, because at that time 
^^ the country was bowed down in adoration of 
the theory that voting was a right, not a priv- 
il^;e." The aufchor thinks that possibly all 



[March 16, 

men should be allowed to vote for President 
sind members of Congress, but that state and 
city govemm^it is more distinctly a matter of 
business, and in these the rule of an intelligent 
minority is preferable to that of an unintelligent 
democracy. It is not surprising that one who 
hajs spent a Ions: time in the study of this 
period should tuSi from it with his confidence 
in democracy shaken. Rightly understood, how- 
ever, it only emphasizes the truth that democ- 
racy must base its hope of ultimate success on 
intelligence and virtue. 

The character of Tilden suffers slightly at 
the hands of Dr. Rhodes. There was no taint 
of corruption, not even to secure the Presidency 
in 1877 ; on the contrary, he was honest, be- 
cause honesty is the best policy, though he did 
dodge the income-tax, but he was lacking in the 
physical and moral courage necessary for lead- 
ership in turbulent times and so vacillating of 
purpose as to destroy his party's enthusiasm. 
As for Hayes, ^^ left to himself, he would have 
been capable of refusing the high office if not 
honestly obtained, and had he declined to ac- 
cept it before the Louisana Retuming-Board 
made their return, though he would never have 
been President, he would have been one of the 
world's heroes. As it actually turned out, how- 
ever, he saw with Sherman's eyes, which were 
those of a stubborn partisan." It is the author's 
opinion that '^he ought to have stopped the 
action in his favor of the Louisiana Retuming- 
Board, but after swallowing this much he stood 
as the avowed representative of his party ; and 
... he had no choice but to take the place." 
From this the reader will infer at once that Dr. 
Rhodes does not think that. Hayes was elected. 
He says expressly that Tilden should have 
had the vote of Louisiana and possibly that 
of Florida. His account of this memorable 
contest is clear and remarkably well condensed, 
though it does not appear to add anything new. 
However, it is not likely that anything new will 
be added until someone investigates thoroughly 
the frauds at their sources, if it can be done at 
this late day. 

A few years ago, in an article published else- 
where, the present writer, quoting 'Professor 
Burgess's statement that the ^^ final " history of 
the Civil War would have to be written by a 
Northern man, because the North was in the 
right and because the victor is always more 
generous than the vanquished, undertook to 
say that for this very reason the " fijial " history 
of Reconstruction would have to be written by 
a Southern man because the South was the 

ultimate victor in that life-and-death struggle. 
The recent achievement of Dr. Rhodes seems 
to indicate that the writer may prove a false 
prophet. Several Southern men have produced 
excellent monographs on this subject, but the 
man who surpasses him wiU accomplish a note- 
worthy feat. However, in dealing with these 
two periods there is this difference, which gives 
the Southern man no advantage: Men may 
still debate about the war and its causes, but 
there is only one side to Reconstruction. Here 
the vanquished, the inventors and supporters of 
Congressional Reconstruction, are universally 
condemned and cast into outer darkness. 

David Y. Thomas. 

The LiETTBrs of Ow en Meredith.* 

^^ My estimate of what Lord Lytton's rank 
will be is that, as a lyric poet, the position given 
him will be next among his contemporaries after 
Tennyson, Swinburne, and Rossetti." So wrote 
Mr. Wilfrid Blunt in 1892. To a generation 
that knows Owen Meredith only as the author 
of ^^Lucile," this estimate is sufficiently sur- 
prising. We are not concerned at the moment, 
however, to attack or to confirm it, but only to 
gain, if possible, an accurate impression of the 
man himself from the two volumes of his 
^^ Personal and Literary Letters " now before 
us. They contain a record of unusual inter- 
est, — the story of a defeated poet, an exquisite 
amateur of letters, whom circumstances and 
temperament kept on the lower slopes of 
Parnassus. They convince us, not that Lord 
Lytton's public career prevented him from 
becoming a great poet, but that his success as 
diplomatist and administrator was possible be- 
cause his poetic inspiration, though genuine, was 
fitful and limited. He recognized this quite 
clearly himself. ^^ I have at least half a dozen 
different persons in me," he wrote in 1890, 
^'each utterly unlike the other — all pulling 
different ways and continually getting in each 
other's way " (vol. ii., p. 396). And in a more 
serious vein, he wrote to his daughter a few 
months before his death : 

<< I reflect that if I had acted more selfishly — I don't 
mean in the bad bnt the best sense of the word, with 
more of that self-assertion which springs from a man's 
confidence in the best of his own nature, and is the dis- 
ting^uishing mark of genius — I should have resolutely 


OP Lytton. Edited by Lady Betty Balfour. In two voluiiieB, 
with photoffravare portraits. New York: LongmaoB, Green. 




eschewed a number of good things not suitable to my 
nature, and should have bent the circumstances of my 
life into conformity with the natural direction of the 
faculties best fitted to render life fruitful. In my 
inability to do this I recognize the absence of that mis- 
sion without which the imaginatiye faculty is a will-'o- 
the-wisp " (ii., 426). 

This letter is in pathetic contrast with one 

written to his father in 1854, when he was 

twenty-two years old, and had been for four 

years foUowing the profession of diplomacy 

which his father had marked out for him. 

^ I certainly feel and own that I have hitherto not 
done justice to myself in the profession, and I see 
many men getting before me to the top of the ladder 
whom I really feel to be not more light of foot or 
steady of hand than myself, so that if I continue to 
follow the career, certainly my amour propre is con- 
cerned in adyancement; but I feel that aU those great 
ind brilliant prizes which allure others, would, even 
were I to obtain them, greatly diminish rather than 
increase my happiness: each step forward would be a 
step further from my own ideal, and would have to 
be trodden over some relinquished dream, or some 
strangled interest. . . . Even Uncle Henry, despite his 
many noble achievements and his costly successes, and 
bis great position and reputation, the praise of the 
public press, the confidence of ministers, the envy of all 
his colleagues, and the Grand Cross of the Bath, is an 
example that makes me shudder. I would rather, for 
my part, have been Bums at the Scotch alehouse, than 
Unele Hany in a ship of war, going out to his post 
with the red ribbon on. As I once said to you when 
we walked along the streets of London by night, and 
you made me proud and happy by asking me the ques- 
tion, my ambition has ever been for fame rather than 
power. ... I have no fear myself of becoming a mere 
litenuy dilettante " (i., 59). 

This youthful prophecy was fulfilled. The 
** great and brilUant prizes " which he obtained 
— the viceroyalty pf India, the Paris embassy 
-did not, if we may W these letters, bri^ 
him happiness. Political activity was so far 
from absorbing him that it never really com- 
manded lus respect. ** The debates of the House 
of Lords,'* on his return from India, «« appeared 
to him ^dreamlike and devoid of real life'; 
those of the House of Commons, ^ one vast in- 
sane display of wasted power and passion mis- 
applied ' " (ii., 232). He would certainly have 
accepted John Morley's characterization of 
politics, widely as his political views differed 
from those of ibe distinguished Liberal : *^ Poli- 
tics are a field where action is one long second- 
best, and where the choice constantly lies 
between two blunders." 

On the other hand. Lord Lytton was, in the 
strict sense, ^^ a mere literary (Ulettante " all his 
days. And this he huS early recognized. 
Writing to Mrs. Browning when he was twenty- 
four, he said : 

*< ' Art requires the whole man.' Ah, how well I know 
that ! how bitterly I feel it. But why do yon say it to 
me who am doomed to be a Dilettante for life ? If 
there is a word of truth in what we are always saying, 
and admitting when said, about the dignity of poetry 
as an art, its high tax on the faculties of the poet, and 
its sublime benefits to mankind, why in Heaven's name 
should we say that the devotion of the poet to his art, 
seriously, earnestly, exclusively ... as a profession 
and a most honorable one, is a waste of time ... a 
sleep in a garden of roses ? " (i., 80). 

This last is an allusion to a warning received 
from his father two years before. And to his 
father he wrote in 1860 : 

'< There can be no doubt about real genius. It is sore 
of the world, and the world is sure of it. And this is 
what dismays me on my own account. I am too clever, 
at least have too great a sympathy with intellect, to be 
quite content to eat the fruit of the earth as an ordi- 
nary young man, and yet not clever enough to be ever 
a great man, so that I remain like Mahomet's coffin 
suspended between heaven and earth, missing the hap- 
piness of both. ... A little' more or a little less of 
whatever ability I inherit from you would have made 
me a complete and more cheerful man " (iL, 82). 

There is the formula of dilettantism, of that 
gifted mediocrity which lacks the final efficiency 
without which the greatest gifts are sterile. 

His father had long before warned him of 
the danger that besets a young man of fortune, 
good looks, and popularity ; but by dilettantism 
the elder Lytton meant '^writinfir only what 
pleases your^," instead «f writin| witlian eye 
single to popular approval. In fact, the suc- 
cessful novelist's admonitions to the young poet 
are an amusing compound of admirable good 
sense and crass Philistinism. 

« One thing I would say, in spite of all you urge about 
being content with a small audience and your own ap- 
proval. That is not the right ambition of a poet who 
means to influence his age. It is not worth the sacrifice 
of all other thought and career for. He should aspire 
to reach a wide public. This is one reason why I de- 
plore the paramount effect that poets who only please 
a few have on your line and manner. Praised as they 
are by critics, Keats and Shelley are very little read by 
the public, and absolutely unknown out of England. 
. . . Now take Charles Mackay's poems. They are 
little praised by critics, no idols of the refining few, but 
they sell immensely with the multitude — it is worth 
studying why " (i., 55). 

Though this is contemptible enough, many of 
the elder Lytton's criticisms of his son's work 
are thoroughly sound. He pointed out the re- 
dundance and decoration, the absence of ^^ mas- 
culine severity of taste," the fondness for detail 
rather than proportion, that characterized the 
young poet's work, at the same time admitting 
its genius. He thought, however, rather too well 
of " Lucile." " I can remember no work of such 
promise since Werter. ... At times the play 



[March 16, 

of the vocabulary reminds me of Ooethe himflftlf 

in his best days of poetry. You may rely on 

fame for the poem " (i., 99). The author's 

own view of it, we ipay say in passing, was more 

just. ^' A trashy poem that seems to have bcr 

come very popular in America " (i., 93) was his 

best word for it. 

One aspect of the father's relation to the son, 

however, is less amusing than painful. From 

his boyhood, the younger Lytton^s craving for 

his facer's love and respect is ahnost pathetic. 

At the age of eighteen he wrote : 

« I have just heard from my f lather. What an in- 
tense pleasure it gives me to receive a letter of kind- 
ness from him, I cannot tell you. My position and my 
feelings are so strange, my heart is so full of love for 
him, full to overflowing, but it is darkened and choked 
with the most fearful and constant doubts, the most 
painful suspicions, the most bitter feelings " (i., 24). 

This is an allusion to the estrangement be- 
tween his father and mother, and the jealousy 
and distrust with which each viewed L son's 
intercourse with the other. At a later period, 
the young poet's desire for his father's literary 
approval was no less keen than his craving for 
his father's love. In reply to the elder Lytton's 
praise of ** Clytemnestra," he wrote : 

« The best thanks I can give you back, my beloved 
father, for the great heartful of gladness you have 
given me must be the assurance of that gladness, and 
how it surpasses all other kinds of happiness, so that I 
could wish that my life should stop here lest anything 
Um should follow. . . . My heart seems to open under 
each kind word of yours; all things seem easy to do, 
and pain even light to bear " (i., 54). 

Yet the father to whom these words were ad- 
dressed was capable of writing a letter that con- 
victs him of cruel suspicion, if not of unnatural 

<< I don't think, whatever your merit, the world would 
allow two of the same name to have both a permanent 
reputation in literature. You would soon cbme to 
grudge me my life, and feel a guilty thrill every time I 
was iU. . . . No. Stick close to your profession, take 
every occasion to rise in it, plenty of time is left to culti- 
/ vate the mind and write verse or prose at due intervals. 
As to your allowance, I should never increase it till you 
get a step. I help the man who helps himself " (i., 60) . 


« What you have said is quale enough. I shall only 
recur in thought to those suggestions for the future with 
regret that they were ever made. I renounce them. . . . 
I am quite willing to abide in the profession and work 
as well and as cheerfully as I can in it" (i., 61). 

But this was followed by a still more amazing 
remmciation. At his father's request he prom- 
ised not to write at all for two years. Possibly 
the son's poetical career, his incurable dilet- 
tantism, justify the father's severity. But for 
all that, it was a rash and heartless way to deal 

with a young poet. Suppose someone had 
silenced Keats for two years ! The supposition 
is, of course, absurd ; for Keats could not have 
been silenced. This act of obedience is suffi- 
cient evidence x)f the slightness of the poet's 
gift. For such a nature, it would probably 
have been the part of wisdom to put into his 
profession the spirit and energy that were in- 
sufficient for his art, and to cease to look with 
longing at heights which he could not climb. 
In middle life, he Qrpparently came round to 
his father's opinion that the poet is not injured 
but improved by being combined with the man 
of affairs, though the following letter, in which 
he expresses this conviction, must be contrasted 
with the one already quoted in which he lament- 
ed that his poetical aim had not been single : 

« For any man of robust moral fibre and unlimited 
intellectual receptivity, I am convinced that occasional 
close contact with (or immersion in) the central move- 
ment of that world, mean and shallow though it be, is 
essential, not perhaps to the development, but to the 
adjustment of his faculties. My belief is that all 
first-class genius has in it an element of vulgarity, 
if you will — but certainly of amalgamation with the 
conmion sense, and common experience and sentiment, 
of commonplace human beings — a fulcrum for its indi- 
viduality in what is generally appreciable. Shakespeare 
had it; Milton, too, in spite of all the narrowness of 
his sublimity; Dante, in spite of all his egotism; and 
Byron and Goethe and Voltaire — and this constitutes 
their immeasurable superiority in the hierarchy of 
genius over such geniuses as Keats and Shelley and 
Wordsworth and Tennyson and Rousseau ** (i., 330). 

We have given so much attention to a single 
interesting phase of Lord Lytton's life that we 
have little space to devote to many other phases 
of perhaps greater intrinsic importance. The 
letters seem to us conclusive evidence of his 
diplomatic ability, and of the wisdom and 
tact of his Indian administration, complicated 
though it was by the perplexities of the Afghan 
War. The letters from India, indeed, are so 
full of color and incident, and throw so clear a 
light on the problems of colonial administration, 
that they surpass in interest and value those of 
any other period. On his return to England, 
it became necessary for him to take part in 
a debate of the Lords which was virtually a 
defense of the Government in its conduct of 
Afghan affairs. Lord Lytton never spoke 
readily, and had therefore carefully prepared 
his speech, when, within a few hours of deliver- 
ing it, Lord Beaconsfield begged him to change 
his line of argument. He writes : 

« There was a full House, the galleries thronged, 
royalties and peeresses who had staid in town to hear 
me; the bar and the places behind the throne were also 
filled with Liberal M. P.'s and Ministers, who came up 




from the Commons to hear me out of curiosity. I felt 
Teiy oenrons when I got up, and the cheers from my 
own side seemed to me rather faint. But after ten 
minutes I felt that I had the House well in hand, and 
when I sat down Ifelt that the speech had been a de- 
cided oratorical success. Lord Beaconsfleld was un- 
stinted in his commendations of what he called its 
* remarkable Parliamentary tact.' The result was, I 
think, a great relief to him, for his last words as he 
left the House with me were : * You made a g^reat effect 
without one injudicious word. As for myself, I feel as 
if I had won the Derby. I backed you heavily, and you 
have won my stakes for me — easOy. As for you, you 
have established your own Parliamentary position in 
the front rank. From this time forward you may do 
or say anything you please in Parliament. Your posi- 
tion is assured, and you have won it by a single speech ' " 
(iL, 228). 

It is in the same letter that he remarks, ^^ The 
more I see of public life in England, the less I 
like it, and the less I respect the actors in it" ! 

We can merely refer to the bits of literary 
criticism of his contemporaries— often sound 
and always suggestive — that are scattered up 
and down these volumes, and to the fragments 
of literary theory, which are <» stimulating as 
those that delight us in the letters of Stevenson. 
We must also confine ourselves to mentioning 
the names of some of the distinguished persons 
to whom Lord Lytton wrote with the utmost 
freedom and intimacy, — John Morley, John 
Forster, Lord Salisbury, the Brownings, the 

So far as Lord Lytton's personality is con- 
cemed, we gain from these letters an ii^pression 
of an unworldly and poetic capacity for friend- 
ship, of almost irresistible social gifts, of an 
entire sincerity of nature, utterly loyal and free 
from subterfuge, and beneath all the charm of 
manner and the gayety of the man of the world, a 
profound and permanent melancholy. He was 
evidently the most delightful and sympathetic 
of fathers, and his daughter writes of hiim with 
a mixture of the reverence due to his talents 
and position and the tenderness called forth by 
his fundamental imhappiness. In editing the 
letters, she has done her work with admirable 
reticence and skill. It is a far more touching 
and interesting record than the biography of 
many a greater man. 

Charles H. A. Wager. 

Gen. Ouver Ons Howard has written his autobi- 
ography, which the Baker and Taylor Co. will publish 
in the Fall. The Greneral's experiences while in the 
CiTil War, his services as head of the Freedman's Bu- 
reau daring the Reconstruction period and afterwards 
as Peace Commissioner to the hostile Indians, and his 
work and influence as an educator, all combine to make 
this a book of the first importance. 

In the liAND OF Snow and Ice.* 

When the htte Mr. William Zeigler's first 
expedition to the Polar region failed to attain 
any hi^h degree of norti. latitude, he was not 
disheartened, but immeditely fitted out another 
expedition and sent it northward under the 
command of Mr. Anthony Fiala of Brooklyn. 
Mr. Fiala had been the photographer of the &st 
expedition ; he had shown exceptional skill as 
an explorer, and had the experience necessary 
to overcome difficulties encountered by the first 
ill-fated party. Yet the weU-laid schemes of 
both promoter and explorer went agley. Their 
vessel, ^^ America," was crushed in the ice the 
first winter ; the unusual climatic conditions of 
the following summer prevented any serious 
advance toward the desired spot ; the relief ship 
failed to appear at the end of the summer ; and, 
finally, many of the men became disaffected, — 
a list of insurmoimtable difficulties which com- 
pelled the explorer to relinquish his efforts and 
to return without having achieved the object of 
his quest. 

In a minor way, however, the FialarZiegler 
expedition was successful. Charts were made 
of previously unexplored portions of Franz 
Josef Archipelago, and magnetic and meteoro- 
logical observations were recorded by Messrs. 
W. J. Peters and R. W. Porter, the scientists 
of the expedition. The most important result 
of the expedition, however, is the publication 
of the account of it by Mr. Fiala. His book, 
^^ Fighting the Polar Ice," is doubtless the most 
interesting story of Polar exploration yet written 
in this coimtry. Although it is the record of 
a failure, it is likely to be remembered longer 
than many accounts of more fortunate explorers. 

Mr. Fiala's expedition left Trondhjem, Nor- 
way, Jime 28, 1903, and on July 13 struck 
the ice-field in Barentz Sea. This sea, lying 
between Norway and Franz Josef Archipelago, 
has been cross^ by many expeditions in* less 
than a week's time, but it took Fiala's ship, the 
^^ America," over a month to buck and hammer 
its way to Cape Flora, the most southern point 
of the archipelago. On August 8, by almost 
miraculous good fortune, the ship escaped from 
the ice pack, " steaming between two enormous 
blocks of ice, and escaping just in time, as the 
fields crashed together with tremendous force 
behind us." On August 12 the expedition 
reached Cape Flora, famous in the annals of 
Polar exploration as the place where Jackson 

* PiORTiNo THB PoLAB IcB. Bj Anthoiiy Fiftla. nivstrated. 
New York: Doabledajr, Pace A Co. 




and Nansen had their dramatic meeting, and, 
of vastly more importance to Fiala, where the 
Duke of the Abruzzi cached a great supply of 
provisions. Desiring to winter farther, north, 
however, Commander Fiala set out to fight the 
ice of the British Channel toward Cape Dillon. 
After a sturdy contest, the expedition made 
anchor in Teplitz Bay, where the Duke of the 
Abruzzi wintered in 1899 and 1900, and whence 
Captain Cagni of that expedition started on his 
trip nearest the pole of any explorer until Peary's 
recent achievement broke the record. 

From this time Fiala's account is a cata- 
logue of troubles. The " America," seemingly 
a ^^ fatal and perfidious bark," broke loose from 
her moorings in a storm, and went adrift in the 
awful darkness of an Arctic night. Hardly had 
she been made fast again when she was locked 
in the ice, and was finally wrecked in the ice- 
pressure late in December. 

One little incident which lightens this dark 

story we may here transcribe. 

« The night of disaster was tinged with some flashes 
of humor, stories of which reached me hiter. While 
the crew were passing the bags over the side of the 
ship, the cook, who was of an excitable nature, suddenly 
appeared at the rail with a large bag which he heaved 
oyer with all his strength. It struck the ice below with 
a sounding crash; causing several of the sailors to 
exclaim, < Hello, Cook, what was that? ' < Oh, that 's all 
right! * he answered; < it' s lamp chimneys and flat irons* " 

After the loss of the ship, the party had to 
accommodate itself to the house which had been 
built on shore at Camp Abruzzi. Then followed 
the long night of preparation for the trial fur- 
ther north\ii^Lrd. On March 7, 1904, twenty- 
six men, with sixteen pony-sledges and thirteen 
dog-sledges, set out for die great North apex. 
In five days the party returned to camp, sorely 
tried in spirit, and with a chilled entjiusiasm. 
Five men had become disabled, the cookers had 
proved inadequate, a snow-storm had proved 
too much for the party, and complaints were so 
general among the men that Fiala decided to 
return to camp to refit, and to reduce the num- 
ber of men for another attempt. 

This first attempt northward revealed the 
most serious defect in Fiala's appointments. 
Some of his men were of the stuff heroes are 
made of, but many of them were of commoner 
clay and not fitted to endure the hardships of 
such rigorous work as Polar exploration de- 
mands. The author, who by no means has a 
con^plaining nature, fitting^ says : 

" In Arctic research — as in all undertakings — 
Christian character is the chief desideratum. The 
Polar field is a great testing ground. Those who pass 
through winters of darkness and days of trial above 

the circle of ice know better than others the weakness 
of human nature and their own insufficiencies." 

Could Fiala have had a company of privates 
like his side companion, the Irishman Duffy, he 
might have accomplished more, even in the face 
of the difficulties offered by Nature. 

The second northward attempt was of even 
shorter duration than the first. The party left 
camp on March 25, reached Cape FUgely the 
same evening, but on account of disastrous ac- 
cidents to the sledges they returned on the 
second day. Out of thirty-nine men in camp, 
twenty-five elected to go south to Cape Flora 
to meet the relief ship. Again disappointment 
was to be theirs. Barentz Sea was dead and 
white, with a sullen sheet of rugged ice, so that 
no ship could come to the cape. All hopes of 
relief that year were soon al^ndoned. Provi- 
dentially, however, the lives of the party were 
saved by the abundant stores cached at Cape 
Flora by the Duke of the Abruzzi, and by the 
discovery of a vein of coal found up the steep 

On September 27« Commander Fiala left 
Cape Flora to march north again to Camp 
Abruzzi. For fifty-four days Fiala and his heroic 
comrades staggered from ice-pack to ice-pack, 
from island to island, across the archipelago. 
It was on this awful return that he and Steward 
Spencer met with the most exciting adventure 
recorded in the book. While walking ahead of 
the sledges, the snow gave way beneath Fiala^s 
feet, and with Spencer, who was trying to help 
him, he feU into a glacial crevasse, a distance 
of seventy feet, where the two were wedged into 
a narrow abyss. The story of the rescue is a 
thrilling one. 

** At last I saw above me the end of a rope, which 
gradually neared as I shouted directions to those out of 
sight above who were lowering the line, our only hope 
of escape. 

« My right arm was free, and at last .the precious 
line was in my hand. I painfully made a bowline in the 
end of the rope, the fingers of my left hand being for- 
tunately free. Slipping the noose over my right foot, 
I called to those above to haul away. Soon I was swing- 
ing like a pendulum in free space. ... I called to them 
to move the rope to the right and then lower me. I 
swung around in the black chasm and felt the icy walls, 
but could not discover the Steward. 

« In desperation, as I felt myself growing weaker, I 
called to him, < Look up and try to see me against the 
light above ! ' He obeyed, saw my suspended form, 
and directed my movements. In answer to my shouts, 
the men above moved the rope along the edge of the 
crevasse and lowered me to where I could reach the 
Steward, though I could not rescue him on aocotrnt of 
a projection of ice that interfered. But I could pass him 
a foot and a hand, and lift him from his prone position, 
and help him to stand on the cake of ice that had broken 




ofF when he fell and had jammed, saying him from 
death. Unable to give the Steward further help, I told 
him it would be best for the men to haul me up and 
send the rope down for him. He agreed, and I was 
drawn to the surface, — just in time, as I fainted on 
reaching the top. The Steward was hauled up next." 

Again in the fateful month of March, 1905, 
Fiala made his third trial, but reached only 
eighty-two degrees north latitude — his farthest 
point north: Although he thought it possible 
that he and Duffy might exceed Cagni's record, 
he felt that the party which had wintered at the 
South Camp might need his guidance in event 
that the relief ship faited to come the second 
year; so, sinking personal ambitions, he returned. 
On July SO, 1905, the relief ship was sighted. 

Although failure marked the attempt of Mr. 
Fiala to reach the North Pole, that woid cannot 
be applied to his book. In many respects it is 
a most notable book of exploration. First of 
all, it is eminently readable : it does not catar 
logue its author's heroic efforts, but it describes 
them with an imaginative fervor somewhat rare 
m books of this kind. Such sustained descrip- 
tive passages as his account of the grinding of 
the '^ America " in the ice, the long march of 
two hundred miles in the Arctic night from 
Camp Ziegler to Camp Abruzzi, and the story 
of the descent into the crevasse at Hooker Island, 
can hardly be matched among books of Polar 
exploration. Another feature that gives zest to 
this book is the author's photographs. No 
amount of reading can convey an idea of the 
terrible ice-packs, the tremendous ice-pressures, 
and the hummocks over which the idedges of 
Arctic explorers have to travel, so satisfactorily 
as do the panoramic pictures in this volume, 
flala's pictures reveal to us for the first time 
just what those difficulties are. The publishers 
of the excellent ^^Geographical Library" in 
which series this book appears, are to be con- 
gratulated on producing so picturesque and 
meritorious a volume. It will compare favorably 
with any book describing travel and exploration 
in the Polar r^on. H. E. Coblentz. 

BRnsFS ox ^£w Books. 

mannera of 
^the third 

The recent death of Giosu^ Carducci 
serves to remind us how much of the 
present literary revival in Italy is due 
to him. That very apt phrase " the third Italy ** 
was eoined by Carducci to convey the idea of a free 
Italy proeeediog on her path toward happier desti- 
nies, in distinction from the first Italy which gave 
birth to the grandeur of ancient Rome, and the 
second Italy, overran and subdued by barbarians, 

partitioned among strangers, or involved in inter- 
necine warfare. Books about the past of Italy are 
legion; there are no lack of guides to her towns, 
her lovely landscapes, her art treasures. But now 
arises a new need — to watch the Italy that is now 
in the making, the Italy renewed and re-bom in art, 
literature, statecraft, in every manifestation of men- 
tal life. Fortunately, almost the first attempt to 
supply this need is a very successful one. It comes 
in die shape of a handsome volume by Miss Helen 
Zimmern, bearing the title ^' Italy of the Italians " 
( Scribner ) . The author's residence of twenty years 
in this land of her adoption has prorided her with the 
adequate point of riew ; her equipment as a scholar 
and writer on many subjects, artistic, philosophic, and 
literary, has g^ven her a power of condenised gen- 
eralization which enables her to treat such subjects 
as "The Press," "Literature," "The Painters," 
" Sculpture and Architecture," " Science and Inven- 
tions," " Playhouses, Players and Plays," each in a 
single chapter. Some of these show how little we 
know of modem Italian life, and how easy it is for 
the casual tourist to be mistaken in his hasty deduc- 
tions. For example, we who are accustomed to 
bulky newspapers are likely to look with contempt 
upon Italy^s small news sheet of four pages ; but 
scorn turns to praise when we learn of the wholesome 
editorial restrictions that govern the publication. 
No news calculated to disturb the world's peace is 
allowed to be manufactured in the office ; the polit- 
ical leaders are, as a rule, well-argued, well-studied, 
well-informed, and terse in expression ; the standard 
of literary and dramatic criticism is really elevated. 
The sanctity of the home is jealously respected. No 
marriages or births are announced in the Italian 
papers, only deaths. There are no interviews except 
such as concern politics, no man's house is described, 
no society ladies figure; there is no lifting of the 
veils of privacy. A respectable Italian would be 
pained and scandalized if the picture of his wife or 
mother or sister occupied a full page in a public 
journal. The stock phrase with which the tourist 
comes to Italy, "There is no modem Italian art," 
is also effectually silenced by a succinct survey 
showing the existence of an active and noteworthv 
Italian art, especially in landscape, where the old 
art was weakest That so many "Old Masters" 
are continually being made proves the skill, if not 
the honesty, of the modern painter. Some of these 
are so splendidly executed, so exactly reproduce the 
spirit and character of the time and the artist whose 
title they assume, that experts are continually de- 
ceived. The thirty-one full-page illustrations in Miss 
Zimmem's volume are up-to-date and some of them 
are entirely new, increasing the attractions of this 
highly interesting book. 

A champion of '^^^ Several biographies of Dr. Samuel 
liberty and G. Howe, as well as the more in- 

phiianthropy, fonnal memories of him evoked by 
the centennial celebration of his birthday less than 
six years ago, have made tolerably familiar his 



[Marcli 16 

philaiithropicy not to say heroic, life on two conti- 
nents ; but his diaries and correspondence are now 
for the first time published, in part at least, under 
the editorship of his daughter, Mrs. Laura E. Rich- 
ards, in an octavo of four hundred pages entitled 
'^ Letters and Journals of Samuel Gridley Howe" 
(Dana Estes & Co. ), to which Mr. Frank B. San- 
born has contributed a short historical introduction 
on the Greek Revolution of 1821-^, and to which 
also Whittier's noble poem ** The Hero " is appro- 
priately prefixed. This volume, with its sub-title 
"The Greek Revolution," its closing "End of Vol- 
ume I.," and its lack of index, seems to promise 
most hopefully a continuation of the work beyond 
the year 1832 at which it pauses. Better than any 
attempt of our own to characterize these interesting 
extracts from diaries and letters that breathe the 
energy and ardor of youthful hope and courage and 
self-devotion, is the final paragraph of Mr. San- 
bom's introduction. " Every reader," he says, ''must 
be impressed, as I have been, with the genius, re- 
source, good sense, and chivalry of this young Bos- 
toniah, in the varied and exacting services which 
he could render to the cause of liberty and philan- 
thropy in the eight years covered by these journals 
and letters. His diction is not always classical, 
his knowledge not always exact; but his head is 
clear and his heart in the right place, — his hands 
skilful always to do what is needful at the time. As 
Thoreau said of Osawatomie Brown, 'He would 
have left a Greek accent slanted the wrong way, 
and righted up a fallen man.' And the effect of the 
whole is that of a romance of knighthood." Mrs. 
Richards's prefatory and interspersed notes add no 
little to the value and completeness of the book as 
a detailed account of her father's eventful young 
manhood. A photogravure portrait of the youthful 
Howe, from the painting by Jane Stuart, daughter 
of Gilbert Stuart, faces the title-page. He was a 
strikingly handsome subject for any artist. 

Again under the auspices of Dr. 
h^'^in^B, Francis G. Peabody, who contributes 

an introduction. Professor Carl Hilty 
appeals to his English-speaking audience in a second 
" happiness " volume, — " The Steps of Life : Fur- 
ther Essays on Happiness " ( Macmillan ) , trans- 
lated by the Rev. Melvin Brandow. These chapters 
from the pen, not of a professed religious teacher, 
but of " a spiritually-minded man of the world" — 
to use Laurence Oliphant's phrase, as quoted by 
Mr. Peabody — are in the vein of his earlier essays, 
but are (a glad surprise) even better and wiser and 
stronger. Professor Hilty teaches constitutional law 
in the University of Bern, but has a firm belief in 
trudis of a more spiritual quality than those on 
the pages of the statute-book. A defender of the 
Christian faith in its fundamental principles, he has 
already proved himself an ethical and religious 
teacher of real helpfulness. The wrestling with 
sin, the bearing of sorrow, the pursuit of culture, 
the cultivation of charity and courage and a simple 

Christian faith — these are his steps leading up the 
arduous ladder of life. Many striking passages in 
his book evoke cordial assent, and some, equally 
striking, call forth the opposite. He affirms that 
" the most trustworthy fnendships are those which 
have sprung from a previous enmity, or have been 
once (but not twice) broken off ; " also, that "women 
are in general more easy to understand than men "; 
and that "polyglot speech is, as a rule, a mark 
neither of genius nor of character." Like most 
writings on "the simple life" and allied themes, 
these pages are not free from reiteration ; but that 
is not always a blemish in hortatory discourse. The 
translation is smooth, but has a few unidiomatic 
or awkward expressions, and at least one slip in 
grammar. "Financial" is used for "pecuniary," 
" delusion " where " illusion " would have been 
better, " more easy " for the shorter and preferable 
"easier," and, in one instance, "they" (German 
man) where a passive construction would have been 

A handful of ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ , eminently 
colored bead* readable are most of the little essays 
loosely strung. ^ j^g Katharine BurriU's " Loose 

Beads" (Dutton). Every-day matters, and some 
others, are treated with good sense, cheerful philos- 
ophy, and literary skilL The happy quotation and 
allusion are abundantly in evidence, and the fact 
that two of the chapters had already found favor 
with the readers of " Chambers's Journal" is a sort 
of recommendation for the entire volume. In her 
amusing paper on " Innocence and Ink," the writer 
takes occasion to say: "I am quite sure there are 
many days when grappling with a swarm of bees 
seems a light and easy task compared to grappling 
with words and sentences that refuse to swarm as 
you wish them to — that are ever incorrigibly wrong 
and will never never come right." But her words and . 
sentences, as a rule, marshal themselves in excellent 
order, although a fussy critic might object to her 
split infinitives, her " as if there was," her " mairS 
antique" (with its superfluous accent), her indis^ 
criminate use of "nice," her Scottish shyness (she 
declares herself a Scotchwoman, else we should have 
written "her skittish shyness") of "shall" and 
" should," and other peccadilloes that need trouble 
only the purist. The book is most attractively 
printed and bound. 

Aoroupof Occasionally in dramatic as well as 

18th century literary criticism we find an author 
comedy queene, q£ gtrong and vigorous utterance — 
one who is nothing if not iconoclastic, and hews 
down and builds up idols regardless of conventions 
and creeds. Mr. John Fy vie's " Comedy Queens of 
the Georgian Era" (Dutton) is a series of sketches 
of some of the most prominent English comedy 
actresses of the period. Colley Cibber lamented that 
the animated graces of the player could live no 
longer than "the instant breath and motion that 
presents them "; when the curtain falls and the play 
is played, all " the youth, the grace, the charm, the 




glow" pass into oblivion. But behind the mask 
there is always a human being, and the lives of few 
women exhibit such vicissitudes as do those of 
actresses. ' The present author has given us sketches 
of a dos^n women who in the eighteenth century 
attained to eminence in the only profession open to 
their sex. He points out that we are likely to form 
an erroneous estimate of the characters of those 
whose romantic careers form the subject of his vol- 
ume if we fail to bear in mind the great difference 
between the social positions of actors and actresses 
in the present day and their status in the eighteenth 
century ; they had then by no means emerged from 
the shadow of traditional classical and ecclesiastical 
degradation. Furthermore, these actresses had to 
encounter the tradition of immorality attaching to 
them in consequence of the notoriously scandalous 
lives of earlier English actresses in the profligate 
days of Charles II. The author has painted pictures 
of Charlotte Clarke, Margaret Woffington, Catherine 
Clive, Lavinia Fenton, Frances Abington, Dora 
Jordan, and their contemporaries, as they were, and 
left the reader to do his own moralizing wherever 
necessary. There is wit and genial humor and phi- 
losophy, with occasional cynicism, in these jottings, 
which are miscellaneous in character, — critical, 
biographical, anecdotal, descriptive, according to 
the mood or the circumstance. Eight photogravures 

embellish the volume. 

European ^^^ second volume of Mr. David J. 

intem€Ui<mai Hill's " History of European Diplo- 
reiatioM, macy" (Longmans) brings his nar- 

rative down to the treaty of Westphalia in 1648. 
The period covered by the present volume marks 
the transition from the Middle Ages, with their 
almost* chaotic political systems, to the modern 
period during which the permanent traditions of 
Europe took shape, national states succeeded to petty 
principaUties, and modem diplomacy had its rise. 
In reality, Mr. Hill's work is not a history of diplo- 
macy as the tide indicates, but a political history 
with special reference to European international 
relations during the period covered. Primarily, it 
is a review of the relations of France, Spain, Ger- 
many, and England to Italy, and particularly the 
long struggle of France and Germany for prepon- 
derance in the affairs of the Italian peninsula and 
the resulting effect upon the Papacy and upon 
European political morality. The ascendency of 
the House of Hapsburg, the international influence 
of the Reformation, and the development of the idea 
of a sovereign state system, are other topics treated 
by Mr. Hill. It may be doubted, however, whether 
they properly have a place in a history of diplomacy. 
The truth is that Mr. Hill has given us litlJe on the 
subject of diplomacy during the period covered by 
his volume. We look in vain for any discussion of 
the methods and agencies of diplomatic intercourse 
during the Middle Ages, the rights and privileges 
of ambassadors, diplomatic usages, the conception 
and character of mediseval diplomacy, and similar 

topics. As a history of Europe mainly from the 
point of view of international relations, Mr. Hill's 
work possesses conspicuous merits ; but it has only 
a very limited value for the student of diplomacy. 

The diver,ians of Pis^ator, Venator, and Auceps wiU 
an ex-Pretident all three find entertainment and wise 
wUhrodandgun.^yj^^Ql j^ ex-President Cleveland's 

collected papers entitled << Fishing and Shooting 
Sketches," which very appropriately bear the imprint 
of the Outing Publishing Co. The plain Viator also, 
if not strictly on business bent, will derive pleasure 
from these short and unpretentious chapters, writ- 
ten as they are in a humane and enlightened spirit, 
with an occasional touch of humor in its specific 
sense, and a delightful prevalence of good-humor 
throughout. A strong plea is made for out-door 
diversions in general, and for fiyshing and fowling 
in particular, with one brief chapter on rabbit-shoot- 
ing ; and every page breathes a sturdy and manly 
(not to say gendemanly) protest against unsports- 
manlike sport The writer professes himself a 
warm friend to all members of the fish and game 
tribe, although so ardent in their pursuit. His 
book makes for the ennoblement of his favorite 
pastimes, and for their perpetuation. The illustra- 
tions, by Mr. Henry S. Watson, are numerous, ap- 
propriate, and daintily executed. A frontispiece 
photographic print of Mr. Cleveland, and also draw- 
ings of lum in less formal attire, with rod in hand, 
add interest to this very inviting little volume. 

Thepxibiie ^®^ *^® ^® books that possess the 

€iddre99e9 of charm, apart from their contents, of 
John Hay, jj^^ recently published <^ Addresses 

of John Hay " (Century Co. ). The volume contains 
twenty-four addresses ; many of them are brief re- 
sponses to toasts, or remarks on other formal occa: 
sions, each containing an appropriate thought or 
sentiment finely worked out and gracefully phrased. 
But some of them are more elaborate productions. 
The one entitled " Franklin in France " is perhaps 
the finest, with its broad sweep over the historical 
conditions that product the Revolution, and its 
presentation of the manner in which Franklin took 
advantage of those conditions to accomplish his mis- 
sion. Another elaborate address is that on President 
McKinley, delivered in the Capitol at the invitation 
of Congress. It is, as was to be expected, wholly 
laudatory, but the praise is not without discrimina- 
tion, and it is a noteworthy example of the formal 
eulogy. Others are " Fifty Years of the Republican 
Party," "America's Love of Peace," "The Pi-ess and 
Modern Progress," and " American Diplomacy." 

r«i.« at.^^^^ The career of John Sherman was 

John Sherman ii» «i « «i. i^. 

cu an American notable for the length of his public 
ttatesmart. service in very prominent positions, 

and for the influence that he exei*ted upon the set- 
tlement of the great questions of the period from 
1855 to 1898. Witliin a month after he took his 
seat in Congress he was in the public eye, and there 



[Mardi 16, 

he remained for more than forty years. His in- 
fluence arose not so much from his oratory, though 
he spoke often and well, but from his efficiency 
in doing things. There was hardly an important 
measure before Congress in all that time that he 
did not have a hand in shaping, and in much of the 
legislation he was the central figure. This con- 
spicuous career has been set forth by Congressman 
Theodore £. Burton in his volume on Sherman 
in the second series of ^'American Statesmen'' 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co.). The book is rather hard 
reading for the ordinary person who has no great 
liking for figures and financial history; there was 
not much in Mr. Sherman's personality or career to 
grive a biographer opportunity to enliven his book 
with anecdote or incident But it g^ves a good 
account of a real statesman, and a history of several 
important phases of our national development during 
the last half century. 

Twelve volume. "^'^^ ^^^ publication of volumes 
of Lincoln's eleven and twelve we have m com- 
workt. pleted form the beautiful and com- 

prehensive '< Grettysburg edition " of the " Complete 
Works of Abraham Lincoln" (Francis D. Tandy 
Company) . With its thorough gleaning of the writ- 
ings of Lincoln, adding one-fifth to the contents of 
the former edition, the essays, addresses, and poems 
about him, and the many fine portraits of him and 
the men of his period, it impresses us anew in its 
completed form as a work of great value for the 
student and the reader of our .history and of litera- 
ture. Volume XI. contains an address by James 
A. Grarfield, the remainder of the writings down to 
the last hour of his life, with forty pages of new 
gleanings, and an elaborate and complete bibliogra- 
phy of Lincoln literature covering two hundred and 
forty pages made by Judge Daniel Fish of Minne- 
apolis. Volume XII. contains an anthology of Lin- 
coln's pithy sayings, a chronological index, and a 
general index covering more than two hundred pages. 


« The Collected Works of Henrik Ibsen, " as edited 
(and in large measure translated) by Mr. William